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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504532

RESUMO

About 10% of term neonates present with respiratory distress at birth. The most common aetiologies include transient tachypnoea of the newborn, pneumonia and meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Hyaline membrane disease (HMD) in a term infant occurs either as primary HMD, secondary surfactant deficiency or congenital surfactant dysfunction. A detailed history supported with appropriate radiological and laboratory investigations can help a clinician reach a diagnosis. We report a case of surfactant dysfunction disorder which presented as severe MAS and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. In the infant described, the significant history of a sibling death with severe neonatal respiratory disease led us to think of diffuse developmental lung diseases especially surfactant dysfunction syndromes. Exome sequencing detected a heterozygous missense variation in exon 21 of the ATP binding cassette protein member 3 (ABCA3) gene. Based on the clinical picture supported with the exome sequencing, a diagnosis of surfactant dysfunction disorder (ABCA3 deficiency) was confirmed.


Assuntos
Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Aspiração de Mecônio/diagnóstico , Síndrome da Persistência do Padrão de Circulação Fetal/diagnóstico , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/genética , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/terapia , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/uso terapêutico , Surfactantes Pulmonares/uso terapêutico , Respiração Artificial , Citrato de Sildenafila/uso terapêutico , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD012965, 2020 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute bronchiolitis is a significant burden on children, their families and healthcare facilities. It mostly affects children younger than two years of age. Treatment involves adequate hydration, humidified oxygen supplementation, and nebulisation of medications, such as salbutamol, epinephrine, and hypertonic saline. The effectiveness of magnesium sulphate for acute bronchiolitis is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of magnesium sulphate in acute bronchiolitis in children up to two years of age. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, CINAHL, and two trials registries to 30 April 2020. We contacted trial authors to identify additional studies. We searched conference proceedings and reference lists of retrieved articles. Unpublished and published studies were eligible for inclusion. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs, comparing magnesium sulphate, alone or with another treatment, with placebo or another treatment, in children up to two years old with acute bronchiolitis. Primary outcomes were time to recovery, mortality, and adverse events. Secondary outcomes were duration of hospital stay, clinical severity score at 0 to 24 hours and 25 to 48 hours after treatment, pulmonary function test, hospital readmission within 30 days, duration of mechanical ventilation, and duration of intensive care unit stay. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We used GRADE methods to assess the certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included four RCTs (564 children). One study received funding from a hospital and one from a university; two studies did not report funding sources. Comparator interventions differed among all four trials. Studies were conducted in Qatar, Turkey, Iran, and India. We assessed two studies to be at an overall low risk of bias, and two to be at unclear risk of bias, overall. The certainty of the evidence for all outcomes and comparisons was very low except for one: hospital re-admission rate within 30 days of discharge for magnesium sulphate versus placebo. None of the studies measured time to recovery, duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of intensive care unit stay, or pulmonary function. There were no events of mortality or adverse effects for magnesium sulphate compared with placebo (1 RCT, 160 children). The effects of magnesium sulphate on clinical severity are uncertain (at 0 to 24 hours: mean difference (MD) on the Wang score 0.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.28 to 0.54; and at 25 to 48 hours: MD on the Wang score -0.42, 95% CI -0.84 to -0.00). Magnesium sulphate may increase hospital re-admission rate within 30 days of discharge (risk ratio (RR) 3.16, 95% CI 1.20 to 8.27; 158 children; low-certainty evidence). None of our primary outcomes were measured for magnesium sulphate compared with hypertonic saline (1 RCT, 220 children). Effects were uncertain on the duration of hospital stay in days (MD 0.00, 95% CI -0.28 to 0.28), and on clinical severity on the Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument (RDAI) score at 25 to 48 hours (MD 0.10, 95% CI -0.39 to 0.59). There were no events of mortality or adverse effects for magnesium sulphate, with or without salbutamol, compared with salbutamol (1 RCT, 57 children). Effects on the duration of hospital stay were uncertain (magnesium sulphate: 24 hours (95% CI 25.8 to 47.4), magnesium sulphate + salbutamol: 20 hours (95% CI 15.3 to 39.0), and salbutamol: 24 hours (95% CI 23.4 to 76.9)). None of our primary outcomes were measured for magnesium sulphate + epinephrine compared with no treatment or normal saline + epinephrine (1 RCT,120 children). Effects were uncertain for the duration of hospital stay in hours (MD -0.40, 95% CI -3.94 to 3.14), and for RDAI scores (0 to 24 hours: MD -0.20, 95% CI -1.06 to 0.66; and 25 to 48 hours: MD -0.90, 95% CI -1.75 to -0.05). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to establish the efficacy and safety of magnesium sulphate for treating children up to two years of age with acute bronchiolitis. No evidence was available for time to recovery, duration of mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit stay, or pulmonary function. There was no information about adverse events for some comparisons. Well-designed RCTs to assess the effects of magnesium sulphate for children with acute bronchiolitis are needed. Important outcomes, such as time to recovery and adverse events should be measured.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite/tratamento farmacológico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Sulfato de Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Albuterol/uso terapêutico , Viés , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação , Sulfato de Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Solução Salina/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(22): 5331-5343, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350192

RESUMO

To systematically review the efficacy and safety of Liujunzi Decoction combined with Western medicine in the treatment of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD). Three English databases and four Chinese databases were systematically searched from the database establishment to April 1, 2020. We screened randomized controlled trial(RCT) according to the pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria, then extracted data. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed with Cochrane bias risk evaluation tool. Data were analyzed by using RevMan 5.3. A total of 401 articles were retrieved and finally 17 RCTs were included in this study, involving 1 447 patients, and the overall quality of the included studies was not high. Meta-analysis showed that, in reducing traditional Chinese medicine symptom score, Liujunzi Decoction combined with conventional Western medicine or Salmeterol Xinafoate and Fluticasone Propionate Powder for Inhalation was superior to conventional Western medicine or Salmeterol Xinafoate and Fluticasone Propionate Powder for Inhalation alone. In reducing the grade of modified medical research council(mMRC), Liujunzi Decoction combined with Salmeterol Xinafoate and Fluticasone Propionate Powder for Inhalation was superior to Salmeterol Xinafoate and Fluticasone Propionate Powder for Inhalation alone. In reducing COPD assessment test(CAT) score, Liujunzi Decoction combined with conventional Western medicine was superior to conventional Western medicine alone. In delaying the decline of forced expiratory volume in one second(FEV_1) or % in the expected value, Liujunzi Decoction combined with conventional Western medicine or Salmeterol Xinafoate and Fluticasone Propionate Powder for Inhalation was superior to conventional Western medicine or Salmeterol Xinafoate and Fluticasone Propionate Powder for Inhalation alone. In delaying the decline of ratio of FEV_1 to forced vital capacity(FEV_1/FVC), Liujunzi Decoction combined with conventional Western medicine was superior to conventional Western medicine alone, but there was no statistical difference between Liujunzi Decoction combined with Salmeterol Xinafoate and Fluticasone Propionate Powder for Inhalation and Salmeterol Xinafoate and Fluticasone Propionate Powder for Inhalation alone. In reducing acute exacerbation rate, there was no statistical difference between Liujunzi Decoction combined with Salmeterol Xinafoate and Fluticasone Propionate Powder for Inhalation and Salmeterol Xinafoate and Fluticasone Propionate Powder for Inhalation alone. On the other outcome measures of Liujunzi Decoction combined with other Western medicine, Meta-analysis could not be conducted and conclusions due to the inclusion of only one study. In terms of the occurrence of adverse reactions, some studies did not mention, so the safety of Liujunzi Decoction combined with Wes-tern medicine could not be determined in this paper. Due to the limitations of the quality and quantity of inclu-ded studies, the efficacy of Liujunzi Decoction combined with Western medicine for COPD still needs more high-quality studies for confirmation, and its safety needs to be further verified.


Assuntos
Medicina , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Administração por Inalação , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Xinafoato de Salmeterol/uso terapêutico
4.
Rev. cuba. med ; 59(4): e1388, oct.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144502

RESUMO

Introducción: La obesidad está asociada al uso frecuente de medicación de rescate y padecer asma de mayor gravedad. Los obesos asmáticos tienen menor reactividad bronquial, sin embargo, existe información limitada sobre la magnitud de la reversibilidad aguda al broncodilatador (RAB). Objetivo: Evaluar la magnitud de respuesta aguda al broncodilatador en pacientes asmáticos sobrepesos y obesos. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con 49 pacientes asmáticos sobrepesos y obesos atendidos en consulta externa del Hospital Neumológico Benéfico Jurídico (enero 2017˗ enero 2018) y se constató mediante espirometría la respuesta aguda al broncodilatador. Resultados: Predominó la edad (40-59 años), mayor asociación de padecer asma, poca mejoría con la aplicación del broncodilatador. El sexo femenino (20-59 años) presentó mayor número que el masculino y menor reversibilidad al broncodilatador. Los pacientes con antecedentes patológicos familiares de asma o atopia representaron 73,5 por ciento del total. El 76,5 por ciento de los obesos no presentó mejoría con la aplicación del broncodilatador. Predominó la categoría de gravedad persistente moderada. Conclusiones: El sexo femenino tiene más riesgo de padecer asma y no tener mejoría al aplicar el broncodilatador. Los obesos mayores de 40 años tienen mayor riesgo de no presentar reversibilidad aguda al broncodilatador. Los antecedentes patológicos familiares de asma o atopia y personales de otras enfermedades no predisponen a menor reversibilidad aguda al broncodilatador. La gravedad del asma no influye en la reversibilidad aguda al broncodilatador(AU)


Introduction: Obesity is associated with the frequent use of rescue medication and suffering from more severe asthma. Obese asthmatics have less bronchial reactivity, however, there is limited information on the magnitude of acute bronchodilator reversibility. Objective: To assess the magnitude of the acute response to the bronchodilator in overweight and obese asthmatic patients. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in 49 overweight and obese asthmatic patients seen in the outpatient clinic at Benéfico Jurídico Pneumologic Hospital from January 2017 to January 2018, and the acute response to bronchodilator was verified by spirometry. Results: Age predominated (40-59 years), greater association of suffering from asthma, and little improvement with the use of bronchodilator. The female sex (20-59 years) showed greater number than the male and less reversibility to bronchodilator. Patients with family pathological history of asthma or atopy represented 73.5 percent of the total. 76.5 percent of the obese did not show improvement with the use of bronchodilator. The category of moderate persistent severity predominated. Conclusions: The female sex has greater risk of suffering from asthma and has no improvement when applying bronchodilator. Obese individuals over 40 years of age have higher risk of not having acute reversibility to the bronchodilator. Family pathological history of asthma or atopy and personal history of other diseases do not predispose to less acute reversibility of bronchodilator. The severity of asthma does not influence acute reversibility to bronchodilator(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Obesidade/complicações , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais
5.
Lakartidningen ; 1172020 10 21.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107583

RESUMO

The aim of COPD treatment is to reduce symptoms and prevent exacerbations. The pharmacological treatment is based on bronchodilator treatment which reduces symptoms and prevents exacerbations. If patients have exacerbations despite bronchodilator treatment it is important to consider adding inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Concomitant asthma is always an indication for ICS treatment. Studies have shown that measurement of blood eosinophil count predicts the effect of adding ICS to bronchodilators. Higher b-eos (≥ 0,3 × 109/l) strengthens the indication for ICS. A large number of COPD patients in Sweden are treated with both bronchodilators and ICS without a history of exacerbations. It is important to assess that the indication is correct at follow up of these patients.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Suécia
7.
Mol Med ; 26(1): 91, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 have a mortality of 24-53%, in part due to distal mucopurulent secretions interfering with ventilation. DNA from neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contribute to the viscosity of mucopurulent secretions and NETs are found in the serum of COVID-19 patients. Dornase alfa is recombinant human DNase 1 and is used to digest DNA in mucoid sputum. Here, we report a single-center case series where dornase alfa was co-administered with albuterol through an in-line nebulizer system. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data were collected from the electronic medical records of five mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19-including three requiring veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-treated with nebulized in-line endotracheal dornase alfa and albuterol, between March 31 and April 24, 2020. Data on tolerability and response were analyzed. RESULTS: The fraction of inspired oxygen requirements was reduced for all five patients after initiating dornase alfa administration. All patients were successfully extubated, discharged from hospital and remain alive. No drug-associated toxicities were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that dornase alfa will be well-tolerated by patients with severe COVID-19. Clinical trials are required to formally test the dosing, safety, and efficacy of dornase alfa in COVID-19, and several have been recently registered.


Assuntos
Albuterol/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Desoxirribonuclease I/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Respiração Artificial , Adulto , Idoso , Albuterol/uso terapêutico , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Desoxirribonuclease I/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Masculino , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico
8.
N Z Med J ; 133(1520): 61-72, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994594

RESUMO

AIM: In the PRACTICAL study, as-needed budesonide/formoterol reduced the rate of severe exacerbations compared with maintenance budesonide plus as-needed terbutaline. In a pre-specified analysis we analysed the efficacy in Maori and Pacific peoples, populations with worse asthma outcomes. METHOD: The PRACTICAL study was a 52-week, open-label, parallel group, randomised controlled trial of 890 adults with mild to moderate asthma, who were randomised to budesonide/formoterol Turbuhaler 200/6mcg one actuation as required or budesonide Turbuhaler 200mcg one actuation twice daily and terbutaline Turbuhaler 250mcg two actuations as required. The primary outcome was rate of severe exacerbations. The analysis strategy was to test an ethnicity-treatment interaction term for each outcome variable. RESULTS: Seventy-two participants (8%) identified as Maori, 36 participants (4%) as Pacific ethnicity. There was no evidence that ethnicity was an effect modifier for severe exacerbations (P interaction 0.70). CONCLUSION: The reduction in severe exacerbation risk with budesonide-formoterol reliever compared with maintenance budesonide was similar in Maori and Pacific adults compared with New Zealand European/Other.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Combinação Budesonida e Fumarato de Formoterol/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Administração por Inalação , Adulto , Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Asma/fisiopatologia , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Budesonida/administração & dosagem , Budesonida/uso terapêutico , Combinação Budesonida e Fumarato de Formoterol/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores/normas , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Terbutalina/administração & dosagem , Terbutalina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the survival and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants at 18 to 26 months with early hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF). We also assessed whether African American infants with early HRF had improved outcomes after exposure to inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). METHODS: ELBW infants ≤1000 g and gestational age ≤26 weeks with maximal oxygen ≥60% on either day 1 or day 3 were labeled as "early HRF" and born between 2007 and 2015 in the Neonatal Research Network were included. Using a propensity score regression model, we analyzed outcomes and effects of exposure to iNO overall and separately by race. RESULTS: Among 7639 ELBW infants born ≤26 weeks, 22.7% had early HRF. Early HRF was associated with a mortality of 51.3%. The incidence of moderate-severe NDI among survivors was 41.2% at 18 to 26 months. Mortality among infants treated with iNO was 59.4%. Female sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.8-3.3), birth weight ≥720 g (aOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.1) and complete course of antenatal steroids (aOR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.2) were associated with intact survival. African American infants had a similar incidence of early HRF (21.7% vs 23.3%) but lower exposure to iNO (16.4% vs 21.6%). Among infants with HRF exposed to iNO, intact survival (no death or NDI) was not significantly different between African American and other races (aOR: 1.5, 95% CI: 0.6-3.6). CONCLUSIONS: Early HRF in infants ≤26 weeks' gestation is associated with high mortality and NDI at 18 to 26 months. Use of iNO did not decrease mortality or NDI. Outcomes following iNO exposure were not different in African American infants.


Assuntos
Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Hipóxia/complicações , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade , Administração por Inalação , Afro-Americanos , Índice de Apgar , Peso ao Nascer , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etnologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/administração & dosagem , Alta do Paciente , Gravidez , Pontuação de Propensão , Insuficiência Respiratória/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Respiratória/etnologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Esteroides/uso terapêutico
11.
Clin Chest Med ; 41(3): 463-474, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800199

RESUMO

Long-acting bronchodilators represent the mainstay of maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This state-of-the-art review summarizes currently available data on the safety, efficacy, and clinical effectiveness of long-acting bronchodilators and describes their role in the management of COPD, as defined by current national and international guidelines. Data from extensive clinical trials and real-life studies have demonstrated that long-acting beta-2 agonists and long-acting muscarinic antagonists can safely reduce the frequency of exacerbations, alleviate symptoms, and improve quality of life, exercise tolerance, and lung function of patients with COPD. They are recommended as first-line maintenance treatment of COPD.


Assuntos
Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/uso terapêutico , Broncodilatadores/farmacologia , Humanos
12.
Clin Chest Med ; 41(3): 485-494, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800201

RESUMO

Inhaled therapy remains the cornerstone of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease pharmacologic care, but some systemic treatments can be of help when the burden of the disease remains high. Azithromycin, phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors, and mucoactive agents can be used in such situations. The major difficulty remains in the identification of the optimal target populations. Another difficulty is to determine how these treatments should be positioned in the global treatment algorithm. For instance, should they be prescribed in addition to other antiinflammatory agents or should they replace them in some cases? Research is ongoing to identify new therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Broncodilatadores/farmacologia , Humanos
13.
Clin Chest Med ; 41(3): 475-484, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800200

RESUMO

Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs), when used in combination with long-acting bronchodilators, reduce the risk of exacerbations and improve health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared with bronchodilator or ICS therapy alone. Potential side effects of ICSs include adverse effects on glycemic control, bone density, cataract formation, skin changes, oral candidiasis, and pulmonary infections. Pneumonia is observed at increased rates in COPD patients, in particular those with greater airflow limitation, low body mass index, advanced age, and male gender, and ICSs may increase this risk. Risk assessment is essential in selecting appropriate patients for ICS-containing therapy.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Corticosteroides/farmacologia , Broncodilatadores/farmacologia , Humanos , Medição de Risco
15.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD012977, 2020 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is an illness that commonly affects adults and children, and it serves as a common reason for children to attend emergency departments. An asthma exacerbation is characterised by acute or subacute worsening of shortness of breath, cough, wheezing, and chest tightness and may be triggered by viral respiratory infection, poor compliance with usual medication, a change in the weather, or exposure to allergens or irritants. Most children with asthma have mild or moderate exacerbations and respond well to first-line therapy (inhaled short-acting beta-agonists and systemic corticosteroids). However, the best treatment for the small proportion of seriously ill children who do not respond to first-line therapy is not well understood. Currently, a large number of treatment options are available and there is wide variation in management. OBJECTIVES: Main objective - To summarise Cochrane Reviews with or without meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of second-line treatment for children with acute exacerbations of asthma (i.e. after first-line treatments, titrated oxygen delivery, and administration of intermittent inhaled short-acting beta2-agonists and oral corticosteroids have been tried and have failed) Secondary objectives - To identify gaps in the current evidence base that will inform recommendations for future research and subsequent Cochrane Reviews - To categorise information on reported outcome measures used in trials of escalation of treatment for acute exacerbations of asthma in children, and to make recommendations for development and reporting of standard outcomes in future trials and reviews - To identify relevant randomised controlled trials that have been published since the date of publication of each included review METHODS: We included Cochrane Reviews assessing interventions for children with acute exacerbations of asthma. We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. The search is current to 28 December 2019. We also identified trials that were potentially eligible for, but were not currently included in, published reviews. We assessed the quality of included reviews using the ROBIS criteria (tool used to assess risk of bias in systematic reviews). We presented an evidence synthesis of data from reviews alongside an evidence map of clinical trials. Primary outcomes were length of stay, hospital admission, intensive care unit admission, and adverse effects. We summarised all findings in the text and reported data for each outcome in 'Additional tables'. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 17 potentially eligible Cochrane Reviews but extracted data from, and rated the quality of, 13 reviews that reported results for children alone. We excluded four reviews as one did not include any randomised controlled trials (RCTs), one did not provide subgroup data for children, and the last two had been updated and replaced by subsequent reviews. The 13 reviews included 67 trials; the number of trials in each review ranged from a single trial up to 27 trials. The vast majority of comparisons included between one and three trials, involving fewer than 100 participants. The total number of participants included in reviews ranged from 40 to 2630. All studies included children; 16 (24%) included children younger than two years of age. Most of the reviews reported search dates older than four years. We have summarised the published evidence as outlined in Cochrane Reviews. Key findings, in terms of our primary outcomes, are that (1) intravenous magnesium sulfate was the only intervention shown to reduce hospital length of stay (high-certainty evidence); (2) no evidence suggested that any intervention reduced the risk of intensive care admission (low- to very low-certainty evidence); (3) the risk of hospital admission was reduced by the addition of inhaled anticholinergic agents to inhaled beta2-agonists (moderate-certainty evidence), the use of intravenous magnesium sulfate (high-certainty evidence), and the use of inhaled heliox (low-certainty evidence); (4) the addition of inhaled magnesium sulfate to usual bronchodilator therapy appears to reduce serious adverse events during hospital admission (moderate-certainty evidence); (5) aminophylline increased vomiting compared to placebo (moderate-certainty evidence) and increased nausea and nausea/vomiting compared to intravenous beta2-agonists (low-certainty evidence); and (6) the addition of anticholinergic therapy to short-acting beta2-agonists appeared to reduce the risk of nausea (high-certainty evidence) and tremor (moderate-certainty evidence) but not vomiting (low-certainty evidence). We considered 4 of the 13 reviews to be at high risk of bias based on the ROBIS framework. In all cases, this was due to concerns regarding identification and selection of studies. The certainty of evidence varied widely (by review and also by outcome) and ranged from very low to high. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This overview provides the most up-to-date evidence on interventions for escalation of therapy for acute exacerbations of asthma in children from Cochrane Reviews of randomised controlled trials. A vast majority of comparisons involved between one and three trials and fewer than 100 participants, making it difficult to assess the balance between benefits and potential harms. Due to the lack of comparative studies between various treatment options, we are unable to make firm practice recommendations. Intravenous magnesium sulfate appears to reduce both hospital length of stay and the risk of hospital admission. Hospital admission is also reduced with the addition of inhaled anticholinergic agents to inhaled beta2-agonists. However, further research is required to determine which patients are most likely to benefit from these therapies. Due to the relatively rare incidence of acute severe paediatric asthma, multi-centre research will be required to generate high-quality evidence. A number of existing Cochrane Reviews should be updated, and we recommend that a new review be conducted on the use of high-flow nasal oxygen therapy. Important priorities include development of an internationally agreed core outcome set for future trials in acute severe asthma exacerbations and determination of clinically important differences in these outcomes, which can then inform adequately powered future trials.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/terapia , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Doença Aguda , Administração por Inalação , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/uso terapêutico , Aminofilina/administração & dosagem , Aminofilina/efeitos adversos , Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Viés , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/uso terapêutico , Hélio , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação , Antagonistas de Leucotrienos/uso terapêutico , Sulfato de Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Sulfato de Magnésio/efeitos adversos , Sulfato de Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Náusea/prevenção & controle , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vômito/induzido quimicamente , Trabalho Respiratório/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Arerugi ; 69(5): 341-352, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combination drug of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting ß2 agonist is being used as a long-term control medication for pediatric asthma patients for those who are poorly controlled by ICS alone. Long-term efficacy and safety of Fluticasone propionate/formoterol fumarate hydrate (FP/FM) was evaluated in pediatric patients with bronchial asthma. METHODS: Two inhales of FP/FM (50/5µg) at one time, twice daily were administered for 24 weeks to Japanese asthma patients aged 5 to <16 years who had asthma symptoms during the observation period while using the same dosage of ICS during a certain period of time. Adverse drug reactions, morning peak flow (mPEF) and asthma symptoms were evaluated 24 weeks after administration. RESULTS: FP/FM was administered to 53 subjects. 52 subjects completed the 24 week administration. The incidence of adverse drug reactions was 9.4% (5 of 53), and all of the adverse drug reactions were mild. The mPEF increased from the starting value and was maintained through the treatment period. The average change from baseline in the mPEF after 24 weeks of treatment was 21.39±2.93L/min (Least squares mean±standard error). Changes in asthma symptoms were similar to that of morning peak flow. CONCLUSION: It was considered that FP/FM could be useful for long-term control of pediatric asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Fluticasona/uso terapêutico , Fumarato de Formoterol/uso terapêutico , Administração por Inalação , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Aerossóis/uso terapêutico , Broncodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Combinação de Medicamentos , Fluticasona/efeitos adversos , Fumarato de Formoterol/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Japão , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Med Clin North Am ; 104(4): 615-630, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505256

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a chronic, irreversible obstructive lung disease that results from exposure to noxious stimuli. Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) usually result from viral or bacterial respiratory infections, but may also result from exposure to environmental pollution. AECOPD are associated with functional decline, increased risk of subsequent exacerbations, and death. Despite the poor prognosis of AECOPD, patients are empowered through self-management programs in their battle against this lethal disease. Morbidity and mortality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospitalizations are reduced by implementing standardized treatment modalities outlined in this article throughout the hospitalization and beyond.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/prevenção & controle , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Doença Aguda , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Ventilação não Invasiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(26): e20836, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590774

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) are common and associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and medical cost. They are gaining increasing concerns among patients receiving neurological surgery. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affect a large section of whole population and is also one of the risk factors of PPCs in the perioperative setting. Ipratropium bromide is the inhalation solution for the treatment of COPD. Studies showed the perioperative nebulization of ipratropium bromide could increase the lung function and decrease the incidence of postoperative pneumonia in COPD patients underwent thoracic surgery. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of perioperative nebulization of ipratropium bromide on PPCs in COPD patients underwent neurosurgical surgery. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study is a multicenter retrospective study in China. Patients who meet the inclusion/exclusion criteria are selected from 7 neurosurgical centers in China. According to whether ipratropium bromide is used in perioperative period, the patients are divided into exposure group and control group. The primary outcome is the incidence of postoperative pneumonia. Secondary outcomes are unplanned intubation, postoperative mechanical ventilation ≥ 48 hours, respiratory failure, atelectasis, death, and length of stay. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the ethics committee (EC) of the School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Waived by the ethics committee, no written consent form was obtained since we used the registry data. The study results will be communicated via publication. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR1900022552.


Assuntos
Craniotomia/efeitos adversos , Dispneia/tratamento farmacológico , Ipratrópio/normas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Broncodilatadores/normas , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , China/epidemiologia , Craniotomia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Ipratrópio/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Ter Arkh ; 92(1): 89-95, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598669

RESUMO

The main goals of COPD therapy are to achieve clinical stability with minimal clinical manifestations and low risk of relapse. The proposed COPD control concept by analogy with asthma has not been quite well characterized yet. COPD control is defined as "the long - term maintenance of a clinical situation with a low impact of symptoms on the patient's life and absence of exacerbations." The situation of clinical control in COPD is considered desirable and potentially achievable for most patients with COPD. Pharmacotherapeutic options for COPD are constantly expanding. The control concept may be useful when the decision on treatment of COPD is made for dynamic adjustment of the therapy volume.


Assuntos
Indanos/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Quinolonas/uso terapêutico , Administração por Inalação , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/uso terapêutico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Humanos
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