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1.
Zootaxa ; 4920(2): zootaxa.4920.2.1, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756663

RESUMO

The nemertean order Monostilifera consists of 594 species in 127 genera and is distributed worldwide. Within the Monostilifera, two suborders have been recognized, Cratenemertea and Eumonostilifera. Within the latter, two, unranked clade names, Oerstediina and Amphiporina, were recently proposed without formal taxonomic definition. In this article, I give morphological circumscriptions and clade definitions for Cratenemertea, Eumonostilifera, Oerstediina, Plectonemertidae, Oerstediidae, and Amphiporina. Oerstediina and Amphiporina are placed on the Linnaean rank of infraorder. Constituent genera and species for each higher taxon are tabulated. The genus Amphiporella Friedrich, 1939 is herein replaced with Germanemertes nom. nov. to avoid homonymy with the Carboniferous fossil bryozoan genus Amphiporella Girty, 1910. Loxorrhochmidae Diesing, 1862 is declared a nomen oblitum relative to Tetrastemmatidae Hubrecht, 1897, a nomen protectum under Article 23.9 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. There remain 308 species of eumonostiliferans whose infraorder affiliation is uncertain due to the lack of information on vascular morphology and molecular sequence data. The suborder affiliation of the two species Cinclidonemertes mooreae Crandall, 2010 and Verrillianemertes schultzei Senz, 2001 is left uncertain.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos , Briozoários , Animais , Fósseis , Filogenia
2.
Zootaxa ; 4933(1): zootaxa.4933.1.2, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756803

RESUMO

Free-living bryozoans, unlike most cheilostomes, live unattached from the substratum on or within soft sedimentary bottoms. Bryozoans of the family Cupuladriidae Lagaaij, 1952 are probably the best-studied free-living representatives. In Brazil, eight species of cupuladriids have been reported to date, including some regarded as species complexes. This paper documents cupuladriid taxa from northeastern and northern Brazil based on the examination of 1236 colonies. Three species previously reported from Brazil are described: Cupuladria monotrema (Busk, 1884), Discoporella gemmulifera Winston Vieira, 2013 and Discoporella salvadorensis Winston, Vieira Woollacott, 2014. A new species, Cupuladria minuta n. sp., is erected; it differs from its congeners in having small, flat discoid colonies, with the central area up to the fifth astogenetic generation composed of vicarious avicularia with an auriform opesia, and quadrangular to rectangular basal sectors with 1-6 small openings per sector. Our results suggest that four species previously recorded from Brazil are doubtful-Cupuladria canariensis (Busk, 1859), Cupuladria biporosa Canu Bassler, 1923, Discoporella umbellata (Defrance, 1923) and Discoporella depressa (Conrad, 1841). Some Brazilian specimens previously assigned to Discoporella umbellata var. conica are re-assigned to D. salvadorensis. The species studied here frequently co-occur on mainly sandy and muddy bottoms at 8-130 m depth, as it is typical of most living populations of cupuladriids. The sedimentation rate, and thus the bottom composition, likely influence the distribution of cupuladriids in Brazil, with Cupuladria species being more common in stabler and coarser sea bottoms than Discoporella species, which tend to be more broadly distributed.


Assuntos
Briozoários , Animais , Brasil
3.
Zootaxa ; 4890(3): zootaxa.4890.3.3, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311117

RESUMO

Epibiosis is a common phenomenon, found in different taxa of aquatic animals. This relationship could occur as hyperepibiosis, when a basibiont being also an epibiont, providing a stable substrate for the hypersymbiont. Here we reported a ciliate-bryozoan-crustacean hyperepibiosis in Mandovi River mouth, Goa, West coast of India. We provided descriptions and characterization of the crab Atergatis sp., serving as basibiont for the bryozoan Triticella pedicellata (Alder, 1857), in turn colonized with (hyperepibionts) the ciliates Paracineta saifulae (Mereschkowsky, 1877) and Cothurnia ceramicola Kahl, 1933. Paracineta saifulae and Cothurnia ceramicola are reported here for first time from the Indian Ocean.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Briozoários , Cilióforos , Animais , Índia
4.
Biofouling ; 36(10): 1149-1158, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342296

RESUMO

Biofouling communities are spatiotemporally diverse, underscoring the need to assess fouling-release (FR) coating performance against common biofouling taxa at multiple field sites. Adhesion strength assessments of FR coatings incorporate few taxa into standardized protocols. This study tested the feasibility of incorporating existing ASTM barnacle protocols on tubeworms and encrusting bryozoans (EB). Additionally, trends in adhesion strength among these taxa were compared at two field sites. EB adhesion at both field sites showed consistent results and adhesion strength followed the same trend: tubeworms > barnacles >EB. Testing EB adhesion was feasible and enhanced assessments of FR coatings by increasing the diversity of assessed taxa.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Briozoários , Animais , Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Propriedades de Superfície , Thoracica
5.
Mar Environ Res ; 162: 105166, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049544

RESUMO

In the Arctic, seasonal patterns in seawater biochemical conditions are shaped by physical, chemical, and biological processes related to the alternation of seasons, i.e. winter polar night and summer midnight sun. In summertime, CO2 concentration is driven by photosynthetic activity of autotrophs which raises seawater pH and carbonate saturation state (Ω). In addition, restriction of photosynthetic activity to the euphotic zone and establishment of seasonal stratification often leads to depth gradients in pH and Ω. In winter, however, severely reduced primary production along with respiration processes lead to higher CO2 concentrations which consequently decrease seawater pH and Ω. Many calcifying invertebrates incorporate other metals, in addition to calcium, into their skeletons, with potential consequences for stability of the mineral matrix and vulnerability to abrasion of predators. We tested whether changes in seawater chemistry due to light-driven activities of marine biota can influence the uptake of Mg into calcified skeletons of Arctic Bryozoa, a dominant faunal group in polar hard-bottom habitats. Our results indicate no clear differences between summer and winter levels of skeletal MgCO3 in five bryozoan species despite differences in Ω between these two seasons. Furthermore, we could not detect any depth-related differences in MgCO3 content in skeletons of selected bryozoans. These results may indicate that Arctic bryozoans are able to control MgCO3 skeletal concentrations biologically. Yet recorded spatial variability in MgCO3 content in skeletons from stations exhibiting different seawater parameters suggests that environmental factors can also, to some extent, shape the skeletal chemistry of Arctic bryozoans.


Assuntos
Briozoários , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar , Esqueleto
6.
Zootaxa ; 4768(4): zootaxa.4768.4.1, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055634

RESUMO

This study examines material collected in the northern part of the Gulf of Cádiz, in the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean, between the Iberian Peninsula and northern Africa, at 300-1200 m depth, within the Site of Community Importance "Volcanes de fango del Golfo de Cádiz" (Mud volcanoes of the Gulf of Cádiz, ESZZ-12002). Several previous studies were carried out in the Iberian Peninsula and Moroccan area (shallow and deep waters), recording ca. 300 bryozoan species from the Gulf of Cádiz. In the present study a total of 40 bryozoan taxa were identified, including two species new to science-Antropora gemarita n. sp. and Microporella funbio n. sp.-and three new records for the area.


Assuntos
Briozoários , Animais , Ecossistema
7.
Zootaxa ; 4820(3): zootaxa.4820.3.11, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056064

RESUMO

The Royal Museum of Central Africa at Tervuren, Belgium, includes a small collection of freshwater bryozoans from Congo and Rwanda. Included are: Plumatella philippinensis with both statoblast types, as well as holotypes of Plumatella ruandensis Wiebach, 1964, Plumatella marlieri Wiebach, 1970, and Plumatella pseudostolonata Borg, 1940. There are also two new species which had been previously misidentified: specimens designated as Plumatella javanica are now recognized as P. wiebachi n. sp.; and specimens labeled Stolella indica now recognized as Plumatella kisalensis n. sp. This paper includes full descriptions of the new species as well as fresh descriptions and illustrations of other species in the collection.


Assuntos
Briozoários , Animais , Água Doce
8.
Zootaxa ; 4820(1): zootaxa.4820.1.5, 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056083

RESUMO

Non-studied museum collections are hidden treasures-a source of information for various research fields. The novel taxa presented here were discovered during taxonomic examination of the backlogs of Bryozoa (Cheilostomata) from the Iziko South African Museum. We describe one new genus, Khulisa n. gen., and nine new species of bryozoans from South Africa. The new species are: Biflustra adenticulata n. sp., Aspidostoma sarcophagus n. sp., ?Micropora erecta n. sp., Trypostega richardi n. sp., Khulisa carolinae n. gen. et n. sp., Adeonella assegai n. sp., Hippomonavella lingulata n. sp., Phidolopora chakra n. sp. and Reteporella ilala n. sp. Three genera, Biflustra, Phidolopora and Triphyllozoon, are recorded for the first time from South Africa. This study highlights the importance of examining existing backlogged material lodged in museum collections.


Assuntos
Briozoários , Animais , Invertebrados , Museus
9.
Zootaxa ; 4786(4): zootaxa.4786.4.4, 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056461

RESUMO

At date, seven species of Stylopoma Levinsen, 1909 are reported from the Brazilian coast, five of which are known from Bahia State in the northeastern region. Here we describe four new species of Stylopoma, all from Bahia State: Stylopoma corallinum n. sp., Stylopoma faceluciae n. sp., Stylopoma multiavicularia n. sp. and Stylopoma sinuata n. sp. Unlike the Caribbean species of Stylopoma, that mainly have rounded primary orifice and slit-like sinus, the morphology of the primary orifice of Brazilian taxa, including the new species presented here, is quite variable. In the newly described taxa, the sinus is drop-shaped in S. corallinum n. sp. and S. faceluciae n. sp., U-shaped in S. multiavicularia n. sp. and V-shaped in S. sinuata n. sp. Like congeners from the Caribe, S. corallinum n. sp., S. faceluciae n. sp. and S. multiavicularia n. sp. have avicularia on the surface of the ooecia. Remarks on the morphological characters currently used in Stylopoma taxonomy are provided, including a comparative table of all living species worldwide.


Assuntos
Briozoários , Aranhas , Animais , Brasil
10.
Zootaxa ; 4801(2): zootaxa.4801.2.1, 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056656

RESUMO

Collections from relatively deep waters around the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone have revealed new species in the cheilostome bryozoan genus Cellaria sensu lato. We describe here seven new species: C. calculosa n. sp., C. curiosa n. sp., C. gracillima n. sp., C. major n. sp., C. spatulifera n. sp., C. stenorhyncha n. sp. and C. macricula n. sp. previously misidentified as C. humilis Moyano, 1983. Four additional species (here called spp. 1, 2, 3, 4) are left in open nomenclature since not enough key taxonomic characteristics were observed to define them as new. Furthermore, some of the newly described species have combinations of taxonomic characters that overlap with those said to characterise Paracellaria and Euginoma. The New Zealand region holds the highest species diversity of Cellaria sensu lato in the world.


Assuntos
Briozoários , Animais
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 152: 110904, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479283

RESUMO

Di(1H-indol-3-yl)methane (DIM) was previously suggested to be an environmentally friendly antifouling compound, but it was also reported that the compound was highly stable in natural seawater. The present study reported that 3 h DIM treatments at 4 µg mL-1 or higher concentration and 12 h DIM treatments at 2 µg mL-1 or higher concentration induced significant larval mortality and metamorphic abnormality in the bryozoan Bugula neritina. The bioassay results correlated with the dose-dependent up-regulation of HSP family proteins, pro-apoptotic proteins, ubiquitination protein, and the dose-dependent down-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes and developmental genes. Unexpectedly, genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and protein synthesis were up-regulated in response to DIM treatment, but, in general, the effects of DIM on B. neritina larvae were comparable to that reported in human cancer cell lines. DIM also induced changes in steroid hormone biosynthesis genes in B. neritina larvae, leading to the concern that DIM might have long-term effects on marine lives. Overall, the present study suggested that application of DIM to the bryozoan larvae would trigger a major transcriptomic response, which might be linked to the observed larval mortality and abnormality. We suggest that application of DIM as an antifouling ingredient should be proceeded with great cautions.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Briozoários , Animais , Larva , Metano , Transcriptoma
12.
Am Nat ; 195(5): 899-917, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364786

RESUMO

Is speciation generally a "special time" in morphological evolution, or are lineage-splitting events just "more of the same" where the end product happens to be two separate lineages? Data on evolutionary dynamics during anagenetic and cladogenetic events among closely related lineages within a clade are rare, but the fossil record of the bryozoan genus Metrarabdotos is considered a textbook example of a clade where speciation causes rapid evolutionary change against a backdrop of morphological stasis within lineages. Here, we point to some methodological and measurement theoretical issues in the original work on Metrarabdotos. We then reanalyze a subset of the original data that can be meaningfully investigated using quantitative statistical approaches similar to those used in the original studies. We consistently fail to find variation in the evolutionary process during within-lineage evolution compared with cladogenetic events: the rates of evolution, the strength of selection, and the directions traveled in multivariate morphospace are not different when comparing evolution within lineages and at speciation events in Metrarabdotos, and genetic drift cannot be excluded as a sufficient explanation for the morphological differentiation within lineages and during speciation. Although widely considered the best example of a punctuated mode of evolution, morphological divergence and speciation are not linked in Metrarabdotos.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Briozoários/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Especiação Genética , Seleção Genética
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 154: 111103, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319926

RESUMO

In the South-western Atlantic, studies dealing with the impacts of debris on marine species are focused mainly on vertebrates, being scarce the studies conducted to determine the association of fouling species to marine debris. A total of 33 marine debris items with fouling specimens were collected in Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon, Argentina. Species richness varied between one and five species per debris item, and dominant species included the barnacle Amphibalanus improvisus (93.94%), followed by the bryozoan Membranipora sp. (72.73%), undetermined polychaetes (36.36%), the mollusc Ostrea sp. (15.15%), the hydrozoan Amphisbetia operculata and the mollusc Brachidontes rodriguezii (3.45%, in both cases). We concluded that marine debris constitutes a suitable settlement site for sessile species inhabiting the lagoon, where hard-substratum are absent; while buoyancy analysis suggested that the initial colonization occurred both on marine debris suspended in the water column or at the sea surface, and in those laying on the seafloor.


Assuntos
Briozoários , Thoracica , Animais , Argentina , Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos/análise
14.
Zootaxa ; 4728(4): zootaxa.4728.4.1, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229881

RESUMO

The genus Setosella included to date six species. After revision, only four of these species were retained, i.e. S. vulnerata, S. cavernicola, S. folini and S. spiralis. The remaining two species were tentatively placed in Woodipora, W.? antilleana n. comb., and Andreella,  A.? fragilis n. comb. On the other hand, scanning electron microscopy examination of Mediterranean material, revealed the presence of three new species previously included in species complexes: S. cyclopensis n. sp. from the open-shelf, S. rossanae n. sp. from submarine caves, and S. alfioi n. sp. from deep-waters. The diagnosis of the genus was amended to include the occurrence of kenozooids in S. cyclopensis n. sp. and S. cavernicola, and of free-living ring-shaped and scorpioid colonies in S. folini and S. alfioi n. sp. All the seven species now in Setosella have present-day representatives; the geographic distribution of the genus is restricted to the NE Atlantic and adjacent seas; its stratigrafic distribution is rejuvenated to the late Tortonian-early Messinian of southern Italy and insular Greece, with only three species occasionally and discontinuously reported. All species are able to produce numerous, subsequent intramural buds and morphological differences seem to be consistently associated with exploitation of particular habitats and substrata.


Assuntos
Briozoários , Animais , Cavernas , Mar Mediterrâneo
15.
Zootaxa ; 4747(2): zootaxa.4747.2.1, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230107

RESUMO

There has been no previous report detailing the taxonomy of marine bryozoans along the coasts of Vietnam. Here we report on the taxonomy and diversity of bryozoans collected among drift coral cobbles from a beach in the tropical Co To archipelago, Gulf of Tonkin, northern Vietnam. We detected 27 bryozoan species (23 cheilostomes, four cyclostomes) in a coelobite assemblage inhabiting crevices in the cobbles, and holes made by boring molluscs. The degree of bryozoan preservation varied greatly, suggesting that the cobbles had accumulated on the beach over a period of months to years, or even decades. Coral reefs in the Co To archipelago underwent a catastrophic decline in 2003-2008, and it is unclear whether the bryozoan assemblage reflects past diversity, present diversity remaining in the coral rubble, or both. We describe six new species: Parasmittina acondylata n. sp., Metroperiella cotoensis n. sp., Microporella tonkinensis n. sp., Rhynchozoon setiavicularium n. sp., R. latiavicularium n. sp., and Disporella phaohoa n. sp. All but two of the previously described species were already known from the Central Indo-Pacific coastal biogeographical realm of Spalding et al. (2007), which includes Vietnam. We report the third Recent record of the thalamoporellid Dibunostoma reversum (Harmer, 1926), which is quite similar to and might be conspecific with the lower Miocene species Thalamoporella transversa Guha Krishna, 2004; while it is premature to synonymize the two, we transfer T. transversa to Dibunostoma, as D. transversum. The calcareous, sheet-like, encrusting foraminiferan Planorbulina larvata was prominent in the coelobite assemblage and was often observed in substrate competition with bryozoans. A limited analysis of competitive interactions indicated that the encrusting bryozoans in the coelobite assemblage encountered P. larvata more often than they encountered other bryozoans, and that P. larvata out-competed bryozoans for substrate, reinforcing a growing sense of the importance of encrusting foraminifera in tropical and subtropical hard-substrate communities.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Briozoários , Animais , Recifes de Corais , Ilhas , Vietnã
16.
Zootaxa ; 4742(2): zootaxa.4742.2.5, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230379

RESUMO

The status of seriated Amathia species (Bryozoa: Ctenostomata) in Japan is reviewed. Several historical specimens and materials recently collected from several localities along the Japanese coast are examined in this study. Amathia acervata Lamouroux, 1824, collected from Japan by Wilhelm Gottlieb Tilesius in 1804, was examined and is redescribed from a reconstituted fragment of the sole type specimen. Material previously reported from Wakayama Prefecture is very similar to Amathia acervata, but differs in having fewer autozooid pairs per cluster, which spiral in different directions; the species is described as a new species Amathia brevisilva n. sp. Measurements of colony characters vary according to the effects of fixation, but stolon length, the ratio of autozooid clusters on stolons, spirality and pigmentation are useful characters for the identification of Japanese seriated Amathia. In addition, two new species are described, Amathia reptopinnata n. sp. and Amathia fimbria n. sp. Amathia reptopinnata n. sp. is characterized by its robust form, dark colour, dichotomous branching, long stolons, long autozooidal clusters and pinnately arranged prostrate zooids. Amathia fimbria n. sp. was found only in the Showa Emperor collection, and is characterized by its compact colony form, remarkably short internode length and trichotomous branching.


Assuntos
Briozoários , Animais , Japão
17.
Zootaxa ; 4750(4): zootaxa.4750.4.1, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230443

RESUMO

The diversity of Hippothoidae (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) in New Zealand is increased from 12 named species to 17 and the number of genera from three to five. New species are recognised in the genera Antarctothoa, Hippothoa, Jessethoa n. gen. and Neothoa (newly discovered in New Zealand waters). A new species of Plesiothoa from New South Wales is also described. Collectively, the new taxa encrust a range of substrata (a catenicellid bryozoan, brown and red macroalgae, rock and mollusc shell). The status of two existing species is changed-Hippothoa divaricata pacifica Gordon, 1984 is raised to full species, and Hippothoa watersi Morris, 1980 is used for putative Hippothoa flagellum in New Zealand. New data are given for these species and Hippothoa peristomata Gordon, 1984, and little-known Antarctothoa buskiana (Hutton, 1873) and Antarctothoa cancer (Hutton, 1873) are illustrated by scanning electron microscopy for the first time.


Assuntos
Briozoários , Animais , Australásia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
18.
Zootaxa ; 4728(1): zootaxa.4728.1.8, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230589

RESUMO

Hippomonavella charrua n. sp. is introduced based on material from the continental shelf off Uruguay. Bilaminar fragments of this species were also found in mid-Holocene deposits of Destacamento Río Salado Member, Canal de las Escobas Formation (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina), ca. 6,000 yr BP. Hippomonavella charrua n. sp. resembles H. brasiliensis Ramalho, Muricy Taylor, 2008, but differs from this species in its more triangular and protruding avicularia occurring in just a small proportion of zooids. Hippomonavella charrua n. sp. is the third species of the genus with both fossil and Recent representatives. The tatiform ancestrula and the early astogeny are described for the first time in a species of Hippomonavella.


Assuntos
Briozoários , Animais , Argentina , Fósseis , Uruguai
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1639, 2020 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005904

RESUMO

Antarctic shallow coastal marine communities were long thought to be isolated from their nearest neighbours by hundreds of kilometres of deep ocean and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The discovery of non-native kelp washed up on Antarctic beaches led us to question the permeability of these barriers to species dispersal. According to the literature, over 70 million kelp rafts are afloat in the Southern Ocean at any one time. These living, floating islands can play host to a range of passenger species from both their original coastal location and those picked in the open ocean. Driven by winds, currents and storms towards the coast of the continent, these rafts are often cited as theoretical vectors for the introduction of new species into Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic islands. We found non-native kelps, with a wide range of "hitchhiking" passenger organisms, on an Antarctic beach inside the flooded caldera of an active volcanic island. This is the first evidence of non-native species reaching the Antarctic continent alive on kelp rafts. One passenger species, the bryozoan Membranipora membranacea, is found to be an invasive and ecologically harmful species in some cold-water regions, and this is its first record from Antarctica. The caldera of Deception Island provides considerably milder conditions than the frigid surrounding waters and it could be an ideal location for newly introduced species to become established. These findings may help to explain many of the biogeographic patterns and connections we currently see in the Southern Ocean. However, with the impacts of climate change in the region we may see an increase in the range and number of organisms capable of surviving both the long journey and becoming successfully established.


Assuntos
Briozoários/fisiologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Kelp/fisiologia , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Ecologia/métodos , Ecossistema , Ilhas , Microdomínios da Membrana/fisiologia
20.
Sci Adv ; 6(2): eaaw9530, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31934622

RESUMO

The evolution of modular colonial animals such as reef corals and bryozoans is enigmatic because of the ability for modules to proliferate asexually as whole colonies reproduce sexually. This reproductive duality creates an evolutionary tension between modules and colonies because selection operates at both levels. To understand how this evolutionary conflict is resolved, we compared the evolutionary potential of module- and colony-level traits in two species of the bryozoan Stylopoma, grown and bred in a common garden experiment. We find quantitatively distinct differences in the evolutionary potential of modular and colony traits. Contrary to solitary organisms, individual traits are not heritable from mother to daughter modules, but colony traits are strongly heritable from parent to offspring colonies. Colony-level evolution therefore dominates because no evolutionary change can accumulate among its modules.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Briozoários/fisiologia , Animais , Geografia , Larva/fisiologia , Análise Multivariada , Panamá
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