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1.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235347, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645033

RESUMO

In most temperate fruit trees, fruits are located on one-year old shoots. In Prunus species, flowers and fruits are born in axillary position along those shoots. The axillary bud fate and branching patterns are thus key components of the cultivar potential fruit production. The objective of this study was to analyze the branching and bearing behaviors of 1-year-old shoots of apricot cultivars and clones genetically closely related. Shoot structures were analyzed in terms of axillary bud fates using hidden semi-Markov chains and compared depending on the genotype, year and shoot length. The shoots were composed of three successive zones containing latent buds (basal zone), central flower buds (median zone) and vegetative buds (distal zone), respectively. The last two zones contained few associated flower buds. The zones length (in number of metamers) and occurrence strongly depended on shoot development in the two successive years. With decrease in the number of metamers per shoot, the last two zones become shorter or may not develop. While the number of metamers of the basal and distal zones and the number of associated flower buds correlated to the number of metamers of the shoot, the number of metamers of the median zone and the transition probability from the median to the distal zone were cultivar specific.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Prunus armeniaca/genética , Prunus armeniaca/fisiologia , Flores/fisiologia , Frutas/fisiologia , Genótipo , Cadeias de Markov , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
2.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235928, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697785

RESUMO

Several species of dryland cyanobacteria are known to occur as hypoliths under semi-translucent rocks. In the Mojave Desert, these organisms find refuge from intense solar radiation under milky quartz where moisture persists for a longer period of time than in adjacent soil surface habitat. Desert mosses, which are extremely desiccation-tolerant, can also occur in these hypolithic spaces, though little is known about this unique moss microhabitat and how species composition compares to that of adjacent soil surface communities. To address this question, we deployed microclimate dataloggers and collected moss samples from under and adjacent to 18 milky quartz rocks (quartz mean center thickness 26 ± 15 mm) in a western high elevation Mojave Desert site. Light transmission through Mojave quartz rocks may be as low as 1.2%, and data from microclimate loggers deployed for five months support the hypothesis that quartz provides thermal buffering and higher relative humidity compared to the soil surface. Of the 53 samples collected from hypolith and surface microhabitats, 68% were Syntrichia caninervis, the dominant bryophyte of the Mojave Desert biological soil crust. Tortula inermis accounted for 28% of the samples and 4% were Bryum argenteum. In a comparison of moss community composition, we found that S. caninervis was more likely to be on the soil surface, though it was abundant in both microhabitats, while T. inermis was more restricted to hypoliths, perhaps due to protection from temperature extremes. In our study site, the differences between hypolithic and surface microhabitats enable niche partitioning between T. inermis and S. caninervis, enhancing alpha diversity. This work points to the need to thoroughly consider microhabitats when assessing bryophyte species diversity and modelling species distributions. This focus is particularly important in extreme environments, where mosses may find refuge from the prevailing macroclimatic conditions in microhabitats such as hypoliths.


Assuntos
Briófitas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clima Desértico , Quartzo/química , Briófitas/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Umidade , Microclima , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Solo/química
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(21): 11523-11530, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393640

RESUMO

Shoot architecture is critical for optimizing plant adaptation and productivity. In contrast with annuals, branching in perennials native to temperate and boreal regions must be coordinated with seasonal growth cycles. How branching is coordinated with seasonal growth is poorly understood. We identified key components of the genetic network that controls branching and its regulation by seasonal cues in the model tree hybrid aspen. Our results demonstrate that branching and its control by seasonal cues is mediated by mutually antagonistic action of aspen orthologs of the flowering regulators TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) and APETALA1 (LIKE APETALA 1/LAP1). LAP1 promotes branching through local action in axillary buds. LAP1 acts in a cytokinin-dependent manner, stimulating expression of the cell-cycle regulator AIL1 and suppressing BRANCHED1 expression to promote branching. Short photoperiod and low temperature, the major seasonal cues heralding winter, suppress branching by simultaneous activation of TFL1 and repression of the LAP1 pathway. Our results thus reveal the genetic network mediating control of branching and its regulation by environmental cues facilitating integration of branching with seasonal growth control in perennial trees.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Brotos de Planta , Populus , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Fotoperíodo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Populus/genética , Populus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano
4.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233878, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470094

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities originating from organic and conventional agriculture on wheat growth and yield. Six different spring wheat cultivars released in different years in north and central European countries were considered. We hypothesised that AM fungal inoculum collected from organic agricultural fields would elicit a greater positive growth response than inoculum collected from conventional agricultural fields; and that older cultivars, which were developed under conditions of low fertilizer input, would exhibit overall greater growth responses to the presence of AM fungi, compared with more recent cultivars, and that AM fungal inoculum from conventional fields might have the most beneficial effect on the growth and yield of recent cultivars. The results showed that the overall effects on the growth and yield of spring wheat grown with organic and conventional AM fungal inocula did not differ greatly. However, the inoculation growth response, showing the difference of the effects of organic and conventional inocula, varied between particular wheat cultivars. Inoculation growth response of the cultivar Pikker (released in 1959) was the most positive, while that of the cultivar Arabella (released in 2012) was the most negative. The use of AM fungal inoculum from organic fields resulted in slightly taller plant individuals. Pikker showed relatively higher yield and stronger growth when the organic AM fungal inoculum was used. Arabella exhibited relatively lower yield and weaker growth when the organic inoculum was used. Whether the positive response of Pikker to Estonian organic inoculation reflects adaptation to the locally occurring AM fungal community needs to be established by further studies of the communities of AM fungi colonizing wheat roots.


Assuntos
Fazendas , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Agricultura Orgânica , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Triticum/anatomia & histologia
5.
J Plant Physiol ; 249: 153180, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422486

RESUMO

Several Lotus species are perennial forage legumes which tolerate waterlogging, but knowledge of responses to partial or complete shoot submergence is scant. We evaluated the responses of 15 Lotus accessions to partial and complete shoot submergence and variations in traits associated with tolerance and recovery after de-submergence. Accessions of Lotus tenuis, L. corniculatus, L. pedunculatus and L. japonicus were raised for 43 d and then subjected to aerated root zone (control), deoxygenated stagnant root zone with shoots in air (stagnant), stagnant root zone with partial (75 %) and complete submergence of shoots, for 7 d. The recovery ability from complete submergence was also assessed. We found inter- and intra-specific variations in the stem extension responses (i.e. promoted or restricted compared to controls) depending on water depth. Eight of 15 accessions promoted the stem extension when in partial submergence, while three of those eight (all L. tenuis accessions) had a restricted stem extension when under complete submergence. Two accessions (belonging to L. corniculatus and L. penduculatus species) also promoted the stem extension under complete submergence. The accessions that attained better recovery in terms of leaves produced after de-submergence, were those that had high leaf and root sugar concentration at de-submergence, and high thickness and persistence of gas films on leaves during submergence (all L. tenuis accessions). We conclude that all Lotus accessions were able to tolerate 7 d of partial and complete shoot submergence, despite adopting different stem extension responses.


Assuntos
Lotus/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Imersão , Lotus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1766, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286301

RESUMO

Arctic plant growth is predominantly nitrogen (N) limited. This limitation is generally attributed to slow soil microbial processes due to low temperatures. Here, we show that arctic plant-soil N cycling is also substantially constrained by the lack of larger detritivores (earthworms) able to mineralize and physically translocate litter and soil organic matter. These new functions provided by earthworms increased shrub and grass N concentration in our common garden experiment. Earthworm activity also increased either the height or number of floral shoots, while enhancing fine root production and vegetation greenness in heath and meadow communities to a level that exceeded the inherent differences between these two common arctic plant communities. Moreover, these worming effects on plant N and greening exceeded reported effects of warming, herbivory and nutrient addition, suggesting that human spreading of earthworms may lead to substantial changes in the structure and function of arctic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oligoquetos/fisiologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Ecossistema , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Poaceae
7.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228277, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027662

RESUMO

Approximately 94% of the land area of the Northern Tibetan Plateau is covered by grasslands, which comprise one of five key livestock producing regions in China. In contrast to most other regions worldwide, these alpine grasslands are much more sensitive to global climate change, thus they are under intense study. The differences in species diversity, plant biomass, and soil properties of five representative's alpine grassland types in the Northern Tibetan Plateau were investigated in this research. The results revealed that 11 community types were identified according to the importance of dominant species and constructive species. There were significant differences in the Margalef index (H), Simpson diversity index (D), Shannon-wiener diversity index (H'), and Pielou evenness index (J) indices between these five alpine grasslands. Further, the above-ground biomass (AGB), below-ground biomass (BGB), total biomass (TB), root:shoot (R/S) ratio, and coverage showed significant differences in 5 alpine grasslands. There were also considerable variations in the pH, total nitrogen concentration (TN), total phosphorus concentration (TP), soil organic carbon (SOC) and C-to-N ratio (C:N) among the five alpine grasslands. The highest value of biomass and soil characteristics was always in the alpine steppe (AS), or AM, while the lowest of that was in the alpine desert steppe (ADS), or alpine desert (AD). Moreover, there were significant differences in the soil particle size fractions between the five alpine grasslands. In the AM and AS, the dominant soil particle was clay, while in the alpine meadow-steppe (AMS), ADS, and AD it was fine and medium sand. Substantial correlations were found between the biomass and species diversity indices H, D or H' and soil TN, TP, or SOC. Moreover, silt had a significantly positive correlation with soil C:N, BGB, TB, and R/S, while medium sand and coarse sand was significant negatively correlated. With regard to these grassland types, it is proposed that the AM or AS may be an actively changing grassland types in the Northern Tibetan Plateau.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Pradaria , Solo/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nitrogênio/análise , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Plantas/química , Plantas/metabolismo , Tibet
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 31, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Daylilies are a lucrative crop used for its floral beauty, medicinal proprieties, landscaping, fire prevention, nutritional value, and research. Despite the importance, daylilies remain extremely challenging for multiplying in vitro. The response difficulty is exacerbated because a few good protocols for daylilies micropropagation are generally difficult to reproduce across genotypes. An efficient strategy, currently applied at Langston University, is to systematically explore individual tissues or organs for their potential to micropropagation. This article is a partial report of the investigation carried out under room environmental conditions and focuses on developing an efficient daylilies in vitro propagation protocol that uses the stem tissue as the principal explant. RESULTS: In less than three months, using thidiazuron, the use of the stem tissue as the in vitro experimental explant was successful in inducing multiple shoots several folds greater than current daylilies shoot organogenesis protocols. The study showed that tissue culture can be conducted successfully under unrestricted room environmental conditions as well as under the controlled environment of a growth chamber. It also showed that splitting lengthwise stem explants formed multiple shoots several folds greater than cross-sectioned and inverted explants. Shoot conversion rate was mostly independent of the number of shoots formed per explants. The overall response was explant and genotype-dependent. Efficient responses were observed in all thidiazuron treatments. CONCLUSION: An efficient protocol, which can be applied for mass multiple shoots formation using the daylilies stem tissue as the main explant, was successfully developed. This could lead to a broad and rapid propagation of the crop under an array of environmental conditions to meet the market demand and hasten exogenous gene transfer and breeding selection processes.


Assuntos
Hemerocallis/fisiologia , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Regeneração , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
9.
Nat Biotechnol ; 38(2): 182-188, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873217

RESUMO

Cultivation of crops in urban environments might reduce the environmental impact of food production1-4. However, lack of available land in cities and a need for rapid crop cycling, to yield quickly and continuously, mean that so far only lettuce and related 'leafy green' vegetables are cultivated in urban farms5. New fruit varieties with architectures and yields suitable for urban farming have proven difficult to breed1,5. We identified a regulator of tomato stem length (SlER) and devised a trait-stacking strategy to combine mutations for condensed shoots, rapid flowering (SP5G) and precocious growth termination (SP). Application of our strategy using one-step CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing restructured vine-like tomato plants into compact, early yielding plants suitable for urban agriculture. Field data confirmed that yields were maintained, and we demonstrated cultivation in indoor farming systems. Targeting the same stem length regulator alone in groundcherry, another Solanaceae plant, also enabled engineering to a compact stature. Our approach can expand the repertoire of crops for urban agriculture.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Frutas/fisiologia , Solanaceae/fisiologia , Sequência de Bases , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Edição de Genes , Inflorescência/fisiologia , Mutação/genética , Filogenia , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 505, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ramet propagation in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is the most effective way in production. However, the lack of systematically phenotypic observations and high-throughput methods limits our ability to analyze the key factors regulating the heterogeneity in strawberry stolon buds. RESULTS: From observation, we found that the axillary bud located in the first node quickly stepped into dormancy (DSB), after several bract and leaf buds were differentiated. The stolon apical meristem (SAM) degenerated as the new ramet leaf buds (RLB), and the new active axillary stolon buds (ASB) differentiated continually after the differentiation of the first leaf. Using the tandem mass tags (TMT) labeling method, a total of 7271 strawberry proteins were identified. Between ASB and DSB, the spliceosome DEPs, such as Ser/Arg-rich (SR) and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (hnRNP), showed the highest enrichment and high PPI connectivity. This indicated that the differences in DEPs (e.g., SF-3A and PK) at the transcriptional level may be causing the differences between the physiological statuses of ASB and DSB. As expected, the photosynthetic pre-form RLB mainly differentiated from ASB and DSB judging by the DEP enrichment of photosynthesis. However, there are still other specialized features of DEPs between RLB and DSB and between ASB and DSB. The DEPs relative to DNA duplication [e.g., minichromosome maintenance protein (MCM 2, 3, 4, 7)], provide a strong hint of functional gene duplication leading the bud heterogeneity between RLB and DSB. In addition, the top fold change DEP of LSH 10-like might be involved in the degeneration of SAM into RLBs, based on its significant function in modulating the plant shoot initiation. As for RLB/ASB, the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway probably regulates the ramet axillary bud specialization, and further promotes the differentiation of xylem when ASB develops into a new stolon [e.g., cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (CAD1) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1 (PAL1)]. CONCLUSIONS: By using phenotypic observation combined with proteomic networks with different types of strawberry stolon buds, the definite dormancy phase of DSB was identified, and the biological pathways and gene networks that might be responsible for heterogeneity among different stolon buds in strawberry were also revealed.


Assuntos
Fragaria/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Cromatografia Líquida , Biologia Computacional , Fragaria/genética , Fragaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meristema/genética , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meristema/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Dormência de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 427, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salicornia europaea, a succulent obligatory halophyte is the most salt-tolerant plant species in the world. It survives salt concentrations of more than 1 M. Therefore, it is a suitable model plant to identify genes involved in salt tolerance mechanisms that can be used for the improvement of crops. The changes in a plant's gene expression in response to abiotic stresses may depend on factors like soil conditions at the site, seasonality, etc. To date, experiments were performed to study the gene expression of S. europaea only under controlled conditions. Conversely, the present study investigates the transcriptome and physicochemical parameters of S. europaea shoots and roots from two different types of saline ecosystems growing under natural conditions. RESULTS: The level of soil salinity was higher at the naturally saline site than at the anthropogenic saline site. The parameters such as ECe, Na+, Cl-, Ca+, SO42- and HCO3- of the soils and plant organs significantly varied according to sites and seasons. We found that Na+ mainly accumulated in shoots, whereas K+ and Ca2+ levels were higher in roots throughout the growing period. Moreover, changes in S. europaea gene expression were more prominent in seasons, than sites and plant organs. The 30 differentially expressed genes included enzymes for synthesis of S-adenosyl methionine, CP47 of light-harvesting complex II, photosystem I proteins, Hsp70 gene, ATP-dependent Clp proteases, ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and ATP synthase. CONCLUSION: The comparisons made based on two seasons, plant organs and two different sites suggest the importance of seasonal variations in gene expression of S. europaea. We identify the genes that may play an important role in acclimation to season-dependent changes of salinity. The genes were involved in processes such as osmotic adjustment, energy metabolism and photosynthesis.


Assuntos
Chenopodiaceae/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico , Transcriptoma , Chenopodiaceae/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal , Estações do Ano , Solo/química
12.
Plant Sci ; 287: 110178, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481199

RESUMO

Dormancy release, loss of cold hardiness and budbreak are critical aspects of the annual cycle of deciduous perennial plants. Molecular control of these processes is not fully understood, and genotypic variation may be important for climate adaptation. To gain greater understanding of these processes, single-node cuttings from wild (Vitis amurensis, V. riparia) and cultivated Vitis genotypes (V. vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon', 'Riesling') were collected from the vineyard during winter and placed under forcing conditions. Cold hardiness was measured daily, and buds were collected for gene expression analysis until budbreak. Wild Vitis genotypes had faster deacclimation and budbreak than V. vinifera. Temperature-sensing related genes were quickly and synchronously differentially expressed in all genotypes. Significant changes in the pattern of expression changes for eight major metabolic and hormone related pathways were seen across all genotypes. Downregulation of ABA synthesis appears to play an important role in loss of cold hardiness and budbreak in all genotypes. This role was validated through an observed halt in cold hardiness loss of 'Riesling' buds treated with exogenous ABA. The gene expression cascade that occurs during deacclimation and budbreak phenology of fast (wild) and slow (cultivated) grapevines appears coordinated and temporally conserved within these phenotypes.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Dormência de Plantas/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Vitis/fisiologia , Aclimatação , Temperatura Baixa , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transcriptoma , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
J Plant Physiol ; 241: 153029, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499444

RESUMO

High affinity potassium transporters (HKT) are recognized as important genes for crop salt tolerance improvement. In this study, we investigated HvHKT1;5 as a candidate gene for a previously discovered quantitative trait locus that controls shoot Na+ and Na+/K+ ratio in salt-stressed barley lines on a hydroponic system. Two major haplotype groups could be distinguished for this gene in a barley collection of 95 genotypes based on the presence of three intronic insertions; a designated haplotype group A (HGA, same as reference sequence) and haplotype group B (HGB, with insertions). HGB was associated with a much stronger root expression of HKT1;5 compared to HGA, and consequently higher K+ and lower Na+ and Cl- concentrations and a lower Na+/K+ ratio in the shoots three weeks after exposure to 200 mM NaCl. Our experimental results suggest that allelic variation in the promoter region of the HGB gene is linked to the three insertions may be responsible for the observed increase in expression of HvHKT1;5 alleles after one week of salt stress induction. This study shows that in barley - similar to wheat and rice - HKT1;5 is an important contributor to natural variation in shoot Na+ exclusion.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Hordeum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Estresse Salino/fisiologia , Sódio/metabolismo , Alelos , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transcriptoma
14.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 708, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) is an important turfgrass species with two types of stems, shoots and stolons. Despite their importance in determining the morphological variance and plasticity of bermudagrass, the intrinsic differences between stolons and shoots are poorly understood. RESULTS: In this study, we compared the proteomes of internode sections of shoots and stolons in the bermudagrass cultivar Yangjiang. The results indicated that 376 protein species were differentially accumulated in the two types of stems. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that five and nine biochemical pathways were significantly enriched in stolons and shoots, respectively. Specifically, enzymes participating in starch synthesis all preferentially accumulated in stolons, whereas proteins involved in glycolysis and diverse transport processes showed relatively higher abundance in shoots. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and pyruvate kinase (PK), which catalyze rate-limiting steps of starch synthesis and glycolysis, showed high expression levels and enzyme activity in stolons and shoots, respectively, in accordance with the different starch and soluble sugar contents of the two types of stems. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed the differences between the shoots and stolons of bermudagrass at the proteome level. The results not only expand our understanding of the specialization of stolons and shoots but also provide clues for the breeding of bermudagrass and other turfgrasses with different plant architectures.


Assuntos
Cynodon/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Proteômica , Cynodon/enzimologia , Cynodon/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/fisiologia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Solubilidade , Amido/metabolismo , Açúcares/química , Açúcares/metabolismo
15.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 60(9): 2000-2014, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386149

RESUMO

Plants generally possess a strong ability to regenerate organs; for example, in tissue culture, shoots can regenerate from callus, a clump of actively proliferating, undifferentiated cells. Processing of pre-mRNA and ribosomal RNAs is important for callus formation and shoot regeneration. However, our knowledge of the roles of RNA quality control via the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway in shoot regeneration is limited. Here, we examined the shoot regeneration phenotypes of the low-beta-amylase1 (lba1)/upstream frame shift1-1 (upf1-1) and upf3-1 mutants, in which the core NMD components UPF1 and UPF3 are defective. These mutants formed callus from hypocotyl explants normally, but this callus behaved abnormally during shoot regeneration: the mutant callus generated numerous adventitious root structures instead of adventitious shoots in an auxin-dependent manner. Quantitative RT-PCR and microarray analyses showed that the upf mutations had widespread effects during culture on shoot-induction medium. In particular, the expression patterns of early auxin response genes, including those encoding AUXIN/INDOLE ACETIC ACID (AUX/IAA) family members, were significantly affected in the upf mutants. Also, the upregulation of shoot apical meristem-related transcription factor genes, such as CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON1 (CUC1) and CUC2, was inhibited in the mutants. Taken together, these results indicate that NMD-mediated transcriptomic regulation modulates the auxin response in plants and thus plays crucial roles in the early stages of shoot regeneration.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Degradação do RNAm Mediada por Códon sem Sentido , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Hipocótilo/genética , Hipocótilo/fisiologia , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Meristema/genética , Meristema/fisiologia , Mutação , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Planta ; 250(5): 1433-1448, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300887

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Phosphate starvation altered the root morphology and phosphate uptake with the induction of PHT1 family transporter genes in root and shoot tissues of seven millets. Millets are nutrient-rich cereals majorly cultivated in Asia and Africa. Foxtail millet (FoxM), pearl millet (PeaM), finger millet (FinM), kodo millet (KodM), little millet (LitM), proso millet (ProM), and barnyard millet (BarM) were examined for the influence of external phosphorous (P) supply on phenotypic traits, P uptake, yield, and PHosphate Transporter1 (PHT1) family gene expression. Millet seedlings grown under low Pi condition (LPC) produced significantly lower mean values for all traits except for lateral root length (LRL) and lateral root number (LRN) which were increased under LPC. Under LPC, seed weight (SW) also reduced by > 75% and had significantly lower levels of total P (TP) and Pi contents in leaf and root tissues. Expression dynamics of 12 PHT1 family (PHT1;1-1;12) transporters genes were analyzed in 7 millets. PHT1;2 has been found to be a constitutive transporter gene in all millets. Under LPC, root tissues showed the overexpression of PHT1;2, 1;3, 1;4 and 1;9 in FoxM, PHT1;1, 1;2, 1;3, 1;4, 1;8 and 1;10 in PeaM, PHT1;2 and 1;3 in FinM and ProM and PHT1;3, 1;6 and 1;11 in BarM. In leaf, LPC induced the expression of PHT1;3, 1;4 and 1;6 in FoxM, PHT1;2, 1;3, 1;4 and 1;8 in PeaM, PHT1;2, 1;3 and 1;4 in FinM and KodM, PHT1;2 in LitM and PHT1;4 in ProM and BarnM. This comprehensive study on the influence of P in phenotype, physiology, and molecular responses may help to improve the P uptake and its use efficiency of millets in future.


Assuntos
Milhetes/fisiologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Fosfato/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Grão Comestível , Milhetes/genética , Milhetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Transporte de Fosfato/genética , Fosfatos/deficiência , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia
17.
J Plant Res ; 132(5): 655-665, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289959

RESUMO

XSP25, previously shown to be the most abundant hydrophilic protein in xylem sap of Populus nigra in winter, belongs to a secretory protein family in which the arrangement of basic and acidic amino acids is conserved between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous species. Its gene expression was observed at the same level in roots and shoots under long-day conditions, but highly induced under short-day conditions and at low temperatures in roots, especially in endodermis and xylem parenchyma in the root hair region of Populus trichocarpa, and its protein level was high in dormant buds, but not in roots or branches. Addition of recombinant PtXSP25 protein mitigated the denaturation of lactate dehydrogenase by drying, but showed only a slight effect on that caused by freeze-thaw cycling. Recombinant PtXSP25 protein also showed ice recrystallization inhibition activity to reduce the size of ice crystals, but had no antifreezing activity. We suggest that PtXSP25 protein produced in shoots and/or in roots under short-day conditions and at non-freezing low temperatures followed by translocation via xylem sap to shoot apoplast may protect the integrity of the plasma membrane and cell wall functions from freezing and drying damage in winter environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Populus/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Dessecação , Congelamento , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Populus/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Xilema/fisiologia
18.
Molecules ; 24(13)2019 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284667

RESUMO

Salinity stress limited the production in over 30% of irrigated crops and 7% of dryland agriculture worldwide. The objective was to evaluate the effects of NaCl-stress on the enzymatic activity in tomato. Two experiments were carried out in germination and early vegetative growth stages. The activity of proline and peroxidase of eight varieties (Missouri, Yaqui, Vita, Feroz, Rio Grande, Tropic, Ace, and Floradade) submitted to NaCl concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM de NaCl) and the semi-quantitative activity of 19 enzymes APY ZYM® were measured under a completely randomized design with four replications. Data were analyzed using univariate-multivariate analysis of variance, Tukey's HSD (p = 0.05), canonical discriminant and cluster analysis. The results showed significant differences between varieties and NaCl in proline content. Proline increased as the NaCl concentration increased. Peroxidase did no show significant differences. Eight enzymes were included within the model to properly classify the varieties and NaCl. In shoots, varieties and NaCl showed that enzymatic activity was higher in the order of alkaline-phosphatase > leucine arylamidase > acid phosphatase > naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase > n-acetyl-ß-glucosaminidase > ß-galactosidase, while in roots was higher in the order of alkaline-phosphatase > naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase > acid phosphatase > n-acetyl-ß-glucosaminidase. Acid and alkali phosphatase, lipase, esterase, ß-galactosidase, and trypsin can be a potential biomarker for NaCl-stress tolerance in tomato.


Assuntos
Esterases/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , N-Glicosil Hidrolases/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Biomarcadores , Análise por Conglomerados , Ativação Enzimática , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Prolina/metabolismo , Proteoma , Proteômica , Plântula/fisiologia
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2738, 2019 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227696

RESUMO

The breeding of cereals with altered gibberellin (GA) signaling propelled the 'Green Revolution' by generating semidwarf plants with increased tiller number. The mechanism by which GAs promote shoot height has been studied extensively, but it is not known what causes the inverse relationship between plant height and tiller number. Here we show that rice tiller number regulator MONOCULM 1 (MOC1) is protected from degradation by binding to the DELLA protein SLENDER RICE 1 (SLR1). GAs trigger the degradation of SLR1, leading to stem elongation and also to the degradation of MOC1, and hence a decrease in tiller number. This discovery provides a molecular explanation for the coordinated control of plant height and tiller number in rice by GAs, SLR1 and MOC1.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Oryza/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Grão Comestível , Giberelinas/genética , Mutação , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Proteólise , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
20.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 361, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to establish a method for early, quick and cheap screening of iron excess tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars. RESULTS: Based on the experiments, iron excess leads to reduction in shoot length (SL) and this can be a useful characteristic for adequate screening of tolerant genotypes. The sensitive genotypes Nipponbare and BR-IRGA 409 indicated higher accumulation of iron in their tissues while BRS-Agrisul and Epagri 108 also accumulated iron, but at lower concentrations. BR-IRGA 410 displayed an intermediate phenotype regarding iron accumulation. No changes in shoot Cu content can be observed when comparing treatments. On the other hand, an increase was seen for Zn and Mn when shoots are subjected to Fe2+ excess. Fe stress at a lower concentration than 7 mM increased Zn but decreased Mn contents in shoots of BR-IRGA 409. Strong positive correlations were found here for Fe × Zn (0.93); Fe × Mn (0.97) and Zn × Mn (0.92), probably due to the Fe-induced activation of bivalent cation transporters. Results show that genotypes scored as sensitive present higher concentration of Fe in shoots and this is an efficient method to characterize rice cultivars regarding iron response.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Testes Genéticos , Ferro/toxicidade , Oryza/genética , Oryza/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genótipo , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia
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