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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(1): 1040-1051, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829429

RESUMO

This study aimed at determining the cadmium phytoextraction potential of three Populus alba L. clones cultivated in the presence of increasing sodium chloride concentrations. Plantlets of a commercial and two autochthonous poplar clones were grown in perlite with nutrient solution enriched in CdSO4 (50 and 100 µM) and NaCl (25 and 50 mM), administered either alone or in combination. The three clones showed significant variation not only in cadmium and salt tolerance, accumulation and content, but also in the effect of the interaction between the two elements on these parameters. The toxic effect of Cd and salt excess on plants was mutually exacerbated by the presence of both. Even though the outcome of the joint treatment was always a decrease in shoot Cd or Na accumulation, the three clones showed variation in the extent of such reduction. Evaluating the total element content per plant shoot, the fast-growing commercial clone displayed the highest phytoextraction potential for Cd and Na, either alone or in mixture. Our results demonstrated for the first time that the Cd response in presence of salt can vary in the different clones.


Assuntos
Populus , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/análise , Células Clonais/química , Brotos de Planta/química
2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15731, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978441

RESUMO

Oviposition by Gasterophilus pecorum on shoot tips of Stipa caucasica is a key determinant of its severe infection of the reintroduced Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii). Volatiles in shoots of grasses on which Przewalski's horse feeds, including S. caucasica at preoviposition, oviposition, and postoviposition stages of G. pecorum, S. caucasica, Stipa orientalis, and Ceratoides latens at the oviposition stage, and S. caucasica in various growth periods, were collected by dynamic headspace adsorption and analyzed by automatic thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among five volatiles with highest relative contents under three sets of conditions, caprolactam and 3-hexen-1-ol,(Z)- were common to all samples. Caprolactam was highest in C. latens at oviposition stage of G. pecorum and lowest in S. caucasica at postoviposition stage, and that of 3-hexen-1-ol,(Z)- was lowest in C. latens and highest in S. caucasica at its oviposition stage. Particularly, in S. caucasica during the three oviposition phenological stages of G. pecorum, 3-hexen-1-ol,acetate,(Z)-, 2(5H)-furanone,5-ethyl-, and 3-hexen-1-ol,acetate,(E)- were unique, respectively, to the preoviposition, oviposition, and postoviposition stages; in three plant species during the oviposition stage of G. pecorum, 3-hexen-1-ol,acetate,(Z)-, 3-hexenal, and 1-hexanol were unique to S. orientalis, acetic acid, hexanal, and 2(5H)-furanone,5-ethyl- to S. caucasica, and 1,3,6-octatriene,3,7-dimethyl-, cis-3-hexenyl isovalerate, and acetic acid hexyl ester to C. latens; in S. caucasica, 2-undecanone,6,10-dimethyl- was unique to the early growth period, acetic acid and 2(5H)-furanone,5-ethyl- to the flourishing growth period, and 3-hexen-1-ol,acetate,(Z)- and 1,3,6-octatriene,3,7-dimethyl- to the late growth period. Furthermore, substances specific to S. orientalis and C. latens were also present in S. caucasica, except at oviposition stage. Our findings will facilitate studies on G. pecorum's adaptation to the arid desert steppe and its future control.


Assuntos
Dípteros/fisiologia , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Oviposição , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Brotos de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/química
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237517, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804974

RESUMO

Climate change, limited water resources and expected population increases would require crops which contribute toward more resilient, more productive, more sustainable and climate-smart food systems. The cactus pear is a drought-resistant and sustainable food source to humans and livestock alike. Cactus mucilage has multiple applications in the food and packaging industry. It is eco-friendly, economical, functional and has multiple health benefits. However, the researchers observed umpteen variations in extracted mucilage yield and viscosity every time the cladodes were harvested, making the standardisation of formulations troublesome. We aimed to examine the effect of weather conditions on the physicochemical characteristics of cactus pear cladodes and mucilage extracted over two seasons to understand these observed variations in mucilage characteristics. Forty cladodes, ten from each of Opuntia ficus-indica Algerian, Morado and Gymno-Carpo and Opuntia robusta Robusta were harvested every month from February to August in Bloemfontein, South Africa. Daily weather data were obtained, weight and moisture contents determined on cladodes and yield, viscosity, pH, conductivity and malic acid content determined on extracted mucilage. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between the weather conditions, cladode properties, and mucilage properties. Contrary to common belief, neither increasing cladode weight as they grow, nor rainfall were the leading causes of mucilage inconsistencies. However, the correlations showed a relationship between environmental temperatures, cladode pH and conductivity, and mucilage viscosity and yields. In hot summer weather, the pH was lower, which led to an abundance of positive ions in cladodes. The H+ ions neutralise the negative charges along the outstretched mucilage molecule, causing it to coil up, reducing the viscosity of the mucilage. Thus, environmental temperatures rather than rainfall or cladode maturity influenced the physicochemical characteristics of mucilage. The findings should make an essential contribution in predicting the physicochemical characteristics of mucilage for specific food-related functions by observing the weather conditions.


Assuntos
Opuntia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mucilagem Vegetal/química , Brotos de Planta/química , Mudança Climática , Malatos/química , Opuntia/química , Opuntia/classificação , Estações do Ano , África do Sul , Viscosidade
4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11025, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620934

RESUMO

In this paper, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) roots grown in soils with and without contamination from emission of a plant steel were analyzed for Fe and Mn, as well as the shoots and needles with and lacking pollution. The aim was to assess the content of Fe and Mn in soils under given conditions, and the interaction between pine plant and soil in terms of metal accumulation in the fine roots, annual shoots, and annual needles. The iron content in the soil of polluted areas does not contrast with its control amount. Conversely, the iron content in fine pine roots under contamination conditions is 2.1-4.4 times higher than the control values. There were no significant excesses of the manganese content in the soil in polluted conditions compared to the control, but its content in the 0-20 cm soil layer is 27-32 times higher than the background concentrations. The iron contentment in belowground (fine roots) and aboveground (annual shoots and needles) parts of pine trees in a context of contamination is higher than the control values (2.1-4.4 and 1.50-1.54 times, respectively). The manganese content in fine pine roots under contamination conditions is 2.8-10.7 times less than in control, while its content in shoots and needles is higher (2.23-2.76 times) in comparison with the control. Based on the values of the biological accumulation and migration coefficients, what in each case slighter than one, for Scots pine the iron represent not an element that actively accumulates. Nevertheless, for manganese, this stock model is valid only for fine roots, whereas under the contaminated environment, the metal mobility steepen, and the migration pattern shifts towards increased manganese accumulation in the aboveground part of pine trees.


Assuntos
Ferro/análise , Manganês/análise , Pinus sylvestris/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Metalurgia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Brotos de Planta/química , Aço
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 198: 110683, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361499

RESUMO

Smelting activities have been shown to increase the likelihood of environmental heavy metal accumulation and bioaccumulation potential within relative proximity to smelter sites. This investigation focused specifically on cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) accumulation in 43 wild plant species and corresponding soils near a Pb smelting contaminated area. Soils in the study area had elevated Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations, with pollution indices ranked as Cd > Pb > Cu > Zn. Aboveground plant heavy metal concentrations ranked Pb > Zn > Cd > Cu, with plants having greater bioconcentration factor (BCF) values for Cd than for Pb, Cu and Zn. Plant Cd BCF averaged 1.42, while Pb, Cu and Zn averaged 0.128, 0.256 and 0.560, respectively. The greatest Cd BCF value was 5.40 for Dendranthema indicum; Cd accumulation for this species has not been reported previously. The greatest shoot Cd concentration (66.5 mg kg-1) was found in Viola verecunda. Significant correlations existed between plant shoot Cd and Pb concentrations and soil total and DTPA-extractable Cd and Pb. Plant species with greater heavy metal accumulation could potentially be used for phytoextraction in the study area, while those having less accumulation potentially being used to reduce heavy metal flow into the food chain, reducing the health risks associated with elevated heavy metal soil contamination.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Plantas/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Cádmio/análise , China , Cobre/análise , Poluição Ambiental , Chumbo/análise , Brotos de Planta/química , Solo , Zinco/análise
6.
Molecules ; 25(6)2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244952

RESUMO

Genetically uniform shoots of Eryngium alpinum L. cultured in vitro were subjected to the qualitative analysis applying the UPLC-HESI-HRMS technique. In vitro cultures give the opportunity to perform the phytochemical studies on the protected species without harvesting the plant material from the natural environment. The phytochemical screening of the crude methanolic extracts of shoots, both from in vitro cultures and in vivo plants, revealed the presence of phenolic acids, coumarins, flavonoids, triterpenoid saponins, amino acids, or dipeptides. Active compounds detected are known to have medicinal importance, and for this reason, the present study represents a preliminary investigation of the extracts against pathogenic and opportunistic amoeba. Among the extracts tested, the extract of shoots from in vitro cultures exhibited remarkable amoebicidal action against trophozoites. On the second day of treatment, the extract at the concentrations of 5 mg/mL, 2.5 mg/mL, and 0.5 mg/mL showed the highest antiamoebicidal effect: the inhibition of trophozoites reached 81.14%, 66.38%, and 54.99%, respectively. To our best knowledge, the present report is the first to show the phytochemical screening and to discuss the antiamoebic activity of Eryngium alpinum L. shoots, both from in vitro cultures and in vivo plants.


Assuntos
Amebicidas/química , Amebicidas/farmacologia , Eryngium/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Brotos de Planta/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Espectrometria de Massas
7.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(3): 481-492, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237542

RESUMO

Coastal and inland saline-alkali soil is important reserve land resources. However, some parts of saline land are now under the threat of heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and the light metal lithium (Li). Phytoremediation with halophytes could be the most economical and effective way to restore the contaminated saline soil. In this study, the growth, physiological and biochemical indexes and ion contents of halophyte Salicornia europaea under different concentrations of Cd (0-50 mmol/L), Pb (0-50 mmol/L) and Li (0-400 mmol/L) were investigated to evaluate the tolerance and accumulation of the metal contaminations. The results showed that plant height, fresh weight and dry weight of S. europaea decreased significantly with the increase of Cd and Pb concentration. Low concentration of Li (< 20 mmol/L) promoted the growth of S. europaea, while the growth of plants was inhibited under higher concentration of Li (> 20 mmol/L). The tolerance order of S. europaea to Cd, Pb and Li was Li > Pb > Cd. Cd, Pb and Li stresses may negatively affected Na and K uptake and transport in S. europaea to affect plant growth. In addition, the antioxidant enzyme system synergistically responsed to resist the oxidative toxicity of different ions. The contents of Cd, Pb, Li in roots and shoots of S. europaea also increased with the increase of treatment concentration. Furthermore, Cd and Pb contents in roots were significantly higher than in shoots, while more Li accumulated in shoots than in roots. The aforementioned results showed that S. europaea had strong tolerance along with a high accumulate ability to Cd, Pb and Li, indicating its application potential in restoring Cd, Pb and Li contaminated saline soil. This study laid a basis for further exploration of the tolerance mechanism of S. europaea to Cd, Pb and Li stresses, and gave a new perspective for the usage of S. europaea to remediate Cd, Pb and Li pollutants in high-salinity alkali soils.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/metabolismo , Chenopodiaceae , Chumbo/metabolismo , Lítio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo , Chenopodiaceae/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Brotos de Planta/química , Solo/química
8.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(5): 668-672, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303812

RESUMO

The effect of shoot cutting was tested on cadmium, lead and zinc concentration in leaves and capitula of Erigeron annuus, an invasive species, which is considered as a potential phytoremediator. Plant material and soil were collected in the city center of Kraków, southern Poland, considered as one of the most contaminated cities in Europe. We proved that the concentration of zinc in leaves and capitula was higher after regrowth, concentration of cadmium was lower in capitula than in leaves, and the average value of bio-concentration factor for zinc and cadmium was less than 1, whereas for lead it was greater than 1 in both plant organs. Our results suggested that E. annuus can be potentially used for phytoremediation of lead and cutting the shoots can promote effectiveness of zinc removal from the contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Erigeron/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Erigeron/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Brotos de Planta/química , Polônia , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(5): 1053-1058, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237445

RESUMO

In order to reveal the main nutrients and functional ingredients in the shoots of Polygonatum cyrtonema, the polysaccharides, proteins, amino acids, and total phenols were determined. The tested samples cultured in Ma'nijiaonong, Hengtang village, Tianmushan town, Lin'an, Zhejiang, which were collected from three provenances(Pan'an and Longquan in Zhejiang and Qingyang in Anhui). The results showed that the polysaccharide content of the shoots varied from 2.34% to 12.73%, roughly one-third of rhizomes. The protein content varied from 107.75 to 192.49 mg·g~(-1), nearly 5.50 times more than rhizomes. Moreover, the average of total amino acid content was 193.13-248.74 mg·g~(-1), approximately 4.16 times of rhizomes. And the essential amino acids account for 35.57%-39.44% of the total amino acids content, which was close to the standard of the ideal protein proposed by FAO/WHO(the essential amino acid/total amino acid is about 40%). In addition, the taste amino acids(TaAA) changed from 160.12 to 208.29 mg·g~(-1), revealing the material basis of "shoots were extremely delicious" in Chinese ancient herbal medicine. Additionally, the total phenols varied from 51.21-58.76 mg·g~(-1), about 2.96 times of rhizomes. The DPPH free radical scavenging rate of tested shoots was over 95%, which obviously superior to rhizomes. Therefore, the shoots of P. cyrtonema is a very high-quality vegetable and functional food with good development potential. Furthermore, the main nutrients and functional substances in P. cyrtonema shoots are closely related to the provenances and harvesting seasons. It is important to improve the quality and yield of the shoots by strengthening the variety of breeding and cultivation techniques.


Assuntos
Alimento Funcional , Nutrientes/análise , Brotos de Planta/química , Polygonatum/química , Aminoácidos Essenciais/análise , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Polissacarídeos/análise , Rizoma
10.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 21(14): 1528-1538, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Saudi Arabia, the incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer are high. Although current treatments are effective, breast cancer cells develop resistance to these treatments. Numerous studies have demonstrated that active compounds in plant extracts, such as the phenolic compound Rosmarinic Acid (RA), exert anti-cancer effects. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the anticancer properties of methanolic crude extracts of seedlings and calli of Rosmarinus officinalis and Coleus hybridus, two Lamiaceae species. METHODS: MCF-7 human breast cancer cells were treated with methanolic crude extracts obtained from plant calli and seedlings generated in vitro, and cell proliferation was evaluated. Transcriptional profiling of the seedling and callus tissues was also conducted. RESULTS: The mRNA expression levels of RA genes were higher in C. hybridus seedlings than in R. officinalis seedlings, as well as in C. hybridus calli than in R. officinalis calli, except for TAT and C4H. In addition, seedling and callus extracts of both R. officinalis and C. hybridus showed anti-proliferative effects against MCF-7 cells after 24 or 48 h of treatment. DISCUSSION: At a low concentration of 10 µg/mL, C. hybridus calli and seedling extracts showed the most significant anti-proliferative effects after 24 and 48 h of exposure (p < 0.01); controls (doxorubicin) also showed significant inhibition, but lesser than that observed with C. hybridus (p < 0.05). Results with R. officinalis callus and seedling extracts did not significantly differ from those with untreated cells. CONCLUSION: Methanolic extracts of R. officinalis and C. hybridus are potentially valuable options for breast cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Coleus/química , Depsídeos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rosmarinus/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Sobrevivência Celular , Cinamatos/isolamento & purificação , Depsídeos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Brotos de Planta/química , Plântula/química
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(15): 4325-4334, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208655

RESUMO

As emerging alternatives of legacy perfluoroalkyl substances, 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (6:2 FTS), 6:2 chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonates (6:2 Cl-PFESA), and perfluorophosphinates (C6/C6 and C8/C8 PFPiAs) are supposed to be partitioned to soil and highly persistent in the environment. The uptake of novel per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) by plants represents a potential pathway for their transfer in the food chain. In this study, the bioavailability of these four novel PFASs in soil and the bioaccumulation characteristics in greenhouse-grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize (Zea mays L.), soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill), and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) were investigated. The results indicated that these novel PFASs with higher hydrophobicity were more easily sequestrated in soil, and the fractions extracted by methanol could well describe their bioavailability, which could be stimulated by low-molecular-weight organic acids at rhizospheric concentrations. A negative relationship was found between root soil concentration factors (RSCFs) and hydrophobicity (log Kow) of the target PFASs. This correlation was also found in the translocation factors (TF) from roots to shoots. Furthermore, the uptake and transfer of the target PFASs were regulated by the protein contents in plant roots and shoots.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/química , Fluoretos/química , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Solo/química , Ácidos Sulfúricos/química , Bioacumulação , Disponibilidade Biológica , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Cucurbita/química , Cucurbita/metabolismo , Fluoretos/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Soja/química , Soja/metabolismo , Ácidos Sulfúricos/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/metabolismo
12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(8): 3401-3407, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different natural substances, chitosan, inactive dry yeasts and freeze-dried aqueous extracts from two wine industry by-products (stems and shoots) were used in red winemaking as possible alternatives to SO2 . The resistance to oxidation of wines was evaluated by electron paramagnetic resonance. The phenolic composition of wines was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) and ABTS [2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation] assays and spectrophotometric measurements of color were compared. RESULTS: The wines elaborated with chitosan and inactive dry yeast presented greater capacity to inhibit the formation of the 1-hydroxyethyl radical compared to the wines elaborated with stem or shoot extracts. The total content of anthocyanins was higher in the wines elaborated with SO2 ; however, the concentration of flavan-3-ols was higher in the wines with chitosan. In addition, the wines with chitosan and inactive dry yeast presented the highest % polymerization. Wines elaborated with stem extract had a lower concentration of flavonols and stilbenes. CONCLUSION: Chitosan and inactive dry yeast, which are used as an alternative to SO2 in winemaking, allow the control of the formation of 1-HER in red wines. Wines with stem and shoot extracts showed a lower resistance to oxidation. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Etanol/química , Fenóis/química , Vinho/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Manipulação de Alimentos , Oxirredução , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Brotos de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Vitis/química
13.
Molecules ; 25(5)2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121158

RESUMO

Traditional medicinal plants are an important source of active compounds with potential antimutagenic activity. Polyscias filicifolia Bailey (Araliaceae) is a South Asian traditional herb used as an adaptogenic and cardiac drug. Extracts of P. filicifolia contain a wide range of biologically active compounds like phenolic acids and triterpenoid saponins. In the present study. antigenotoxic potential of three naturally occurring phenolic acids and extracts of P. filicifolia growing in vitro with the addition of elicitors was evaluated against direct (4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO) and mitomycin C (MMC)) and indirect mutagens (2-aminoanthracene (2AA)). The evaluation was made using a bacterial umu-test. Moreover, the ability to prevent photogenotoxicity induced by chlorpromazine (CPZ) under UVA irradiation was measured. The phytochemical profiling of examined extracts revealed the presence of numerous compounds with the prevelance of chlorogenic, caffeic, and ferulic acid derivatives; however, saponin fractions were also determined. The antioxidant potential of extracts strictly correlated with their composition. The tested extracts exhibited high antigenotoxic activity if the assay was performed with 2AA and metabolic activation. Moreover, the extracts slightly decreased the MMC-induced genotoxicity. However, an increase of the genotoxic effect was observed in the assay performed with 4NQO. In addition, photo-antigenotoxic activity was observed. In our study, phenolic acids exhibited lower activity than the extracts.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Araliaceae/química , Dano ao DNA , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Brotos de Planta/química , Animais , Antimutagênicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Clorpromazina/efeitos adversos , Clorpromazina/farmacologia , Masculino , Mitomicina/efeitos adversos , Mitomicina/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 193: 110245, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092577

RESUMO

Understanding Cd uptake and distribution in rice roots is important for breeding varieties that do not accumulate Cd in the grain to any large extent. Here, we examined the physiological and molecular factors responsible for Cd uptake and transport differences between two japonica rice cultivars prescreened as high (zhefu7) or low (Xiangzaoxian45) accumulators of Cd in the grain. No significant differences in Cd uptake between the two cultivars were observed; however, Xiangzaoxian45 retained most of the absorbed Cd in the roots, whereas zhefu7 showed higher transport of Cd from the root to the shoot, regardless of the duration of exposure to Cd. The inability to sequester Cd into root vacuoles caused high accumulation of Cd in the grain in zhefu7, whereas inefficient transport of Cd from roots to shoots in Xiangzaoxian45 caused low accumulation of Cd in the grain. Cd sequestration in the roots and transport from the root to the shoot were greatly influenced by the expression patterns of transport-related genes OsHMA3 and OsHMA2, respectively. Further, micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy mapping confirmed that more Cd was sequestered in the roots of Xiangzaoxian45 than in those of zhefu7, with a significant amount of Cd localized in the root hairs, as well as in the meristematic and elongation zones, and dermal and stele tissues. Therefore, we propose that effective Cd sequestration in root vacuoles was the major determinant of divergent Cd-accumulation patterns in the two rice cultivars under study.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Oryza/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Transporte Biológico , Cádmio/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Espectrometria por Raios X , Vacúolos/química , Vacúolos/metabolismo
15.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228157, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978155

RESUMO

Insect herbivores have the potential to change both physical and chemical traits of their host plant. Although the impacts of herbivores on their hosts have been widely studied, experiments assessing changes in multiple leaf traits or functions simultaneously are still rare. We experimentally tested whether herbivory by winter moth (Operophtera brumata) caterpillars and mechanical leaf wounding changed leaf mass per area, leaf area, leaf carbon and nitrogen content, and the concentrations of 27 polyphenol compounds on oak (Quercus robur) leaves. To investigate how potential changes in the studied traits affect leaf functioning, we related the traits to the rates of leaf photosynthesis and respiration. Overall, we did not detect any clear effects of herbivory or mechanical leaf damage on the chemical or physical leaf traits, despite clear effect of herbivory on photosynthesis. Rather, the trait variation was primarily driven by variation between individual trees. Only leaf nitrogen content and a subset of the studied polyphenol compounds correlated with photosynthesis and leaf respiration. Our results suggest that in our study system, abiotic conditions related to the growth location, variation between tree individuals, and seasonal trends in plant physiology are more important than herbivory in determining the distribution and composition of leaf chemical and structural traits.


Assuntos
Mariposas/fisiologia , Quercus/química , Animais , Carbono/metabolismo , Herbivoria , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Larva/fisiologia , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Brotos de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Quercus/metabolismo , Quercus/parasitologia , Estações do Ano , Estresse Mecânico
16.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(2): 23, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965334

RESUMO

Arsenic naturally occurs in the earth's crust and can be introduced in the environment by human activities. Agricultural practices in arsenic-contaminated environments pose a threat to human health. The contamination of crops contributes to the metalloid's introduction in the food chain. This study aims to test the hypotheses that the inoculation of a hyperaccumulator rhizobacterial strain, Ochrobactrum tritici As5, to the rhizosphere of rice plants reduces the arsenic presence inside the tissue of the rice plants and reduces the inhibitory effect of the metalloid on the plant's growth parameters. Inoculation of the hyperaccumulating strain O. tritici As5 showed the lowest concentration of arsenic in the plant's tissue (2.6 fold lower than sterile plants), compared to the unmodified type O. tritici SCII24 and sterile rice plants. The inoculation of the type strain SCII24 also led to a decrease in arsenic concentration in the plant tissue compared with sterile plants (1.6 fold lower than sterile plants). The difference in arsenic presence in shoots was smaller among treatment groups than in the roots, showing a similar trend. The inoculation of the hyperaccumulator As5 strain alleviated some of the toxic effects of arsenic on shoot growth compared to inoculation of the unmodified type strain. All these findings together, contribute to our understanding of the interplay between arsenic pollution, plants and their rhizobacteria, especially the role of bioaccumulation of metal(oids) by rhizobacteria, and provide important information on the prevention of arsenic uptake by crops and the development of phytostabilizers.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Ochrobactrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/microbiologia , Arsênico/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Ochrobactrum/metabolismo , Oryza/química , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
17.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 34(8): e8669, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758611

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Carbon-13 (13 C)-labelled plant material forms the basis for experiments elucidating soil organic carbon dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions. Quantitative field-scale tracing is only possible if plants are labelled homogeneously in large quantities. By using a laser spectrometer to automatically steer the isotopic ratio in the chamber, it is possible to obtain large amounts of homogeneously labelled plant material. METHODS: Ninety-six maize plants were labelled for 25 days until tassel formation in a 15 m3 walk-in growth chamber with a continuous air δ13 C-CO2 value of 400‰. A Los Gatos Research laser absorption spectrometer controlled the ambient δ13 C-CO2 value in the chamber through steering of the mass flow controllers with 13 C-enriched and natural abundance CO2 gas. RESULTS: Laser absorption spectroscopy steering kept the δ13 C value of chamber air between 368 and 426‰. The resulting 1 kg dry matter of 13 C-labelled shoots showed an average δ13 C value of 384‰ and accuracy of 8‰ (half width of the 95% confidence interval). Only the oldest leaves showed larger heterogeneity. The growth chamber eliminated variability between plants. The δ13 C value of the stabile material did not differ significantly from that of bulk material. CONCLUSIONS: Laser spectroscopy controlled 13 C labelling of plants in a walk-in growth chamber successfully kept the isotopic ratio of the CO2 in the chamber air constant. Therefore, large quantities of material were labelled homogeneously at the inter- and intra-plant level, thus establishing a method to provide high-quality input for quantitative isotopic tracer studies.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Marcação por Isótopo , Zea mays/química , Ar/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Marcação por Isótopo/métodos , Lasers , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Brotos de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1505-1514, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Greater proportions of purple tea buds and leaves usually appear in the summer, which seriously affects the color and taste quality of green tea products, yet the metabolism of purple tea shoots in summer remains unclear. Here, the metabolomic profiles and gene expression of related flavonoid metabolic pathways in the purple and normal green shoots of 'Longjing 43', and the quality of green tea made with these two phenotypes, were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: Differential metabolites identified using high-performance liquid chromatography-Orbitrap/mass spectrometry indicated that anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple leaves was enriched, with higher levels of anthocyanidins (delphinidin-hexose-coumaroyl showed the greatest increase), proanthocyanidins (oligomers of catechins) and kaempferol glycoside. Expression patterns of the genes ANR, ANS, FLS, LAR, C4H, PAL, CHI, CHS and DFR revealed that the metabolism of anthocyanin is positively regulated by high temperature and/or light levels in summer. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results showed that, in purple tea shoots, the metabolism of carbohydrates was enriched whereas that of amino acids was diminished, while their mannose, fructose, d-galactose, sorbose and d-glucose contents were more than double those found in green leaves. A sensory evaluation confirmed that a greater quantity of purple shoots had a greater negative impact on green tea quality because of a bitter taste and dark color (leaves and infusions were tested). CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the need for and possibility of improving commercial tea quality via cultivation that controls the temperature or light of tea gardens during the summer. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/química , Camellia sinensis/genética , Camellia sinensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(6): 2358-2363, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methoxyfenozide possesses efficacy against a variety of lepidopteron pests, including the major pests in cauliflower and tea, so it is of great importance to generalize the practical use of methoxyfenozide in the field. RESULTS: An efficient method was developed and validated in both vegetable matrix and extract-rich matrix (cauliflower and tea) using modified QuEChERS combined with UPLC/MS/MS analysis. The recoveries in cauliflower, made tea and tea shoots ranged from 94.5 to 108.0%, from 85.0 to 91.6% and from 77.3 to 82.0% respectively, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 17.3% in all cases. The field results showed that methoxyfenozide dissipated in cauliflower with half-life (t1/2 ) at 2.5-3.5 days and in tea with t1/2 at 1.2 days. Combining the above experimental data and statistical food intake values, the risk quotient (RQ) values were significantly lower than 1. CONCLUSION: The quantification method of methoxyfenozide in cauliflower or tea has not been established until this study. The dissipation and dietary exposure risk assessment of methoxyfenozide in cauliflower and tea were investigated in the field. Methoxyfenozide dissipated rapidly in cauliflower despite different climates, and it dissipated faster in tea. The dietary risk of methoxyfenozide through cauliflower or tea was negligible to humans. This study not only provides guidance for the safe use of methoxyfenozide but also serves as a reference for the establishment of maximum residue limits (MRLs) in China. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Camellia sinensis/química , Hidrazinas/análise , Hormônios Juvenis/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , China , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Hidrazinas/química , Inseticidas/análise , Hormônios Juvenis/química , Brotos de Planta/química , Medição de Risco , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Chá/química
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1702-1710, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of insoluble calcium oxalate druse crystals (CaOx) in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) can negatively affect its nutritional quality. Photosynthesis, starch, and protein composition are linked with oxalate synthesis and tuber quality under water scarcity. Our main objective was the oxalate quantitation of sweet potato tubers and shoots and also to assess how drought changes their nutritional value. Eight sweet potato accessions from Madeira, the Canaries and Guinea-Bissau were analyzed for their response to drought stress. Tubers and shoots were analyzed for total (T-Ox), soluble (S-Ox) and insoluble (CaOx) oxalates, protein, chlorophyll content index (CCI), soluble starch, starch swelling power, and starch solubility in water. RESULTS: The S-Ox and CaOx content was higher in shoots. Six accessions were above maximum CaOx levels for raw consumption. Accessions with more favorable responses to drought had decreased CaOx with S-Ox increase content for osmoregulation. They also presented slightly decreased CCI and protein contents. These accessions also had an increased shoot starch content, for further tuber storage starch hydrolysis, and maintained the quality and functional properties of the tuber starch grain. Those with a less favorable response to drought had a higher T-Ox and CaOx content in both organs, hindering water absorption. They also had decreased protein and CCI, with a slight increase in tuber starch hydrolysis. CONCLUSION: Oxalate content was significantly related to carbohydrate metabolism, CCI, and protein synthesis. This study significantly contributed to the screening of the sweet potato stress response to drought, to adapt this crop to climatic change through breeding programs. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Oxalatos/química , Tubérculos/química , Água/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Secas , Ipomoea batatas/química , Oxalatos/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Brotos de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Amido/análise , Amido/metabolismo , Água/análise
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