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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445456

RESUMO

Flavonoids are representative secondary metabolites with different metabolic functions in plants. Previous study found that ectopic expression of EsMYB90 from Eutremasalsugineum could strongly increase anthocyanin content in transgenic tobacco via regulating the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. In the present research, metabolome analysis showed that there existed 130 significantly differential metabolites, of which 23 metabolites enhanced more than 1000 times in EsMYB90 transgenic tobacco leaves relative to the control, and the top 10 of the increased metabolites included caffeic acid, cyanidin O-syringic acid, myricetin and naringin. A total of 50 markedly differential flavonoids including flavones (14), flavonols (13), flavone C-glycosides (9), flavanones (7), catechin derivatives (5), anthocyanins (1) and isoflavone (1) were identified, of which 46 metabolites were at a significantly enhanced level. Integrated analysis of metabolome and transcriptome revealed that ectopic expression of EsMYB90 in transgenic tobacco leaves is highly associated with the prominent up-regulation of 16 flavonoid metabolites and the corresponding 42 flavonoid biosynthesis structure genes in phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathways. Dual luciferase assay documented that EsMYB90 strongly activated the transcription of NtANS and NtDFR genes via improving their promoter activity in transiently expressed tobacco leaves, suggesting that EsMYB90 functions as a key regulator on anthocyanin and flavonoid biosynthesis. Taken together, the crucial regulatory role of EsMYB90 on enhancing many flavonoid metabolite levels is clearly demonstrated via modulating flavonoid biosynthesis gene expression in the leaves of transgenic tobacco, which extends our understanding of the regulating mechanism of MYB transcription factor in the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathways and provides a new clue and tool for further investigation and genetic engineering of flavonoid metabolism in plants.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Metabolômica , Proteínas de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Tabaco , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Antocianinas/genética , Brassicaceae/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo
2.
J Chem Ecol ; 47(8-9): 768-776, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185213

RESUMO

In natural and agricultural ecosystems, plants are often simultaneously or sequentially exposed to combinations of stressors. Here we tested whether limited water availability (LWA) affects plant response to insect herbivory using two populations of Eruca sativa from desert and Mediterranean habitats that differ in their induced defenses. Considering that such differences evolved as responses to biotic and possibly abiotic stress factors, the two populations offered an opportunity to study ecological aspects in plant response to combined stresses. Analysis of chemical defense mechanisms showed that LWA significantly induced total glucosinolate concentrations in the Mediterranean plants, but their concentrations were reduced in the desert plants. However, LWA, with and without subsequent jasmonate elicitation, significantly induced the expression of proteinase inhibitor in the desert plants. Results of a no-choice feeding experiment showed that LWA significantly increased desert plant resistance to Spodoptera littoralis larvae, whereas it did not affect the relatively strong basal resistance of the Mediterranean plants. LWA and subsequent jasmonate elicitation increased resistance against the generalist insect in Mediterranean plants, possibly due to both increased proteinase inhibitor expression and glucosinolate accumulation. The effect of LWA on the expression of genes involved in phytohormone signaling, abscisic acid (ABA-1) and jasmonic acid (AOC1), and the jasmonate responsive PDF1.2, suggested the involvement of abscisic acid in the regulation of defense mechanisms in the two populations. Our results indicate that specific genotypic responses should be considered when estimating general patterns in plant response to herbivory under water deficiency conditions.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Spodoptera/fisiologia , Água/química , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Animais , Brassicaceae/química , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Defensinas/genética , Defensinas/metabolismo , Clima Desértico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosinolatos/análise , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/farmacologia , Herbivoria/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Região do Mediterrâneo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico , Água/metabolismo
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2658, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976202

RESUMO

Many herbivorous insects selectively accumulate plant toxins for defense against predators; however, little is known about the transport processes that enable insects to absorb and store defense compounds in the body. Here, we investigate how a specialist herbivore, the horseradish flea beetle, accumulates glucosinolate defense compounds from Brassicaceae in the hemolymph. Using phylogenetic analyses of coleopteran major facilitator superfamily transporters, we identify a clade of glucosinolate-specific transporters (PaGTRs) belonging to the sugar porter family. PaGTRs are predominantly expressed in the excretory system, the Malpighian tubules. Silencing of PaGTRs leads to elevated glucosinolate excretion, significantly reducing the levels of sequestered glucosinolates in beetles. This suggests that PaGTRs reabsorb glucosinolates from the Malpighian tubule lumen to prevent their loss by excretion. Ramsay assays corroborated the selective retention of glucosinolates by Malpighian tubules of P. armoraciae in situ. Thus, the selective accumulation of plant defense compounds in herbivorous insects can depend on the ability to prevent excretion.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Besouros/metabolismo , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Túbulos de Malpighi/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Brassicaceae/parasitologia , Besouros/fisiologia , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Açúcares/metabolismo
4.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 86(5): 551-562, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993858

RESUMO

It was recently found that the primary transcripts of some microRNA genes (pri-miRNAs) are able to express peptides with 12 to 40 residues in length. These peptides, called miPEPs, participate in the transcriptional regulation of their own pri-miRNAs. In our previous studies, we used bioinformatic approach for comparative analysis of pri-miRNA sequences in plant genomes to identify a new group of miPEPs (miPEP-156a peptides) encoded by pri-miR156a in several dozen species of the Brassicaceae family. Exogenous miPEP-156a peptides could efficiently penetrate into the plant seedlings through the root system and spread systemically to the leaves. The peptides produced moderate morphological effect accelerating primary root growth. In parallel, the miPEP-156a peptides upregulated expression of their own pri-miR156a. Importantly, the observed effects at both morphological and molecular levels correlated with the peptide ability to quickly translocate into the cell nucleus and to bind chromatin. In this work, we established secondary structure of the miPEP-156a and demonstrated its changes induced by formation of the peptide complex with DNA.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , MicroRNAs/metabolismo
5.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(11): 6544-6551, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690760

RESUMO

In photosynthetic complexes, tuning of chlorophyll light-absorption spectra by the protein environment is crucial to their efficiency and robustness. Recombinant type II water soluble chlorophyll-binding proteins from Brassicaceae (WSCPs) are useful for studying spectral tuning mechanisms due to their symmetric homotetramer structure, and the ability to rigorously modify the chlorophyll's protein surroundings. Our previous comparison of the crystal structures of two WSCP homologues suggested that protein-induced chlorophyll ring deformation is the predominant spectral tuning mechanism. Here, we implement a more rigorous analysis based on hybrid quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics calculations to quantify the relative contributions of geometrical and electrostatic factors to the absorption spectra of WSCP-chlorophyll complexes. We show that when considering conformational dynamics, geometry distortions such as chlorophyll ring deformation accounts for about one-third of the spectral shift, whereas the direct polarization of the electron density accounts for the remaining two-thirds. From a practical perspective, protein electrostatics is easier to manipulate than chlorophyll conformations, thus, it may be more readily implemented in designing artificial protein-chlorophyll complexes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação à Clorofila/química , Clorofila/química , Sítios de Ligação , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Teoria Quântica , Eletricidade Estática
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419225

RESUMO

Hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) have numerous industrial applications but are absent in most vegetable oils. Physaria lindheimeri accumulating 85% HFA in its seed oil makes it a valuable resource for engineering oilseed crops for HFA production. To discover lipid genes involved in HFA synthesis in P. lindheimeri, transcripts from developing seeds at various stages, as well as leaf and flower buds, were sequenced. Ninety-seven percent clean reads from 552,614,582 raw reads were assembled to 129,633 contigs (or transcripts) which represented 85,948 unique genes. Gene Ontology analysis indicated that 60% of the contigs matched proteins involved in biological process, cellular component or molecular function, while the remaining matched unknown proteins. We identified 42 P. lindheimeri genes involved in fatty acid and seed oil biosynthesis, and 39 of them shared 78-100% nucleotide identity with Arabidopsis orthologs. We manually annotated 16 key genes and 14 of them contained full-length protein sequences, indicating high coverage of clean reads to the assembled contigs. A detailed profiling of the 16 genes revealed various spatial and temporal expression patterns. The further comparison of their protein sequences uncovered amino acids conserved among HFA-producing species, but these varied among non-HFA-producing species. Our findings provide essential information for basic and applied research on HFA biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Análise por Conglomerados , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/classificação , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ontologia Genética , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Sementes/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
7.
Plant J ; 106(1): 275-293, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453123

RESUMO

Aethionema arabicum is an important model plant for Brassicaceae trait evolution, particularly of seed (development, regulation, germination, dormancy) and fruit (development, dehiscence mechanisms) characters. Its genome assembly was recently improved but the gene annotation was not updated. Here, we improved the Ae. arabicum gene annotation using 294 RNA-seq libraries and 136 307 full-length PacBio Iso-seq transcripts, increasing BUSCO completeness by 11.6% and featuring 5606 additional genes. Analysis of orthologs showed a lower number of genes in Ae. arabicum than in other Brassicaceae, which could be partially explained by loss of homeologs derived from the At-α polyploidization event and by a lower occurrence of tandem duplications after divergence of Aethionema from the other Brassicaceae. Benchmarking of MADS-box genes identified orthologs of FUL and AGL79 not found in previous versions. Analysis of full-length transcripts related to ABA-mediated seed dormancy discovered a conserved isoform of PIF6-ß and antisense transcripts in ABI3, ABI4 and DOG1, among other cases found of different alternative splicing between Turkey and Cyprus ecotypes. The presented data allow alternative splicing mining and proposition of numerous hypotheses to research evolution and functional genomics. Annotation data and sequences are available at the Ae. arabicum DB (https://plantcode.online.uni-marburg.de/aetar_db).


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/fisiologia , Germinação/fisiologia , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/fisiologia , Brassicaceae/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Genoma de Planta/genética , Germinação/genética , Sementes/genética
8.
Environ Geochem Health ; 43(4): 1617-1628, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789715

RESUMO

Accumulations of potentially toxic metals were investigated in soils and five North Caucasian Alyssum species from metalliferous areas and non-metalliferous areas in Karachay-Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, Dagestan and the Krasnodar region. Analyses of field samples showed that chemical features of the soils significantly affected the concentrations of Ni, Co, Zn, but had less effect on Cu and Pb concentrations in the shoots of Alyssum. Variations in the degree of accumulating ability were found in the studied species, including hyperaccumulation of Ni in Alyssum murale (up to 12,100 mg kg-1), and significant accumulation of Zn in A. gehamense (up to 1700 mg kg-1). A comparative molecular genetic analysis of two A. murale populations, both Ni-hyperaccumulating population from Karachay-Cherkessia and non-hyperaccumulating population from Dagestan, indicated considerable genetic difference between them. This result supports the hypothesis that the selection of metal hyperaccumulator species with enhanced phytoremediation efficiency should be considered at the population level.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Brassicaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Filogenia , Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Brassicaceae/classificação , Brassicaceae/genética , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Metais/análise , Níquel/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
9.
Environ Geochem Health ; 43(4): 1401-1413, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347513

RESUMO

The present investigation is the first in situ comparative study for the identification of Ni and Cu accumulation strategies involved in Odontarrhena obovata (syn. Alyssum obovatum (C.A. Mey.) Turcz.) growing in Cu-rich smelter-influenced (CSI) and non-Cu-influenced (NCI) sites. The total and Na2EDTA (disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid)-extractable metal concentration in soils and plant tissues (roots, stem, leaves and flowers) were determined for CSI and NCI sites. High concentrations of total Ni, Cr, Co and Mg in the soil suggest serpentine nature of both the sites. In spite of high total and extractable Cu concentrations in CSI soil, majority of its accumulation was restricted to O. obovata roots showing its excluder response. Since the translocation and bioconcentration factors of Ni > 1 and the foliar Ni concentration > 1000 µg g-1, it can be assumed that O. obovata has Ni hyperaccumulation potential for both the sites. No significant differences in chlorophyll content in O. obovata leaves were observed between studied sites, suggesting higher tolerance of this species under prolonged heavy metal stress. Furthermore, this species from CSI site demonstrated rather high viability under extreme technogenic conditions due to active formation of antioxidants such as ascorbate, free proline and protein thiols. The presence of Cu in higher concentration in serpentine soil does not exert detrimental effect on O. obovata and its Ni hyperaccumulation ability. Thus, O. obovata could act as a putative plant species for the remediation of Cu-rich/influenced serpentine soils without compromising its Ni content and vitality.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cobre/farmacocinética , Metais Pesados/análise , Níquel/farmacocinética , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Cobre/análise , Metalurgia , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Níquel/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Federação Russa , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(6): 2601-2613, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PfFAD3 transgenic soybean expressing omega-3 fatty acid desaturase 3 of Physaria produces increased level of α-linolenic acid in seed. Composition data of non-transgenic conventional varieties is important in the safety assessment of the genetically-modified (GM) crops in the context of the natural variation. RESULTS: The natural variation was characterized in seed composition of 13 Korean soybean varieties grown in three locations in South Korea for 2 years. Univariate analysis of combined data showed significant differences by variety and cultivation environment for proximates, minerals, anti-nutrients, and fatty acids. Percent variability analysis demonstrated that genotype, environment and the interaction of environment with genotype contributed to soybean seed compositions. Principal component analysis and orthogonal projections to latent structure discriminant analysis indicated that significant variance in compositions was attributable to location and cultivation year. The composition of three PfFAD3 soybean lines for proximates, minerals, anti-nutrients, and fatty acids was compared to a non-transgenic commercial comparator (Kwangankong, KA), and three non-transgenic commercial varieties grown at two sites in South Korea. Only linoleic and linolenic acids significantly differed in PfFAD3-1 lines compared to KA, which were expected changes by the introduction of the PfFAD3-1 trait in KA. CONCLUSION: Genotype, environment, and the interaction of environment with genotype contributed to compositional variability in soybean. PfFAD3-1 soybean is equivalent to the conventional varieties with respect to these components. © 2020 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/enzimologia , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Soja/química , Soja/genética , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/genética , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Minerais/análise , Minerais/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , República da Coreia , Soja/classificação , Soja/metabolismo
11.
Molecules ; 25(23)2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276420

RESUMO

Brassicaceae baby-leaves are good source of functional phytochemicals. To investigate how Chinese kale and pak-choi baby-leaves in response to different wavebands of blue (430 nm and 465 nm) and UV-A (380 nm and 400 nm) LED, the plant growth, glucosinolates, antioxidants, and minerals were determined. Both agronomy traits and phytochemical contents were significantly affected. Blue and UV-A light played a predominant role in increasing the plant biomass and morphology, as well as the contents of antioxidant compounds (vitamin C, vitamin E, phenolics, and individual flavonols), the antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP), and the total glucosinolates accumulation. In particular, four light wavebands significantly decreased the content of progoitrin, while 400 nm UV-A light and 430 nm blue light were efficient in elevating the contents of sinigrin and glucobrassicin in Chinese kale. Meanwhile, 400 nm UV-A light was able to increase the contents of glucoraphanin, sinigrin, and glucobrassicin in pak-choi. From the global view of heatmap, blue lights were more efficient in increasing the yield and phytochemical levels of two baby-leaves.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Brassicaceae/anatomia & histologia , Luz , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Raios Ultravioleta , Antioxidantes/efeitos da radiação , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/efeitos da radiação , Iluminação/instrumentação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação
12.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 779, 2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328568

RESUMO

Wasabi, horseradish and mustard are popular pungent crops in which the characteristic bioactive hydrolysis of specialized glucosinolates (GSLs) occurs. Although the metabolic pathways of GSLs are well elucidated, how plants have evolved convergent mechanisms to accumulate identical GSL components remains largely unknown. In this study, we discovered that sinigrin is predominantly synthesized in wasabi, horseradish and mustard in Brassicaceae. We de novo assembled the transcriptomes of the three species, revealing the expression patterns of gene clusters associated with chain elongation, side chain modification and transport. Our analysis further revealed that several gene clusters were convergently selected during evolution, exhibiting convergent shifts in amino acid preferences in mustard, wasabi and horseradish. Collectively, our findings provide insights into how unrelated crop species evolve the capacity for sinigrin super-accumulation and thus promise a potent strategy for engineering metabolic pathways at multiple checkpoints to fortify bioactive compounds for condiment or pharmaceutical purposes.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Brassicaceae/genética , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Brassicaceae/classificação , Evolução Molecular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Filogenia , Metabolismo Secundário
13.
Planta ; 252(6): 99, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170944

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Odontarrhena is a highly diverse genus of Ni-hyperaccumulators. Here, we demonstrate substantial inability to accumulate Ni in the facultative serpentinophyte O. sibirica, which seems a unique case among the numerous species of the genus that grow on ultramafic soils. Odontarrhena is the most diverse genus of Ni-accumulating plants in W Eurasia, with most taxa growing obligatorily or facultatively on ultramafic soils. A notable exception may be O. sibirica, a facultative serpentinophyte from the E Mediterranean and W Asia in which accumulation ability is still enigmatic. We addressed this issue using observational and experimental methods. Atomic Absorption Analysis of 33 herbarium specimens and plant and soil samples from seven ultramafic and non-ultramafic sites in Greece revealed shoot Ni values always much lower than 1000 µg g-1, non-significant differences between plants from the two soil types and no relationship with soil pH. Only two Turkish specimens from waste mines had shoot Ni concentration > 1000 µg g-1. The reasons for this deviating result remain obscure, but may be associated with inherent peculiarities of the local populations. When cultivated together with congeneric Ni-accumulating species on the same natural ultramafic soil, only O. sibirica was unable to accumulate the metal. Although plant growth was stimulated in hydroponics at relatively low NiSO4 levels (50-150 µM), as typical for hyperaccumulators, Ni-accumulation occurred only at higher concentrations which had a toxic effect. This peculiar combination of Ni-response traits could be the result of a partial evolutionary loss of ability with respect to all other Ni-accumulating congeneric species. For this, O. sibirica could represent a unique model system for further studies on the evolutionary dynamics, physiological mechanisms and genetic control of metal accumulation and homeostasis.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Níquel , Poluentes do Solo , Ásia , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Níquel/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
14.
J Insect Sci ; 20(5)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057681

RESUMO

The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is one of the most destructive pests to cruciferous plants worldwide. The oligophagous moth primarily utilizes its host volatiles for foraging and oviposition. Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are soluble carrier proteins with low molecular weight, which recognize and transport various semiochemicals in insect chemoreception. At present, there is limited information on the recognition of host volatiles by CSPs of P. xylostella. Here, we investigated expression patterns and binding characteristics of PxylCSP11 in P. xylostella. The open reading frame of PxylCSP11 was 369-bp encoding 122 amino acids. PxylCSP11 possessed four conserved cysteines, which was consistent with the typical characteristic of CSPs. PxylCSP11 was highly expressed in antennae, and the expression level of PxylCSP11 in male antennae was higher than that in female antennae. Fluorescence competitive binding assays showed that PxylCSP11 had strong binding abilities to several ligands, including volatiles of cruciferous plants, and (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:Ac), a major sex pheromone of P. xylostella. Our results suggest that PxylCSP11 may play an important role in host recognition and spouse location in P. xylostella.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Mariposas/metabolismo , Animais , Antenas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Genes de Insetos , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Masculino , Atrativos Sexuais/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 423, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Camelina sativa (gold-of-pleasure) is a traditional European oilseed crop and emerging biofuel source with high levels of desirable fatty acids. A twentieth century germplasm bottleneck depleted genetic diversity in the crop, leading to recent interest in using wild relatives for crop improvement. However, little is known about seed oil content and genetic diversity in wild Camelina species. RESULTS: We used gas chromatography, environmental niche assessment, and genotyping-by-sequencing to assess seed fatty acid composition, environmental distributions, and population structure in C. sativa and four congeners, with a primary focus on the crop's wild progenitor, C. microcarpa. Fatty acid composition differed significantly between Camelina species, which occur in largely non-overlapping environments. The crop progenitor comprises three genetic subpopulations with discrete fatty acid compositions. Environment, subpopulation, and population-by-environment interactions were all important predictors for seed oil in these wild populations. A complementary growth chamber experiment using C. sativa confirmed that growing conditions can dramatically affect both oil quantity and fatty acid composition in Camelina. CONCLUSIONS: Genetics, environmental conditions, and genotype-by-environment interactions all contribute to fatty acid variation in Camelina species. These insights suggest careful breeding may overcome the unfavorable FA compositions in oilseed crops that are predicted with warming climates.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/genética , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica , Biocombustíveis , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Europa (Continente) , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Genótipo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Sementes/química
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0237045, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735576

RESUMO

The dead organs enclosing embryos (DOEEs) emerge as central components of the dispersal unit (DU) capable for long-term storage of active proteins and other substances that affect seed performance and fate. We studied the effect of maternal environment (salt and salt+heat) on progeny DU (dry indehiscent fruit) focusing on pericarp properties of Anastatica hierochuntica. Stressed plants displayed increased seed abortion and low level and rate of germination. Hydrated pericarps released antimicrobial factors and allelopathic substances that inhibit germination of heterologous species. Proteome analysis of dead pericarps revealed hundreds of proteins, among them nucleases, chitinases and proteins involved in reactive oxygen species detoxification and cell wall modification. Salt treatment altered the composition and level of proteins stored in the pericarp. We observed changes in protein profile released from seeds of salt-treated plants with a notable increase in a small anti-fungal protein, defensin. The levels of phytohormones including IAA, ABA and salicylic acid were reduced in dead pericarps of stressed plants. The data presented here highlighted the predominant effects of maternal environment on progeny DUs of the desert plant A. hierochuntica, particularly on pericarp properties, which in turn might affect seed performance and fate, soil fertility and consequently plant biodiversity.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Frutas , Brassicaceae/embriologia , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Defensinas/metabolismo , Frutas/embriologia , Frutas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteoma/análise , Sementes/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
17.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127721, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745740

RESUMO

The uptake and distribution of Pb and the mechanisms involved in the metal tolerance have been investigated in a mine population of Biscutella auriculata. Seedlings were exposed to 125 µM Pb(NO3)2 for 15 days under semihydroponic conditions. The results showed an increase in the size of Pb-treated seedlings and symptoms of toxicity were not observed. ICP-OES analyses showed that Pb accumulation was restricted to root tissue. Imaging of Pb accumulation by dithizone histochemistry revealed the presence of the metal in vacuoles and cell wall in root cells. The accumulation of Pb in vacuoles could be stimulated by an increase in phytochelatin PC2 content. Pb did not promote oxidative damage and this is probably due the increase of antioxidative defenses. In the leaves, Pb produced a significant increase in superoxide dismutase activity, while in roots an increase in catalase and components of the Foyer- Halliwell-Asada cycle were observed. The results indicated that Biscutella auriculata has a high capacity to tolerate Pb and this is mainly due to a very efficient mechanism to sequester the metal in roots and a capacity to avoid oxidative stress. This species could therefore be very useful for phytostabilization and repopulation of areas contaminated with Pb.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bioacumulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Brassicaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassicaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Catalase/metabolismo , Chumbo/análise , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoquelatinas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
18.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(3): 283-296, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740897

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Differences in FAE1 enzyme affinity for the acyl-CoA substrates, as well as the balance between the different pathways involved in their incorporation to triacylglycerol might be determinant of the different composition of the seed oil in Brassicaceae. Brassicaceae present a great heterogeneity of seed oil and fatty acid composition, accumulating Very Long Chain Fatty Acids with industrial applications. However, the molecular determinants of these differences remain elusive. We have studied the ß-ketoacyl-CoA synthase from the high erucic feedstock Thlaspi arvense (Pennycress). Functional characterization of the Pennycress FAE1 enzyme was performed in two Arabidopsis backgrounds; Col-0, with less than 2.5% of erucic acid in its seed oil and the fae1-1 mutant, deficient in FAE1 activity, that did not accumulate erucic acid. Seed-specific expression of the Pennycress FAE1 gene in Col-0 resulted in a 3 to fourfold increase of erucic acid content in the seed oil. This increase was concomitant with a decrease of eicosenoic acid levels without changes in oleic ones. Interestingly, only small changes in eicosenoic and erucic acid levels occurred when the Pennycress FAE1 gene was expressed in the fae1-1 mutant, with high levels of oleic acid available for elongation, suggesting that the Pennycress FAE1 enzyme showed higher affinity for eicosenoic acid substrates, than for oleic ones in Arabidopsis. Erucic acid was incorporated to triacylglycerol in the transgenic lines without significant changes in their levels in the diacylglycerol fraction, suggesting that erucic acid was preferentially incorporated to triacylglycerol via DGAT1. Expression analysis of FAE1, AtDGAT1, AtLPCAT1 and AtPDAT1 genes in the transgenic lines further supported this conclusion. Differences in FAE1 affinity for the oleic and eicosenoic substrates among Brassicaceae, as well as their incorporation to triacylglycerol might explain the differences in composition of their seed oil.


Assuntos
3-Oxoacil-(Proteína de Transporte de Acila) Sintase/metabolismo , Biocombustíveis , Vias Biossintéticas , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Thlaspi/enzimologia , Thlaspi/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/biossíntese , 1-Acilglicerofosfocolina O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , 3-Oxoacil-(Proteína de Transporte de Acila) Sintase/genética , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Ácidos Erúcicos/metabolismo , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/genética , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fenótipo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Sementes/genética , Análise de Sequência , Thlaspi/genética , Transcriptoma
19.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 124: 103431, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653632

RESUMO

Plants of the Brassicales are defended by a binary system, in which glucosinolates are degraded by myrosinases, forming toxic breakdown products such as isothiocyanates and nitriles. Various detoxification pathways and avoidance strategies have been found that allow different herbivorous insect taxa to deal with the glucosinolate-myrosinase system of their host plants. Here, we investigated how larvae of the leaf beetle species Phaedon cochleariae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a feeding specialist on Brassicaceae, cope with this binary defence. We performed feeding experiments using leaves of watercress (Nasturtium officinale, containing 2-phenylethyl glucosinolate as major glucosinolate and myrosinases) and pea (Pisum sativum, lacking glucosinolates and myrosinases), to which benzenic glucosinolates (benzyl- or 4-hydroxybenzyl glucosinolate) were applied. Performing comparative metabolomics using UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS, N-(phenylacetyl) aspartic acid, N-(benzoyl) aspartic acid and N-(4-hydroxybenzoyl) aspartic acid were identified as major metabolites of 2-phenylethyl-, benzyl- and 4-hydroxybenzyl glucosinolate, respectively, in larvae and faeces. This suggests that larvae of P. cochleariae metabolise isothiocyanates or nitriles to aspartic acid conjugates of aromatic acids derived from the ingested benzenic glucosinolates. Myrosinase measurements revealed activity only in second-instar larvae that were fed with watercress, but not in freshly moulted and starved second-instar larvae fed with pea leaves. Our results indicate that the predicted pathway can occur independently of the presence of plant myrosinases, because the same major glucosinolate-breakdown metabolites were found in the larvae feeding on treated watercress and pea leaves. A conjugation of glucosinolate-derived compounds with aspartic acid is a novel metabolic pathway that has not been described for other herbivores.


Assuntos
Besouros/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Animais , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Herbivoria , Larva/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metabolômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
20.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127450, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593006

RESUMO

Phytoremediation is one of the most cost-effective and environmentally friendly ways to reduce adverse effects of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the environment. The present study was conducted to investigate the bioaccumulation factor (BF) and translocation factor (TF) of Cd and Pb in muskweed (Myagrum perfoliatum) and foxtail sophora (Sophora alopecuroides). The impact of contamination on some growth responses of plants and soil biological indicators was also evaluated. A non-contaminated soil sample was divided into several subsamples: one subsample was left as control (without contamination) and the others were separately contaminated with three levels of Cd (3, 5, and 10 mg kg-1) and Pb (100, 300, and 600 mg kg-1). Pot experiments were performed under greenhouse conditions. The BF values of Cd were greater than 1 at all contamination levels indicating the potential of muskweed and foxtail sophora for the uptake and phytostabilization of Cd. The only TF > 1 was obtained for Cd in muskweed grown at the highest Cd contamination level. The TF values of Pb were much lower than those obtained for Cd indicating that Cd was more translocated from root to aerial parts of muskweed and foxtail sophora compared to Pb. The highest contamination levels of Cd and Pb did not significantly affect growth responses of muskweed and foxtail sophora. Furthermore, the cultivation of muskweed and foxtail sophora reduced the impact of Cd and Pb contamination on biological indicators including carbon mineralization ratio (CMR), substrate-induced respiration (SIR), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and metabolic quotient (qCO2).


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Sophora/metabolismo , Biomassa , Cádmio/análise , Metais Pesados , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
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