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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5437, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521826

RESUMO

Lateral roots (LRs) dominate the overall root surface of adult plants and are crucial for soil exploration and nutrient acquisition. When grown under mild nitrogen (N) deficiency, flowering plants develop longer LRs to enhance nutrient acquisition. This response is partly mediated by brassinosteroids (BR) and yet unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that local auxin biosynthesis modulates LR elongation while allelic coding variants of YUCCA8 determine the extent of elongation under N deficiency. By up-regulating the expression of YUCCA8/3/5/7 and of Tryptophan Aminotransferase of Arabidopsis 1 (TAA1) under mild N deficiency auxin accumulation increases in LR tips. We further demonstrate that N-dependent auxin biosynthesis in LRs acts epistatic to and downstream of a canonical BR signaling cascade. The uncovered BR-auxin hormonal module and its allelic variants emphasize the importance of fine-tuning hormonal crosstalk to boost adaptive root responses to N availability and offer a path to improve soil exploration by expanded root systems in plants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Nitrogênio/deficiência , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Triptofano Transaminase/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Solo/química , Triptofano Transaminase/metabolismo
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445448

RESUMO

Brassinosteroids (BRs) play crucial roles in various biological processes, including plant developmental processes and response to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. However, no information is currently available about this gene family in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In the present investigation, we identified the BZR gene family in wheat to understand the evolution and their role in diverse developmental processes and under different stress conditions. In this study, we performed the genome-wide analysis of the BZR gene family in the bread wheat and identified 20 TaBZR genes through a homology search and further characterized them to understand their structure, function, and distribution across various tissues. Phylogenetic analyses lead to the classification of TaBZR genes into five different groups or subfamilies, providing evidence of evolutionary relationship with Arabidopsis thaliana, Zea mays, Glycine max, and Oryza sativa. A gene exon/intron structure analysis showed a distinct evolutionary path and predicted the possible gene duplication events. Further, the physical and biochemical properties, conserved motifs, chromosomal, subcellular localization, and cis-acting regulatory elements were also examined using various computational approaches. In addition, an analysis of public RNA-seq data also shows that TaBZR genes may be involved in diverse developmental processes and stress tolerance mechanisms. Moreover, qRT-PCR results also showed similar expression with slight variation. Collectively, these results suggest that TaBZR genes might play an important role in plant developmental processes and various stress conditions. Therefore, this work provides valuable information for further elucidate the precise role of BZR family members in wheat.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Genômica , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Soja/genética , Triazóis , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/fisiologia , Zea mays/genética
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445112

RESUMO

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroid phytohormones that are known to regulate plant growth and nutrient uptake and distribution. However, how BRs regulate nutrient uptake and balance in legume species is not fully understood. Here, we show that optimal BR levels are required for soybean (Glycine max L.) seedling growth, as treatments with both 24-epicastasterone (24-epiCS) and the BR biosynthesis inhibitor propiconazole (PPZ) inhibit root growth, including primary root elongation and lateral root formation and elongation. Specifically, 24-epiCS and PPZ reduced the total phosphorus and potassium levels in the shoot and affected several minor nutrients, such as magnesium, iron, manganese, and molybdenum. A genome-wide transcriptome analysis identified 3774 and 4273 differentially expressed genes in the root tip after brassinolide and PPZ treatments, respectively. The gene ontology (GO) analysis suggested that genes related to "DNA-replication", "microtubule-based movement", and "plant-type cell wall organization" were highly responsive to the brassinolide and PPZ treatments. Furthermore, consistent with the effects on the nutrient concentrations, corresponding mineral transporters were found to be regulated by BR levels, including the GmPHT1s, GmKTs, GmVIT2, GmZIPs, and GmMOT1 genes. Our study demonstrates that optimal BR levels are important for growth and mineral nutrient homeostasis in soybean seedlings.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Homeostase/fisiologia , Minerais/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/metabolismo , Colestanóis/metabolismo , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/metabolismo
4.
Biomolecules ; 11(6)2021 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204730

RESUMO

Pervasive use of chlorpyrifos (CP), an organophosphorus pesticide, has been proven to be fatal for plant growth, especially at higher concentrations. CP poisoning leads to growth inhibition, chlorosis, browning of roots and lipid and protein degradation, along with membrane dysfunction and nuclear damage. Plants form a linking bridge between the underground and above-ground communities to escape from the unfavourable conditions. Association with beneficial rhizobacteria promotes the growth and development of the plants. Plant hormones are crucial regulators of basically every aspect of plant development. The growing significance of plant hormones in mediating plant-microbe interactions in stress recovery in plants has been extensively highlighted. Hence, the goal of the current study was to investigate the effect of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) and PGPRs (Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Ma), Burkholderia gladioli (Mb)) on growth and the antioxidative defence system of CP-stressed Brassica juncea L. seedlings. CP toxicity reduced the germination potential, hypocotyl and radicle development and vigour index, which was maximally recuperated after priming with EBL and Mb. CP-exposed seedlings showed higher levels of superoxide anion (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage (EL) and a lower level of nitric oxide (NO). In-vivo visualisation of CP-stressed seedlings using a light and fluorescent microscope also revealed the increase in O2-, H2O2 and lipid peroxidation, and decreased NO levels. The combination of EBL and PGPRs reduced the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and improved the NO level. In CP-stressed seedlings, increased gene expression of defence enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX), glutathione peroxidase (GPOX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GPOX) was seen, with the exception of catalase (CAT) on supplementation with EBL and PGPRs. The activity of nitrate reductase (NR) was likewise shown to increase after treatment with EBL and PGPRs. The results obtained from the present study substantiate sufficient evidence regarding the positive association of EBL and PGPRs in amelioration of CP-induced oxidative stress in Brassica juncea seedlings by strengthening the antioxidative defence machinery.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Burkholderia gladioli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clorpirifos/farmacocinética , Mostardeira , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/metabolismo , Mostardeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mostardeira/microbiologia , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/microbiologia
5.
Nat Plants ; 7(8): 1108-1118, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226689

RESUMO

Complex antagonistic interactions between abscisic acid (ABA) and brassinosteroid (BR) signalling pathways have been widely documented. However, whether or how ABA interacts synergistically with BR in plants remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that low, but not high, concentration of ABA increases lamina joint inclination of rice seedling, which requires functional BR biosynthesis and signalling. Transcriptome analyses confirm that about 60% of low-concentration ABA early response genes can be regulated by BR in the same directions. ABA activates BR signal in a fast, limited and short-term manner and the BR-biosynthesis regulatory gene, OsGSR1, plays a key role during this process, whose expression is induced slightly by ABA through transcriptional factor ABI3. Moreover, the early short-term BR signal activation is also important for ABA-mediated salt stress tolerance. Intriguingly, the process and effect of short-term BR signal activation were covered by high concentration of ABA, implying adaptive mechanisms existed in plants to cope with varying degrees of stress.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/efeitos dos fármacos , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Transcrição
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299234

RESUMO

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are known to be essential regulators for wood formation in herbaceous plants and poplar, but their roles in secondary growth and xylem development are still not well-defined, especially in pines. Here, we treated Pinus massoniana seedlings with different concentrations of exogenous BRs, and assayed the effects on plant growth, xylem development, endogenous phytohormone contents and gene expression within stems. Application of exogenous BR resulted in improving development of xylem more than phloem, and promoting xylem development in a dosage-dependent manner in a certain concentration rage. Endogenous hormone determination showed that BR may interact with other phytohormones in regulating xylem development. RNA-seq analysis revealed that some conventional phenylpropanoid biosynthesis- or lignin synthesis-related genes were downregulated, but the lignin content was elevated, suggesting that new lignin synthesis pathways or other cell wall components should be activated by BR treatment in P. massoniana. The results presented here reveal the foundational role of BRs in regulating plant secondary growth, and provide the basis for understanding molecular mechanisms of xylem development in P. massoniana.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/farmacologia , Pinus/metabolismo , Xilema/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Lignina/metabolismo , Floema/efeitos dos fármacos , Floema/metabolismo , Pinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Madeira/genética , Xilema/efeitos dos fármacos , Xilema/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298928

RESUMO

Salt stress seriously restricts crop yield and quality, leading to an urgent need to understand its effects on plants and the mechanism of plant responses. Although phytohormones are crucial for plant responses to salt stress, the role of phytohormone signal transduction in the salt stress responses of stress-resistant species such as Sophora alopecuroides has not been reported. Herein, we combined transcriptome and metabolome analyses to evaluate expression changes of key genes and metabolites associated with plant hormone signal transduction in S. alopecuroides roots under salt stress for 0 h to 72 h. Auxin, cytokinin, brassinosteroid, and gibberellin signals were predominantly involved in regulating S. alopecuroides growth and recovery under salt stress. Ethylene and jasmonic acid signals may negatively regulate the response of S. alopecuroides to salt stress. Abscisic acid and salicylic acid are significantly upregulated under salt stress, and their signals may positively regulate the plant response to salt stress. Additionally, salicylic acid (SA) might regulate the balance between plant growth and resistance by preventing reduction in growth-promoting hormones and maintaining high levels of abscisic acid (ABA). This study provides insight into the mechanism of salt stress response in S. alopecuroides and the corresponding role of plant hormones, which is beneficial for crop resistance breeding.


Assuntos
Estresse Salino/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Sophora/genética , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Citocininas/genética , Etilenos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Sophora/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4194, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234144

RESUMO

Photomorphogenesis, light-mediated development, is an essential feature of all terrestrial plants. While chloroplast development and brassinosteroid (BR) signaling are known players in photomorphogenesis, proteins that regulate both pathways have yet to be identified. Here we report that DE-ETIOLATION IN THE DARK AND YELLOWING IN THE LIGHT (DAY), a membrane protein containing DnaJ-like domain, plays a dual-role in photomorphogenesis by stabilizing the BR receptor, BRI1, as well as a key enzyme in chlorophyll biosynthesis, POR. DAY localizes to both the endomembrane and chloroplasts via its first transmembrane domain and chloroplast transit peptide, respectively, and interacts with BRI1 and POR in their respective subcellular compartments. Using genetic analysis, we show that DAY acts independently on BR signaling and chlorophyll biogenesis. Collectively, this work uncovers DAY as a factor that simultaneously regulates BR signaling and chloroplast development, revealing a key regulator of photomorphogenesis that acts across cell compartments.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Morfogênese/fisiologia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Clorofila/biossíntese , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Estiolamento/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/isolamento & purificação , Luz , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Morfogênese/efeitos da radiação , Mutação , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Proteínas Quinases/genética , RNA-Seq , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299293

RESUMO

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are growth-promoting phytohormones that can efficiently function by exogenous application at micromolar concentrations or by endogenous fine-tuning of BR-related gene expression, thus, precisely controlling BR signal strength is a key factor in exploring the agricultural potential of BRs. BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1), a BR receptor, is the rate-limiting enzyme in BR signal transduction, and the phosphorylation of each phosphorylation site of SlBRI1 has a distinct effect on BR signal strength and botanic characteristics. We recently demonstrated that modifying the phosphorylation sites of tomato SlBRI1 could improve the agronomic traits of tomato to different extents; however, the associated agronomic potential of SlBRI1 phosphorylation sites in tomato has not been fully exploited. In this research, the biological functions of the phosphorylation site threonine-825 (Thr-825) of SlBRI1 in tomato were investigated. Phenotypic analysis showed that, compared with a tomato line harboring SlBRI1, transgenic tomato lines expressing SlBRI1 with a nonphosphorylated Thr-825 (T825A) exhibited a larger plant size due to a larger cell size and higher yield, including a greater plant height, thicker stems, longer internodal lengths, greater plant expansion, a heavier fruit weight, and larger fruits. Molecular analyses further indicated that the autophosphorylation level of SlBRI1, BR signaling, and gibberellic acid (GA) signaling were elevated when SlBRI1 was dephosphorylated at Thr-825. Taken together, the results demonstrated that dephosphorylation of Thr-825 can enhance the functions of SlBRI1 in BR signaling, which subsequently activates and cooperates with GA signaling to stimulate cell elongation and then leads to larger plants and higher yields per plant. These results also highlight the agricultural potential of SlBRI1 phosphorylation sites for breeding high-yielding tomato varieties through precise control of BR signaling.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Tamanho Celular , Frutas/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Treonina/metabolismo
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3656, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135347

RESUMO

Plants respond to high ambient temperature by implementing a suite of morphological changes collectively termed thermomorphogenesis. Here we show that the above and below ground tissue-response to high ambient temperature are mediated by distinct transcription factors. While the central hub transcription factor, PHYTOCHROME INTERCTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) regulates the above ground tissue response, the below ground root elongation is primarily regulated by ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5). Plants respond to high temperature by largely expressing distinct sets of genes in a tissue-specific manner. HY5 promotes root thermomorphogenesis via directly controlling the expression of many genes including the auxin and BR pathway genes. Strikingly, the above and below ground thermomorphogenesis is impaired in spaQ. Because SPA1 directly phosphorylates PIF4 and HY5, SPAs might control the stability of PIF4 and HY5 to regulate thermomorphogenesis in both tissues. These data collectively suggest that plants employ distinct combination of SPA-PIF4-HY5 module to regulate tissue-specific thermomorphogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Temperatura Alta , Morfogênese/genética , Fosforilação , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 291, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167462

RESUMO

Brassinosteroids (BRs) play important roles in plant growth and development. Although BR receptors have been intensively studied in Arabidopsis, those in foxtail millet remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the BR signaling function of BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1) is conserved between Arabidopsis and foxtail millet, a new model species for C4 and Panicoideae grasses. We identified four putative BR receptor genes in the foxtail millet genome: SiBRI1, SiBRI1-LIKE RECEPTOR KINASE 1 (SiBRL1), SiBRL2 and SiBRL3. Phylogenetic analysis was used to classify the BR receptors in dicots and monocots into three branches. Analysis of their expression patterns by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that these receptors were ubiquitously expressed in leaves, stems, dark-grown seedlings, roots and non-flowering spikelets. GFP fusion experiments verified that SiBRI1 localized to the cell membrane. We also explored the SiBRI1 function in Arabidopsis through complementation experiments. Ectopic overexpression of SiBRI1 in an Arabidopsis BR receptor loss-of-function mutant, bri1-116, mostly reversed the developmental defects of the mutant. When SiBRI1 was overexpressed in foxtail millet, the plants showed a drooping leaf phenotype and root development inhibition, lateral root initiation inhibition, and the expression of BR synthesis genes was inhibited. We further identified BRI1-interacting proteins by immunoprecipitation (IP)-mass spectrometry (MS). Our results not only demonstrate that SiBRI1 plays a conserved role in BR signaling in foxtail millet but also provide insight into the molecular mechanism of SiBRI1.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Setaria (Planta)/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases/fisiologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/fisiologia , Setaria (Planta)/metabolismo
12.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(5)2021 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066668

RESUMO

The plant glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3)-like kinases are highly conserved protein serine/threonine kinases that are grouped into four subfamilies. Similar to their mammalian homologs, these kinases are constitutively active under normal growth conditions but become inactivated in response to diverse developmental and environmental signals. Since their initial discoveries in the early 1990s, many biochemical and genetic studies were performed to investigate their physiological functions in various plant species. These studies have demonstrated that the plant GSK3-like kinases are multifunctional kinases involved not only in a wide variety of plant growth and developmental processes but also in diverse plant stress responses. Here we summarize our current understanding of the versatile physiological functions of the plant GSK3-like kinases along with their confirmed and potential substrates.


Assuntos
Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico
13.
PLoS Genet ; 17(5): e1009540, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989283

RESUMO

Sugar, light, and hormones are major signals regulating plant growth and development, however, the interactions among these signals are not fully understood at the molecular level. Recent studies showed that sugar promotes hypocotyl elongation by activating the brassinosteroid (BR) signaling pathway after shifting Arabidopsis seedlings from light to extended darkness. Here, we show that sugar inhibits BR signaling in Arabidopsis seedlings grown under light. BR induction of hypocotyl elongation in seedlings grown under light is inhibited by increasing concentration of sucrose. The sugar inhibition of BR response is correlated with decreased effect of BR on the dephosphorylation of BZR1, the master transcription factor of the BR signaling pathway. This sugar effect is independent of the sugar sensors Hexokinase 1 (HXK1) and Target of Rapamycin (TOR), but requires the GSK3-like kinase Brassinosteroid-Insensitive 2 (BIN2), which is stabilized by sugar. Our study uncovers an inhibitory effect of sugar on BR signaling in plants grown under light, in contrast to its promotive effect in the dark. Such light-dependent sugar-BR crosstalk apparently contributes to optimal growth responses to photosynthate availability according to light-dark conditions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/química , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sacarose/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/efeitos da radiação , Escuridão , Hexoquinase/metabolismo , Hipocótilo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocótilo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hipocótilo/metabolismo , Hipocótilo/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação/efeitos da radiação , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos da radiação , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos da radiação , Sacarose/metabolismo
14.
Nat Plants ; 7(5): 619-632, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34007032

RESUMO

Brassinosteroid (BR) hormones are indispensable for root growth and control both cell division and cell elongation through the establishment of an increasing signalling gradient along the longitudinal root axis. Because of their limited mobility, the importance of BR distribution in achieving a signalling maximum is largely overlooked. Expression pattern analysis of all known BR biosynthetic enzymes revealed that not all cells in the Arabidopsis thaliana root possess full biosynthetic machinery, and that completion of biosynthesis relies on cell-to-cell movement of hormone precursors. We demonstrate that BR biosynthesis is largely restricted to the root elongation zone, where it overlaps with BR signalling maxima. Moreover, optimal root growth requires hormone concentrations to be low in the meristem and high in the root elongation zone, attributable to increased biosynthesis. Our finding that spatiotemporal regulation of hormone synthesis results in local hormone accumulation provides a paradigm for hormone-driven organ growth in the absence of long-distance hormone transport in plants.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Brassinosteroides/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Meristema/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2842, 2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990595

RESUMO

Plants respond to mild warm temperature conditions by increased elongation growth of organs to enhance cooling capacity, in a process called thermomorphogenesis. To this date, the regulation of thermomorphogenesis has been exclusively shown to intersect with light signalling pathways. To identify regulators of thermomorphogenesis that are conserved in flowering plants, we map changes in protein phosphorylation in both dicots and monocots exposed to warm temperature. We identify MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASE KINASE KINASE4 (MAP4K4)/TARGET OF TEMPERATURE3 (TOT3) as a regulator of thermomorphogenesis that impinges on brassinosteroid signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana. In addition, we show that TOT3 plays a role in thermal response in wheat, a monocot crop. Altogether, the conserved thermal regulation by TOT3 expands our knowledge of thermomorphogenesis beyond the well-studied pathways and can contribute to ensuring food security under a changing climate.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/fisiologia , Aclimatação/genética , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/fisiologia , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fosforilação , Fitocromo B/genética , Fitocromo B/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Temperatura
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(11)2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836559

RESUMO

The control of apical dominance involves auxin, strigolactones (SLs), cytokinins (CKs), and sugars, but the mechanistic controls of this regulatory network are not fully understood. Here, we show that brassinosteroid (BR) promotes bud outgrowth in tomato through the direct transcriptional regulation of BRANCHED1 (BRC1) by the BR signaling component BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1). Attenuated responses to the removal of the apical bud, the inhibition of auxin, SLs or gibberellin synthesis, or treatment with CK and sucrose, were observed in bud outgrowth and the levels of BRC1 transcripts in the BR-deficient or bzr1 mutants. Furthermore, the accumulation of BR and the dephosphorylated form of BZR1 were increased by apical bud removal, inhibition of auxin, and SLs synthesis or treatment with CK and sucrose. These responses were decreased in the DELLA-deficient mutant. In addition, CK accumulation was inhibited by auxin and SLs, and decreased in the DELLA-deficient mutant, but it was increased in response to sucrose treatment. CK promoted BR synthesis in axillary buds through the action of the type-B response regulator, RR10. Our results demonstrate that BR signaling integrates multiple pathways that control shoot branching. Local BR signaling in axillary buds is therefore a potential target for shaping plant architecture.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808421

RESUMO

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant hormones of steroid nature, regulating various developmental and adaptive processes. The perception, transport, and signaling of BRs are actively studied nowadays via a wide range of biochemical and genetic tools. However, most of the knowledge about BRs intracellular localization and turnover relies on the visualization of the receptors or cellular compartments using dyes or fluorescent protein fusions. We have previously synthesized a conjugate of epibrassinolide with green fluorescent dye BODIPY (eBL-BODIPY). Here we present a detailed assessment of the compound bioactivity and its suitability as probe for in vivo visualization of BRs. We show that eBL-BODIPY rapidly penetrates epidermal cells of Arabidopsis thaliana roots and after long exposure causes physiological and transcriptomic responses similar to the natural hormone.


Assuntos
Compostos de Boro/química , Brassinosteroides/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/química , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
18.
Food Chem ; 356: 129704, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831827

RESUMO

The postharvest senescence accompanied by yellowing limited the shelf-life of broccoli. In this study, we developed a novel W/O/W double emulsion co-delivering brassinolide and cinnamon essential oil and applied it to broccoli for preservation. Results showed that double emulsion prepared by whey protein concentrate-high methoxyl pectin (1:3) exhibited best storage stability with largest particle size (581.30 nm), lowest PDI (0.23) and zeta potential (-40.31 mV). This double emulsion also exhibited highest encapsulation efficiency of brassinolide (92%) and cinnamon essential oil (88%). The broccoli coated with double emulsion maintained higher chlorophyll contents and activities of chlorophyllase and magnesium-dechelatase were reduced by 9% and 24%, respectively. The energy metabolic enzymes (SDH, CCO, H+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase) were also activated, inducing higher level of ATP and energy charge. These results demonstrated W/O/W double emulsion co-delivering brassinolide and cinnamon essential delayed the senescence of broccoli via regulating chlorophyll degradation and energy metabolism.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/química , Clorofila/metabolismo , Emulsões/química , Metabolismo Energético , Óleos Voláteis/química , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/química , Adenosina Trifosfatases/química , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/farmacologia , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/antagonistas & inibidores , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/metabolismo , Emulsões/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Enzimas/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/metabolismo , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/farmacologia , Viscosidade
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800127

RESUMO

Heat stress causes huge losses in the yield of cereal crops. Temperature influences the rate of plant metabolic and developmental processes that ultimately determine the production of grains, with high temperatures causing a reduction in grain yield and quality. To ensure continued food security, the tolerance of high temperature is rapidly becoming necessary. Brassinosteroids (BR) are a class of plant hormones that impact tolerance to various biotic and abiotic stresses and regulate cereal growth and fertility. Fine-tuning the action of BR has the potential to increase cereals' tolerance and acclimation to heat stress and maintain yields. Mechanistically, exogenous applications of BR protect yields through amplifying responses to heat stress and rescuing the expression of growth promoters. Varied BR compounds and differential signaling mechanisms across cereals point to a diversity of mechanisms that can be leveraged to mitigate heat stress. Further, hormone transport and BR interaction with other molecules in plants may be critical to utilizing BR as protective agrochemicals against heat stress. Understanding the interplay between heat stress responses, growth processes and hormone signaling may lead us to a comprehensive dogma of how to tune BR application for optimizing cereal growth under challenging environments in the field.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta
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