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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110904, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800239

RESUMO

Cation diffusion facilitators (CDFs) play central roles in metal homeostasis and tolerance in plants, but the specific functions of Camellia sinensis CDF-encoding genes and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Previously, transcriptome sequencing results in our lab indicated that the expression of CsMTP8.2 in tea plant shoots was down-regulated exposed to excessive amount of Mn2+ conditions. To elucidate the possible mechanisms involved, we systematically identified 13 C. sinensis CsMTP genes from three subfamilies and characterized their phylogeny, structures, and the features of the encoded proteins. The transcription of CsMTP genes was differentially regulated in C. sinensis shoots and roots in responses to high concentrations of Mn, Zn, Fe, and Al. Differences in the cis-acting regulatory elements in the CsMTP8.1 and CsMTP8.2 promoters suggested the expression of these two genes may be differentially regulated. Transient expression analysis indicated that CsMTP8.2 was localized to the plasma membrane in tobacco and onion epidermal cells. Moreover, when heterologously expressed in yeast, CsMTP8.2 conferred tolerance to Ni and Mn but not to Zn. Additionally, heterologous expression of CsMTP8.2 in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that CsMTP8.2 positively regulated the response to manganese toxicity by decreasing the accumulation of Mn in plants. However, there was no difference in the accumulation of other metals, including Cu, Fe, and Zn. These results suggest that CsMTP8.2 is a Mn-specific transporter that contributes to the efflux of excess Mn2+ from plant cells.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/genética , Manganês/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Manganês/metabolismo , Filogenia , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Chá
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111086, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781345

RESUMO

In the present research, Silene vulgaris as a representative species growing on both unpolluted and heavy metal (HM) polluted terrains were used to identify ecotype-specific responses to metallic stress. Growth, cell ultrastructure and element accumulations were compared between non-metallicolous (NM), calamine (CAL) and serpentine (SER) specimens untreated with HMs and treated with Pb, Cd and Zn ions under in vitro conditions. Moreover, proteins' modifications related to their level, carbonylation and degradations via vacuolar proteases were verified and linked with potential mechanisms to cope with ions toxicity. Our experiment revealed diversified strategy of HM uptake in NM and both metallicolous ecotypes, in which antagonistic relationship of Zn and Pb/Cd ions provided survival benefits for the whole organism. Despite this similarity, growth rate and metabolic pathways induced in CAL and SER shoots varied significantly. Exposition to HMs in CAL culture led to drop in protein level by approximately 16% compared to the control. This parameter nearly correlated with the enhanced activity of proteases at pH 5.2 as well as possible glutamate changes to proline and reduced glutathione, resulting in intensified growth and first signs of cell senescence. In turn, SER shoots were characterized by growth retardation (to 53% of the control), although protein level and carbonylation were not modified, while a deeper insight into protein network showed its remodeling towards production of polyamines and 2-oxoglutarate delivered to the Krebs cycle. Contrary, an uncontrolled HM influx in NM shoots contributed to morpho-structural disorders accompanied by an increase activity of proteases involved in the degradation of oxidized proteins, what pointed to metal-induced autophagy. Taken together, S. vulgaris ecotypes respond to stress by triggering various mechanisms engaged their survival and/or death under HM treatment.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Silene/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Zinco/toxicidade , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Bioacumulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/metabolismo , Ecótipo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/ultraestrutura , Silene/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Silene/metabolismo , Silene/ultraestrutura , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo
3.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(2): 962-969, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608758

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic heavy metal. Brassica rapa (pak choi) is a vastly common vegetable, which readily accumulates Cd. Given the current conditions of Cd contamination in domestic soil, it is important to reduce Cd accumulation in the edible part of pak choi. Research has shown that selenium (Se) can regulate Cd uptake by plants. Cd accumulation (three cultivars) and Cd uptake kinetics in pak choi were investigated under hydroponic conditions. Results showed that the three levels of selenite significantly reduced Cd content in the Hangzhouyoudonger shoot by 50%, while the levels in Suzhouqinggen and Shanghaiqing shoots were not significantly decreased with elevated levels of selenite. Selenite reduces the Cd translocation factors, and higher levels had more obvious effects; 50 µmol·L-1 of selenite significantly decreased the factors by 50% in Hangzhouyoudonger and Suzhouqinggen shoots. Selenite also increased iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) contents in pak choi, especially in the Hangzhouyoudonger shoot, where 50 µmol·L-1 increased the Fe content by approximately 50%. In the uptake kinetics of Cd, both selenite and selenate significantly increased Cd uptake rates and Vmax by over 100%. Therefore, Se could reduce Cd accumulation in pak choi. This also depended on the tested cultivar. Therefore, reduction effects of Se on the Cd content mainly stemmed from the alteration of Cd translocation in pak choi instead of the uptake competition between Cd and Se.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Ácido Selênico , Ácido Selenioso
4.
Food Chem ; 332: 127416, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619946

RESUMO

Water bamboo shoots quickly deteriorate after harvest as a result of rapid lignification and softening. Nitric oxide (NO) has been used to extend the postharvest life of several other vegetables. Here, we examined the effect of NO on the storage of water bamboo shoots at 4℃ for 28 days. Without NO, fresh weight and firmness decreased quickly, while the cellulose and lignin contents increased sharply during storage. NO treatment delayed softening by maintaining the integrity of the cell wall and inhibiting the degradation of protopectin and the expressions of pectin methylesterase and polygalacturonase. NO treatment also delayed cellulose synthesis by increasing cellulase activity. NO treatment decreased the synthesis of lignin by inhibiting the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, laccase and peroxidase. These results indicate that NO treatment is effective at suppressing the softening and lignification of water bamboo shoots during postharvest storage.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Poaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Celulase/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Lignina/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Poaceae/metabolismo , Poligalacturonase/metabolismo
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235975, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649704

RESUMO

Rice cultivar "Weiyou916" (Oryza sativa L. ssp. Indica) were cultured with control (10 mM NO3-) and nitrate deficient solution (0 mM NO3-) for four weeks. Nitrogen (N) deficiency significantly decreased the content of N and P, dry weight (DW) of the shoots and roots, but increased the ratio of root to shoot in O. sativa. N deficiency decreased the photosynthesis rate and the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (Fv/Fm), however, increased the intercellular CO2 concentration and primary fluorescence (Fo). N deficiency significantly increased the production of H2O2 and membrane lipid peroxidation revealed as increased MDA content in O. sativa leaves. N deficiency significantly increased the contents of starch, sucrose, fructose, and malate, but did not change that of glucose and total soluble protein in O. sativa leaves. The accumulated carbohydrates and H2O2 might further accelerate biosynthesis of lignin in O. sativa leaves under N limitation. A total of 1635 genes showed differential expression in response to N deficiency revealed by Illumina sequencing. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis showed that 195 DEGs were found to highly enrich in nine GO terms. Most of DEGs involved in photosynthesis, biosynthesis of ethylene and gibberellins were downregulated, whereas most of DEGs involved in cellular transport, lignin biosynthesis and flavonoid metabolism were upregulated by N deficiency in O. sativa leaves. Results of real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) further verified the RNA-Seq data. For the first time, DEGs involved oxygen-evolving complex, phosphorus response and lignin biosynthesis were identified in rice leaves. Our RNA-Seq data provided a global view of transcriptomic profile of principal processes implicated in the adaptation of N deficiency in O. sativa and shed light on the candidate direction in rice breeding for green and sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Fotossíntese , Carboidratos/análise , Clorofila A/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/química , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA
6.
Nature ; 583(7815): 277-281, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528176

RESUMO

Plant hormones known as strigolactones control plant development and interactions between host plants and symbiotic fungi or parasitic weeds1-4. In Arabidopsis thaliana and rice, the proteins DWARF14 (D14), MORE AXILLARY GROWTH 2 (MAX2), SUPPRESSOR OF MAX2-LIKE 6, 7 and 8 (SMXL6, SMXL7 and SMXL8) and their orthologues form a complex upon strigolactone perception and play a central part in strigolactone signalling5-10. However, whether and how strigolactones activate downstream transcription remains largely unknown. Here we use a synthetic strigolactone to identify 401 strigolactone-responsive genes in Arabidopsis, and show that these plant hormones regulate shoot branching, leaf shape and anthocyanin accumulation mainly through transcriptional activation of the BRANCHED 1, TCP DOMAIN PROTEIN 1 and PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT 1 genes. We find that SMXL6 targets 729 genes in the Arabidopsis genome and represses the transcription of SMXL6, SMXL7 and SMXL8 by binding directly to their promoters, showing that SMXL6 serves as an autoregulated transcription factor to maintain the homeostasis of strigolactone signalling. These findings reveal an unanticipated mechanism through which a transcriptional repressor of hormone signalling can directly recognize DNA and regulate transcription in higher plants.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/metabolismo , Lactonas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transcrição Genética , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/biossíntese , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234512, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511280

RESUMO

Nutritional deficiencies limit the growth of snap bean plants, therefore knowing the biological mechanisms involved in it is fundamental. This study is aimed to evaluate the damage caused by a deficiency of macronutrients in physiological variables that cause decreased growth and the appearance of visual symptoms in snap bean. Thus, we design a hydroponic system of snap bean cultivation in order to test the effect of macronutrient deficiencies in a controlled environment. The treatments consisted in evaluate the effects of lack of one macronutrient in time. To perform this, we used Hoagland and Arnon solution in its complete formulation (control) or without N, P; K; Mg, Ca or S in each treatment. Physiological, nutritional, and growth analyses were performed when visual deficiency symptoms of each omitted nutrient appeared. Thus, the omissions of N and P in the nutrient solution led to lower accumulations of all macronutrients in the shoot. And the K, Ca, Mg, and S omissions decreased the amounts of K, Ca, Mg, P, and S in the shoot of the snap bean plants when compared with the plants grown in the complete nutrient solution. With the lowest accumulation of macronutrients, the content of photosynthetic pigments and the photosynthetic rate were reduced, with harmful effects on plant growth. Thus, from the losses in dry matter production of the shoot, the order of limiting of macronutrients in bean plants was N < P < Ca < S < Mg < K, with a decrease of up to 86.2%, 80.1%, 51.2%, 46.5%, 25.6%, and 19.3%, respectively. The nitrogen deficiency is more evident, proven by symptoms such as chlorosis in the lower and upper third leaves and necrosis of the lower third leaves.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Phaseolus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fotossíntese/genética , Ambiente Controlado , Hidroponia , Nutrientes/fisiologia , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14552-14560, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513689

RESUMO

Both inorganic fertilizer inputs and crop yields have increased globally, with the concurrent increase in the pollution of water bodies due to nitrogen leaching from soils. Designing agroecosystems that are environmentally friendly is urgently required. Since agroecosystems are highly complex and consist of entangled webs of interactions between plants, microbes, and soils, identifying critical components in crop production remain elusive. To understand the network structure in agroecosystems engineered by several farming methods, including environmentally friendly soil solarization, we utilized a multiomics approach on a field planted with Brassica rapa We found that the soil solarization increased plant shoot biomass irrespective of the type of fertilizer applied. Our multiomics and integrated informatics revealed complex interactions in the agroecosystem showing multiple network modules represented by plant traits heterogeneously associated with soil metabolites, minerals, and microbes. Unexpectedly, we identified soil organic nitrogen induced by soil solarization as one of the key components to increase crop yield. A germ-free plant in vitro assay and a pot experiment using arable soils confirmed that specific organic nitrogen, namely alanine and choline, directly increased plant biomass by acting as a nitrogen source and a biologically active compound. Thus, our study provides evidence at the agroecosystem level that organic nitrogen plays a key role in plant growth.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produção Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Solo/química , Alanina/química , Alanina/metabolismo , Biomassa , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Colina/química , Colina/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos da radiação , Metabolômica , Microbiota/fisiologia , Microbiota/efeitos da radiação , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Luz Solar
9.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232294, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353025

RESUMO

Spring maize sowing occurs during a period of low temperature (LT) in Northeast China, and the LT suppresses nitrogen (N) metabolism and photosynthesis, further reducing dry matter accumulation. Diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DA-6) improves N metabolism; hence, we studied the effects of DA-6 on maize seedlings under LT conditions. The shoot and root fresh weight and dry weight decreased by 17.70%~20.82% in the LT treatment, and decreased by 5.81%~13.57% in the LT + DA-6 treatment on the 7th day, respectively. Exogenous DA-6 suppressed the increases in ammonium (NH4+) content and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity, and suppressed the decreases in nitrate (NO3-) and nitrite (NO2-) contents, and activities of nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT) and transaminase activities. NiR activity was most affected by DA-6 under LT conditions. Additionally, exogenous DA-6 suppressed the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) decrease, and the suppressed the increases of superoxide anion radical (O2·-) generation rate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content. Taken together, our results suggest that exogenous DA-6 mitigated the repressive effects of LT on N metabolism by improving photosynthesis and modulating oxygen metabolism, and subsequently enhanced the LT tolerance of maize seedlings.


Assuntos
Caproatos/farmacologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/metabolismo , Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , China , Temperatura Baixa , Glutamato Sintase/metabolismo , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Nitrato Redutase/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nitrito Redutases/metabolismo , Nitritos/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo
10.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233076, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428011

RESUMO

Nitrogen is an important nutrient for plant growth and tuber quality of potato. Since potato crop requires high dose of N, improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of plant is an inevitable approach to minimize N fertilization. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize microRNAs (miRNAs) by small RNA sequencing in potato plants grown in aeroponic under two contrasting N (high and low) regimes. A total of 119 conserved miRNAs belonging to 41 miRNAs families, and 1002 putative novel miRNAs were identified. From total, 52 and 54 conserved miRNAs, and 404 and 628 putative novel miRNAs were differentially expressed in roots and shoots, respectively under low N stress. Of total 34,135 predicted targets, the gene ontology (GO) analysis indicated that maximum targets belong to biological process followed by molecular function and cellular component. Eexpression levels of the selected miRNAs and targets were validated by real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis. Two predicted targets of potential miRNAs (miR397 and miR398) were validated by 5' RLM-RACE (RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends). In general, predicted targets are associated with stress-related, kinase, transporters and transcription factors such as universal stress protein, heat shock protein, salt-tolerance protein, calmodulin binding protein, serine-threonine protein kinsae, Cdk10/11- cyclin dependent kinase, amino acid transporter, nitrate transporter, sugar transporter, transcription factor, F-box family protein, and zinc finger protein etc. Our study highlights that miR397 and miR398 play crucial role in potato during low N stress management. Moreover, study provides insights to modulate miRNAs and their predicted targets to develop N-use efficient potato using transgenic/genome-editing tools in future.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , MicroRNAs/genética , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
11.
J Plant Physiol ; 250: 153179, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438196

RESUMO

Many plant metabolism processes are currently not completely understood despite the numerous studies. These include the events in plant shoots and especially in the apical meristem. To understand the various mechanisms on a molecular level, a combined approach of target and non-targeted fingerprinting analysis was worked out on different white asparagus spear segments using high resolution mass spectrometry. By means of various multivariate analysis strategies, numerous distinctions within diverse substance classes were observed. While most of the investigated metabolites were present in relatively higher concentrations in the tip of the asparagus spears, others were more accumulated at the bottom, some, in turn, did not show any concentration differences along the shoot. Using pathway analysis, the most significant metabolites were classified in the biological context. To our knowledge for the first time, a non-targeted metabolomics approach is used with the aim of metabolic profiling of plant sprouts.


Assuntos
Asparagus (Planta)/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 195: 110485, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203776

RESUMO

Soil co-contaminated with cadmium (Cd) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) is a widespread environmental problem, especially in electronic waste contaminated surroundings. Accumulation of Cd and BDE-209 in crops has possibly harmful effects on local human health. In order to assess the potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) in remediation of soil co-contaminated with Cd and BDE-209, pot trials were performed to investigate interactive effects of AM fungi, Cd and BDE-209 on growth of amaranth, uptake of Cd and BDE-209, distribution of chemical forms of Cd and activities of antioxidant enzymes in shoots and dissipation of BDE-209 in soil. The present results showed that shoot biomass of non-mycorrhizal plants was significantly inhibited by increasing of Cd addition (5-15 mg kg-1), but were only slightly declined with BDE-209 addition (5 mg kg-1). The interaction of Cd and BDE-209 reduced the proportions of ethanol- and d-H2O-extractable Cd in shoots, consequently alleviated Cd toxicity to plants and enhanced root uptake of Cd and BDE-209. Inoculation of AM fungi resulted in significantly greater shoot biomass as well as higher concentrations of Cd and BDE-209 compared with non-mycorrhizal treatment. Moreover, AM fungi played a beneficial role in relieving oxidative stress on amaranth by increasing the activities of dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in shoots and significantly improved the dissipation of BDE-209 in soil. The present study suggested that combination of AM fungi and amaranth may be a potential option for remediation of Cd and BDE-209 co-contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/metabolismo , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/farmacocinética , Micorrizas , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Amaranthus/efeitos dos fármacos , Amaranthus/enzimologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Cádmio/toxicidade , Catalase/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/enzimologia , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
13.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228118, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012182

RESUMO

Random regression models (RRM) are used extensively for genomic inference and prediction of time-valued traits in animal breeding, but only recently have been used in plant systems. High-throughput phenotyping (HTP) platforms provide a powerful means to collect high-dimensional phenotypes throughout the growing season for large populations. However, to date, selection of an appropriate statistical genomic framework to integrate multiple temporal traits for genomic prediction in plants remains unexplored. Here, we demonstrate the utility of a multi-trait RRM (MT-RRM) for genomic prediction of daily water usage (WU) in rice (Oryza sativa) through joint modeling with shoot biomass (projected shoot area, PSA). Three hundred and fifty-seven accessions were phenotyped daily for WU and PSA over 20 days using a greenhouse-based HTP platform. MT-RRMs that modeled additive genetic and permanent environmental effects for both traits using quadratic Legendre polynomials were used to assess genomic correlations between traits and genomic prediction for WU. Predictive abilities of the MT-RRMs were assessed using two cross-validation (CV) scenarios. The first scenario was designed to predict genetic values for WU at all time points for a set of accessions with unobserved WU. The second scenario was designed to forecast future genetic values for WU for a panel of known accessions with records for WU at earlier time periods. In each scenario we evaluated two MT-RRMs in which PSA records were absent or available for time points in the testing population. Weak to strong genomic correlations between WU and PSA were observed across the days of imaging (0.29-0.870.38-0.80). In both CV scenarios, MT-RRMs showed better predictive abilities compared to single-trait RRM, and prediction accuracies were greatly improved when PSA records were available for the testing population. In summary, these frameworks provide an effective approach to predict temporal physiological traits that are difficult or expensive to quantify in large populations.


Assuntos
Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Oryza/genética , Fenótipo , Biomassa , Genótipo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Análise de Regressão , Água/metabolismo
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 193: 110245, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092577

RESUMO

Understanding Cd uptake and distribution in rice roots is important for breeding varieties that do not accumulate Cd in the grain to any large extent. Here, we examined the physiological and molecular factors responsible for Cd uptake and transport differences between two japonica rice cultivars prescreened as high (zhefu7) or low (Xiangzaoxian45) accumulators of Cd in the grain. No significant differences in Cd uptake between the two cultivars were observed; however, Xiangzaoxian45 retained most of the absorbed Cd in the roots, whereas zhefu7 showed higher transport of Cd from the root to the shoot, regardless of the duration of exposure to Cd. The inability to sequester Cd into root vacuoles caused high accumulation of Cd in the grain in zhefu7, whereas inefficient transport of Cd from roots to shoots in Xiangzaoxian45 caused low accumulation of Cd in the grain. Cd sequestration in the roots and transport from the root to the shoot were greatly influenced by the expression patterns of transport-related genes OsHMA3 and OsHMA2, respectively. Further, micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy mapping confirmed that more Cd was sequestered in the roots of Xiangzaoxian45 than in those of zhefu7, with a significant amount of Cd localized in the root hairs, as well as in the meristematic and elongation zones, and dermal and stele tissues. Therefore, we propose that effective Cd sequestration in root vacuoles was the major determinant of divergent Cd-accumulation patterns in the two rice cultivars under study.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Oryza/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Transporte Biológico , Cádmio/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Espectrometria por Raios X , Vacúolos/química , Vacúolos/metabolismo
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 192: 110298, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061986

RESUMO

Phytoremediation using economic crops is an alternative treatment option for contaminated areas that are being utilized by people. In this study, phytoextraction with a local economic crop (corn) that allows simultaneous Cd contamination reduction and corn biomass utilization is proposed. Biosurfactants, rhamnolipid (RL) and saponin (SP), were introduced to enhance Cd phytoextraction. The optimum RL and SP dose was 4 mmol kg-1. Cd uptake and corn biomass were higher with biosurfactant addition than in the control (without biosurfactants addition), by 2.7 and 2.3-fold, respectively, on the 30th day of corn plantation. The optimum biosurfactant doses were applied to phytoextraction experiments with corn at different corn growth stages (7th, 45th, and 80th day). The highest Cd uptake levels were recorded on day 45, and the maximum uptake was achieved with RL addition (39.06 mg Cd kg-1). These results were confirmed by bioaccumulation factors, which indicated that RL enhanced soil Cd uptake by corn plants to the highest extent. However, Cd concentration in corn kernels from RL-assisted phytoextraction exceeded the standards for animal feed. On the other hand, although Cd uptake by corn plants in the presence of SP was lower, Cd content in the resulting corn kernels were within the allowable standard limit for animal feedstock. Moreover, compared to RL and control treatments, SP treatment resulted in higher Cd levels in the shoot than in the root, as confirmed by translocation factors. Meanwhile, SP could significantly promote soil Cd removal efficiency; Cd removal efficiencies on day 80 were in the order of SP (18.80%) > RL (11.33%) > control (4.59%). In addition, Cd leaching after addition of RL and SP was investigated. The two surfactants caused much lower Cd leaching from soil than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The results of this study indicate that SP-assisted Cd phytoextraction using corn is applicable for the remediation of Cd-contaminated areas in Mae Sot District.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Tensoativos/química , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Glicolipídeos/química , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Saponinas/química , Sementes/metabolismo
16.
Planta ; 251(3): 66, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065312

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Glutamine (Gln) is an efficient nitrogen source in promoting aboveground nitrogen and biomass accumulation in ZD958 (an elite maize hybrid with great potential for further genetic improvement) seedlings when conditioning a smaller but adequate root system. Amino acids account for a significant part of nitrogen (N) resources in the soil. However, how amino acid-N affects crop growth remains to be further investigated. Here, glutamine (Gln) application (80% NH4NO3 + 20% Gln; mixed N) enhanced shoot growth of the maize hybrid ZD958. N concentration in the shoot increased, which is associated with favorable increases in SPAD values, GS/GOGAT activities, and accumulation of glutamate, asparagine, total free amino acids and soluble proteins in the shoot under mixed N. On the other hand, root growth was reduced when exposed to Gln as indicated by the significantly lower dry weight, root/shoot ratio, and primary, seminal, crown, and total root lengths, as well as unfavorable physiological alterations. Up-regulation of expression of ZmAMT1.3, ZmNRT2.1, and ZmAAP2 in the root and that of ZmAMT1.1, ZmAMT1.3, and ZmLHT1 in the shoot preconditioned N over-accumulation in the shoot and facilitated shoot growth, presumably via enhancing N translocation to the shoot, when Gln was supplied. Together, Gln is an efficient N source in promoting aboveground N and biomass accumulation in ZD958 seedlings when conditioning a smaller but adequate root system. Notably, ZD958's parental lines Z58 and Chang7-2 displayed a wide range of variations in Gln responses, which may be partially attributed to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cis-elements and coding regions revealed in this study and much larger quantities of unidentified genetic variations between Z58 and Chang7-2. Extensive genetic divergence of these two elite inbred lines implied large potentials for further genetic improvement of ZD958 in relation to organic N use efficiency.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Glutamina/farmacologia , Hibridização Genética , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Alelos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes de Plantas , Endogamia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaboloma/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 641, 2020 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005881

RESUMO

Plants modulate the efficiency of root nitrogen (N) acquisition in response to shoot N demand. However, molecular components directly involved in this shoot-to-root communication remain to be identified. Here, we show that phloem-mobile CEPD-like 2 (CEPDL2) polypeptide is upregulated in the leaf vasculature in response to decreased shoot N status and, after translocation to the roots, promotes high-affinity uptake and root-to-shoot transport of nitrate. Loss of CEPDL2 leads to a reduction in shoot nitrate content and plant biomass. CEPDL2 contributes to N acquisition cooperatively with CEPD1 and CEPD2 which mediate root N status, and the complete loss of all three proteins severely impairs N homeostasis in plants. Reciprocal grafting analysis provides conclusive evidence that the shoot CEPDL2/CEPD1/2 genotype defines the high-affinity nitrate uptake activity in root. Our results indicate that plants integrate shoot N status and root N status in leaves and systemically regulate the efficiency of root N acquisition.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Glutarredoxinas/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Transporte Biológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glutarredoxinas/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Brotos de Planta/genética
18.
Chemosphere ; 248: 126024, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004891

RESUMO

Root uptake, translocation, and subcellular distribution of six pesticides (dinotefuran, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, imazethapyr, propiconazole, and chlorpyrifos) with Kow ranging from -0.549 to 4.7 were investigated in wheat to study transportation and accumulation of pesticides. The root bioconcentration factor (RCF) of pesticides decreased with water solubility (R2 = 0.6121) and increased with hydrophobicity (when the pH-adjusted log Kow > 2, R2 = 0.925), respectively. The translocation of neutral pesticides from roots to shoots increased positively with water solubility (R2 > 0.6484) but decreased with hydrophobicity (R2 > 0.8039). The subcellular fraction concentration factor (SFCF) increased linearly with hydrophobicity of the tested pesticides (R2 > 0.958). The log RCF was positively correlated with log SFCF in root cell walls (R2 = 0.9894) and organelles (R2 = 0.9786). Transportation of the pesticides from roots to stems and stems to leaves was adversely affected by the log SFCF of cell walls and organelles of roots (R2 > 0.7997) and stems (R2 > 0.6666), respectively. Hydrophobicity-dependent SFCF is a factor governing accumulation of pesticides in roots after uptake and their subsequent upward translocation.


Assuntos
Praguicidas/farmacocinética , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Praguicidas/química , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Solubilidade , Triticum/citologia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005376

RESUMO

This study investigated the dynamic of zinc (Zn) uptake and the root-to-shoot Zn-transport when supplied as ZnSO4 (aq) or Zn-EDTA (aq) in soybean seedlings using in vivo X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES). The time-resolved X-ray fluorescence showed that plants absorbed ca. 10-fold more Zn from ZnSO4 (aq) than from Zn-EDTA (aq). However, the uptake velocity did not influence the amount of Zn in the stem. It let furthermore appear that the plants were able to reduce the absorption of Zn from Zn-EDTA (aq) earlier than ZnSO4 (aq). Thus, the entrance of Zn2+ into the roots is not necessarily accompanied by SO42-(aq). Regardless the source, the Zn distribution and its transport in the stem were spatially correlated to the bundles and cortex nearby the epidermal cells. Its chemical speciation showed that Zn is neither transported as ZnSO4(aq) nor as Zn-EDTA(aq), indicating that these compounds are retained in the roots or biotransformed on in the root-solution interface. Zn2+ was long-distance transported complexed by organic molecules such as histidine, malate, and citrate, and the proportion of ligands was affected by the concentration of Zn2+ in the stem rather than by the type of Zn source.


Assuntos
Soja/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Ácido Edético/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Análise Espectral , Sulfato de Zinco/metabolismo
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005390

RESUMO

Root-derived abscisic acid (ABA) is known to regulate shoot physiology, such as stomata closure. Conversely, the basipetal regulatory effect of shoot-derived ABA is poorly understood. Herein, we report that simulation of shoot-ABA accumulation by exogenous application of ABA to shoots basipetally stimulates primary root (PR) growth. ABA applied to shoots accelerates root cell division, as evidenced by the increase in meristem size and cell number and the intensity of CYCB1;1::GFP (a mitosis marker). Root ABA content was not changed following shoot ABA application, although the ABA reporter line RAB18::GFP showed an increase in ABA in the cotyledons. Shoot-ABA application increases basipetal auxin transport by 114 %. Shoot-ABA-promoted PR growth can be abolished by attenuating basipetal auxin flux using 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA, an auxin transport inhibitor), demonstrating that ABA promotes PR growth by increasing basipetal auxin transport. Root cell elongation, evaluated by the total length of the first 7 cells in the elongation zone (EZ), was increased by 56 % following shoot-ABA application. The cell walls of the root EZ were alkalinized by ABA, as exhibited by 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid trisodium salt staining. Higher pH promotes both PR growth and cell elongation. Thus, shoot-ABA promotes cell elongation by alkalinizing the cell wall. In light of our results, we provide a representative detailed model of the basipetal regulatory effect of ABA on PR growth.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Ácido Abscísico/administração & dosagem , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Transporte Biológico , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Meristema/efeitos dos fármacos , Meristema/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo
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