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4.
Exp Dermatol ; 29(7): 598-609, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478926

RESUMO

About 1-2% of European population are redheaded, meaning they synthesize more pheomelanin than eumelanin, the main melanin pigment in humans. Several mutations could be responsible for this phenotype. It has been suggested that corresponding mutations spread in Europe due to a founder effect shaped either by a relaxation of selection for dark, UV-protective phenotypes or by sexual selection in favour of rare phenotypes. In our study, we investigated the levels of vitamin D precursor 25(OH)D3 (calcidiol) and folic acid in the blood serum of 73 redheaded and 130 non-redheaded individuals. In redheaded individuals, we found higher 25(OH)D3 concentrations and approximately the same folic acid concentrations as in non-redheaded subjects. 25(OH)D3 concentrations correlated with the intensity of hair redness measured by two spectrophotometric methods and estimated by participants themselves and by independent observers. In non-redheaded individuals, 25(OH)D3 levels covaried with the amount of sun exposure and intensity of suntan while in redheaded individuals, this was not the case. It suggests that increased 25(OH)D3 levels in redheaded individuals are due to differences in physiology rather than in behaviour. We also found that folic acid levels increased with age and the intensity of baldness and decreased with the frequency of visiting tanning salons. Our results suggest that the redheaded phenotype could be an evolutionary adaptation for sufficient photosynthesis of provitamin D in conditions of low intensity of UVB radiation in central and northern parts of Europe.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Calcifediol/sangue , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Cor de Cabelo/fisiologia , Pigmentação da Pele/fisiologia , Adulto , Envelhecimento/sangue , Alopecia/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Clima , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Luz Solar , Bronzeado/fisiologia
6.
Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed ; 36(3): 179-184, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Skin colour and sun sensitivity are highly related to the distance to the equator: people in southern latitudes are usually darker and less sensitive to sun than in northern latitudes. Whether differences in sun sensitivity can be found in a relatively homogenous European population is unclear. We aimed to objectively measure sun sensitivity (assessed as pigment protection factor (PPF)) in five European countries, relate it to self-assessed Fitzpatrick skin phototype (FST) and to determine whether PPF levels in the different FST categories are dependent on the investigated countries. METHODS: Volunteers (n = 569) were recruited in Copenhagen (Denmark), Dublin (Ireland), London (England), Münster (Germany) and Ioannina (Greece). Skin phototype was self-assessed using the FST scale. PPF was measured at both sun-protected buttocks and five sun-exposed skin sites by a skin reflectance spectrophotometer. RESULTS: Overall, there were statistically significant differences in PPF of the buttocks, inner arm, outer arm, forehead, chest and back between the five countries (P ≤ .031). Generally, PPF level was lower in northern than in southern latitudes. PPF of the buttocks was similar in all countries for those who identified as FST I (P = .723). However, it was statistically significantly different (P ≤ 2.913*10-4 ) and country-dependent for those who identified as FST II-IV. CONCLUSION: Objectively measured sun sensitivity is higher (lower PPF) in northern compared with southern latitudes. The choice of self-identified FST category is influenced by a person's immediate environment. Therefore, we confirmed the relative nature of the FST scale and the need to standardise the skin phototype assessment procedure.


Assuntos
Pigmentação da Pele/fisiologia , Luz Solar , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Braço , Dorso , Nádegas , Dinamarca , Inglaterra , Eritema/etiologia , Feminino , Testa , Alemanha , Grécia , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espectrofotometria , Bronzeado , Tórax , Adulto Jovem
7.
Dermatology ; 235(5): 400-406, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Fitzpatrick skin phototype scale (FSPTS) is a widely used instrument to assess skin type. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey collected responses from 254 subjects from Quito regarding self-reported FSPTS, gender, age, education, and tobacco and alcohol consumption. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine if ethnicity, hair color, and eye color significantly predict FSPTS. In addition, we studied the correlation between FSPTS and the SCINEXA scale with Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Ethnicity, eye color, and hair color are significant independent predictors of FSPTS (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Patient self-reported race and pigmentary phenotypes are inaccurate predictors of sun sensitivity as defined by Fitzpatrick skin phototype. Our study does not fully represent the population of the country. There are limitations to using patient-reported race and appearance in predicting individual sunburn risk.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Fotossensibilidade/classificação , Transtornos de Fotossensibilidade/epidemiologia , Pigmentação da Pele , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Fotossensibilidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Fotossensibilidade/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Pigmentação da Pele/fisiologia , Queimadura Solar/diagnóstico , Queimadura Solar/epidemiologia , Queimadura Solar/etnologia , Queimadura Solar/fisiopatologia , Bronzeado/fisiologia
8.
Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed ; 35(6): 387-392, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206816

RESUMO

The pigment responses of human skin to broadband UVA radiation (320-400 nm) occur in three distinct phases. The first phase includes immediate pigment darkening (IPD), the pigment that appears immediately after irradiation. The second phase involves an intermediate step, termed persistent pigment darkening (PPD), which leads to the third phase of neomelanogenesis or delayed tanning (DT). Since DT results from synthesis of new melanin, it persists beyond 5-7 days. We conducted studies on human subjects to investigate the dynamic responses of the IPD and PPD reactions to broadband UVA radiation at threshold and superthreshold doses. The threshold doses for IPD, PPD, and DT were found to be approximately 1, 11, and 18 J/cm2 , respectively. The colorimetry ΔL* value corresponding to minimal clinically perceptible pigmentation was found to be 0.8 ± 0.1. IPD appeared immediately and had an associated decay constant of approximately 1.4 minutes. At doses greater than PPD threshold, IPD reaction decayed while PPD developed indicating toward IPD being used as a substrate in the formation of PPD.


Assuntos
Melaninas/biossíntese , Melaninas/efeitos da radiação , Pigmentação da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Bronzeado/fisiologia , Raios Ultravioleta , Colorimetria , Humanos , Cinética , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Transfusion ; 59(4): 1163-1165, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950093
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(2)2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796078

RESUMO

Melanocortin analogues, such as melanotan, are illegally used for artificial tanning. They have also been suggested as possible therapeutic agents in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. This case study presents a patient attending the accident and emergency department, in a tertiary urology centre, with acute priapism after abdominal subcutaneous injection of melanotan. The priapism was diagnosed as 'low-flow' and managed with cavernosal aspiration, irrigation and subsequent intracavernosal injection of phenylephrine. The patient avoided requiring surgical shunting but had not yet recovered erectile function at 4-week follow-up. Acute priapism is an unreported side effect of melanocortin analogue use and this case report presents a patient managed without surgical intervention. Future therapeutic application of these agents will need to take this potential life altering complication into consideration.


Assuntos
Melanocortinas/efeitos adversos , Pênis/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos Cíclicos/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/efeitos adversos , Priapismo/induzido quimicamente , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , alfa-MSH/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Melanocortinas/farmacologia , Pênis/fisiopatologia , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Bronzeado , Fatores de Tempo , alfa-MSH/efeitos adversos , alfa-MSH/farmacologia
13.
Clin Dermatol ; 37(5): 430-436, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896400

RESUMO

Skin phototyping refers to a skin classification scheme based on how the skin responds to sun exposure. The Fitzpatrick classification is the most widely accepted method of skin phototyping, based on a person's tendency to sunburn and ability to tan. Apart from estimating the initial therapeutic dose of UV light, skin phototyping is also useful in predicting the risk of photodamage and skin cancer and the outcome of esthetic procedures. Techniques to type the skin objectively have been developed to address the deficiencies associated with the subjective Fitzpatrick classification. Some skin typing systems have been proposed specifically to predict the response of skin to cosmetic procedures such as chemical peeling and laser resurfacing. We discuss the concept of skin type and its relation to skin color, as well as critically appraising the various available methods of skin typing.


Assuntos
Pigmentação da Pele , Classificação/métodos , Humanos , Queimadura Solar/etiologia , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Bronzeado
14.
Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed ; 35(6): 420-428, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30198587

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is an integral element that influences a variety of biochemical reactions throughout the body and is known to play a notable role in melanogenesis. Exogenous triggers of oxidative stress, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and visible light (VL), lead to pigment formation through somewhat different pathways, but both share a common endpoint-the potential to generate cosmetically undesirable hyperpigmentation. Though organic and inorganic sunscreens are available to protect against the UVR portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, coverage is lacking to protect against the VL spectrum. In this manuscript, we review the phases of tanning, pathways of melanogenesis triggered by UVR and VL, and the associated impact of oxidative stress. We also discuss the known intrinsic mechanisms and paracrine regulation of melanocytes that influence their response to UVR. Understanding these mechanisms and their role in UVR-induced hyperpigmentation should potentially lead to identification of useful targets that can be coupled with antioxidant therapy to alleviate this effect.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Hiperpigmentação/tratamento farmacológico , Melaninas/biossíntese , Estresse Oxidativo , Bronzeado/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Carotenoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hiperpigmentação/etiologia , Melanócitos/fisiologia , Melanócitos/efeitos da radiação , Comunicação Parácrina , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Polypodium
15.
Dermatol Online J ; 24(5)2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30142729

RESUMO

Melanotan-I and melanotan-II are alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (a-MSH) analogues that can be purchased illicitly online with relative ease and are injected subcutaneously to stimulate a tan. Little is known about the use of these unregulated substances. An observational survey was posted to an online forum in which participants share their experiences using melanotan-I or melanotan-II. Users were asked to complete this voluntary, anonymous survey, which had questions focusing on motivation and hesitation for and against using melanotan, difficulty in acquiring it, and plans for continuing to use melanotan in the future.


Assuntos
Tráfico de Drogas , Peptídeos Cíclicos , Pigmentação da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , alfa-MSH/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Adulto , Indústria da Beleza , Tráfico de Drogas/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperpigmentação/induzido quimicamente , Injeções Subcutâneas , Internacionalidade , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos Cíclicos/administração & dosagem , Bronzeado/efeitos dos fármacos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , alfa-MSH/administração & dosagem
16.
JAMA Dermatol ; 154(9): 1066-1071, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046802

RESUMO

Importance: Incidence rates of nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers are increasing rapidly in the United States likely because of increased UV light exposure. Sunless tanning is a safe alternative to achieve tanned skin that might help reduce skin cancer incidence by deterring risky behaviors. However, limited data exist on the characteristics and associated skin cancer risk behaviors of sunless tanners in the United States. Objective: To assess the demographic characteristics and skin cancer risk behaviors of sunless tanners among adults in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: This secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study used data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey, a population-based survey of the US noninstitutionalized civilian population. Participants included 27 353 men and women 18 years or older. Main Outcome and Measures: Participant demographics and skin cancer risk behaviors, including indoor tanning, skin cancer screening, sunburn, and sun protection behaviors. Results: Of the 27 353 adults (representative of more than 198 million US adults; mean [SE] age, 46.0 [0.2] years) studied, 6.4% (SE, 0.2%) reported sunless tanning. Factors associated with sunless tanning included being young, female, non-Hispanic white, college educated, nonobese, and sun sensitive, living in the western United States, and having a family history of skin cancer. Sunless tanners were more likely to report indoor tanning (adjusted prevalence odds ratio [aPOR], 3.77; 95% CI, 3.19-4.43; P < .001), recent sunburn (aPOR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.31-1.83; P < .001), use of sunscreen (ß = 0.19; 95% CI, 0.09-0.28; P < .001), and having had a full-body skin examination (aPOR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.51-2.08; P < .001) but less likely to seek shade (ß = -0.12; 95% CI, -0.19 to -0.04; P = .001) or use protective clothing when outdoors (long pants: ß = -0.18; 95% CI, -0.26 to -0.11; P < .001; long sleeves: ß = -0.10; 95% CI, -0.18 to -0.03; P = .01). Among indoor tanners, sunless tanners compared with those who did not sunless tan reported increased frequency of indoor tanning (mean [SE], 19.2 [1.9] vs 14.9 [1.2] sessions in the past 12 months; P = .04) but no differences in other skin cancer risk behaviors. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that sunless tanning is associated with risky skin cancer-related behaviors. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess whether sunless tanning changes UV exposure behaviors to better determine whether sunless tanning represents an effective public health strategy to reduce rates of skin cancer in the United States.


Assuntos
Técnicas Cosméticas , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Banho de Sol/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Técnicas Cosméticas/instrumentação , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Fotossensibilidade/epidemiologia , Roupa de Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Queimadura Solar/epidemiologia , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Bronzeado , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1684, 2018 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739929

RESUMO

The skin's tendency to sunburn rather than tan is a major risk factor for skin cancer. Here we report a large genome-wide association study of ease of skin tanning in 176,678 subjects of European ancestry. We identify significant association with tanning ability at 20 loci. We confirm previously identified associations at six of these loci, and report 14 novel loci, of which ten have never been associated with pigmentation-related phenotypes. Our results also suggest that variants at the AHR/AGR3 locus, previously associated with cutaneous malignant melanoma the underlying mechanism of which is poorly understood, might act on disease risk through modulation of tanning ability.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Loci Gênicos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Queimadura Solar/genética , Bronzeado/genética , /genética , Adulto , Idoso , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Cor de Cabelo/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/etiologia , Melanoma/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Exposição à Radiação , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Reino Unido
18.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 17(4): 387-391, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29601614

RESUMO

The sunless tanning industry has experienced rapid growth due to public education on the dangers of ultraviolet radiation on skin and improvements in products. Dihydroxyacetone (DHA) is a 3-carbon sugar allowed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a color additive in sunless tanning products. Bronzers, a product removed with soap and water, may also contain DHA. We aim to review the literature on DHA. DHA is intended for external application, not including the mucous membranes or in or around the eye area. DHA has been used in spray-tan booths and by airbrushing it onto consumers, although these are unapproved uses, as contact with the color additive is not restricted to the external part of the body. Consequently, the FDA recommends customers shield their eyes, lips, and mucous membranes, as well as refrain from ingestion or inhalation of DHA. Unlike sunscreens, products that protect against ultraviolet radiation and are regulated by the FDA as non-prescription drugs, sunless tanning products are regulated as cosmetics and cannot provide any protection from exposure to ultraviolet radiation. There are reports of non-cosmetic uses of DHA that are not FDA approved. With the wide-spread use of DHA, additional studies on its safety are warranted.

J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(4):387-391.

.


Assuntos
Cosméticos/administração & dosagem , Di-Hidroxiacetona/administração & dosagem , Pigmentação da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Protetores Solares/administração & dosagem , Bronzeado/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pigmentação da Pele/fisiologia , Bronzeado/fisiologia , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
19.
Br J Dermatol ; 178(1): 176-182, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28804871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that indoor tanning may have addictive properties. However, many instruments for measuring indoor tanning addiction show poor validity and reliability. Recently, a new instrument, the Behavioral Addiction Indoor Tanning Screener (BAITS), has been developed. OBJECTIVES: To test the validity and reliability of the BAITS by using a multimethod approach. METHODS: We used data from the first wave of the National Cancer Aid Monitoring on Sunbed Use, which included a cognitive pretest (August 2015) and a Germany-wide representative survey (October to December 2015). In the cognitive pretest 10 users of tanning beds were interviewed and 3000 individuals aged 14-45 years were included in the representative survey. Potential symptoms of indoor tanning addiction were measured using the BAITS, a brief screening survey with seven items (answer categories: yes vs. no). Criterion validity was assessed by comparing the results of BAITS with usage parameters. Additionally, we tested internal consistency and construct validity. RESULTS: A total of 19·7% of current and 1·8% of former indoor tanning users were screened positive for symptoms of a potential indoor tanning addiction. We found significant associations between usage parameters and the BAITS (criterion validity). Internal consistency (reliability) was good (Kuder-Richardson-20, 0·854). The BAITS was shown to be a homogeneous construct (construct validity). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with other short instruments measuring symptoms of a potential indoor tanning addiction, the BAITS seems to be a valid and reliable tool. With its short length and the binary items the BAITS is easy to use in large surveys.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Banho de Sol/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Indústria da Beleza , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Bronzeado , Inquéritos e Questionários , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Epidemiol ; 186(1): 1-10, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28525626

RESUMO

Black individuals have a lower risk of hearing loss than do whites, possibly because of differences in cochlear melanocytes. Previous studies have suggested that darker-skinned individuals tend to have more inner ear melanin, and cochlear melanocytes are important in generating the endocochlear potential. We investigated the relationship between self-reported hearing loss and skin pigmentation by using hair color, skin tanning ability, and skin reaction to prolonged sun exposure as surrogate measures of pigmentation among 49,323 white women in the Nurses' Health Study. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to adjust for potential confounders. During 1,190,170 person-years of follow-up (1982-2012), there was no association between risk of hearing loss and hair color (for black hair vs. red or blonde hair, multivariable-adjusted relative risk (RR) = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90, 1.09), skin tanning ability (for dark tan vs. no tan, multivariable-adjusted RR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.92, 1.05), skin reaction to prolonged sun exposure (for painful burn with blisters vs. practically no reaction, multivariable-adjusted RR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.08), or Fitzpatrick skin phototype (for type IV vs. type I, multivariable-adjusted RR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.92, 1.05). In our cohort of white women, surrogates for skin pigmentation were not associated with risk of hearing loss.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Pigmentação da Pele , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Surdez/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Cor de Cabelo , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Mitocondriais/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Bronzeado
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