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1.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(10): e1900397, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475763

RESUMO

The essential oils from needles, twigs, bark, wood, cones and young shoots of Pinus mugo were analyzed by GC, GC/MS, and 1 H-NMR spectroscopy. More than 130 compounds were identified. The oils differed in the quantitative composition. The principal components of the oil from twigs with needles were 3-carene (23.8 %), myrcene (22.3 %), and α-pinene (10.3 %). The needle oil contained mainly α-pinene (18.6 %), 3-carene (11.3 %), and bornyl acetate (8.3 %). The oils from twigs without needles, young shoots, bark, and wood were dominated by 3-carene (28.6 %, 15.0 %, 18.5 %, and 34.6 %, respectively) and myrcene (23.4 %, 24.0 %, 24.6 %, and 9.4 %, respectively). In the cone oil (E)-ß-caryophyllene was the main constituent (24.0 %).


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Pinus/química , Agulhas , Óleos Voláteis/química , Casca de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Polônia , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/química , Madeira/química
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 540, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378832

RESUMO

In this work, we present the results of the investigation of trace elements (Fe, Mg, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cr, Co, Cd, Pb) accumulation potential of Noccaea kovatsii (Heuff.) F. K. Mey., from the Balkan Peninsula. The study included eight populations from ultramafic soils, six from Bosnia and Herzegovina, and two from Serbia. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reveal relationships of elements in soil, and Pearson's correlation coefficients for analysing associations of available quantities of elements in soil and those in roots and shoots of N. kovatsii. Uptake and translocation efficiency was assessed by using bioconcentration (BCF) and translocation factors (TF). All the analysed populations of N. kovatsii emerged as strong Ni accumulators, with the highest shoot concentrations of 12,505 mg kg-1. Even thought contents of Zn in plant tissues of N. kovatsii were under the hyperaccumulation level (602 mg kg-1 and 1120 mg kg-1 respectively), BCF was up to 667, indicating that certain surveyed populations have strong accumulative potential for this element.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , Brassicaceae/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Sérvia , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo
3.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(8): 684-692, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289990

RESUMO

Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are important cues for natural enemies to find their hosts. HIPVs are usually present as blends and the effects of combinations of individual components are less studied. Here, we investigated plant volatiles in a tritrophic system, comprising the parasitoid wasp Lytopylus rufipes Nees (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), the Oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and Japanese pear, Pyrus pyrifolia 'Kosui', so as to elucidate the effects of single components and blends on wasp behaviors. Bioassays in a four-arm olfactometer, using either shoots or their isolated volatiles collected on adsorbent, revealed that female wasps preferred volatiles from host-infested shoots over those from intact shoots. Analyses identified (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate (H), linalool (L), (E)-ß-ocimene (O), (E)-3,8-dimethyl-1,4,7-nonatriene (D), and (E,E)-α-farnesene (F). Among them, only F was induced by infestation with G. molesta. When tested singly, only O and D elicited positive responses by L. rufipes. Binary blends of HO and DF elicited a positive response, but that of HD elicited a negative one, even though D alone elicited a positive response. Remarkably, wasps did not prefer either the ODF or HL blends, but showed a highest positive response to a quinary blend (HLODF). These results show that synergism among volatiles released from host-infested plants is necessary for eliciting high behavioral responses in L. rufipes, enabling L. rufipes to find its host efficiently.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Busca por Hospedeiro/efeitos dos fármacos , Pyrus/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Alcenos/farmacologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Herbivoria , Mariposas/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/parasitologia , Pyrus/metabolismo , Pyrus/parasitologia , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
4.
J Food Sci ; 84(7): 1746-1757, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206686

RESUMO

'Anji Baicha' (Camellia sinensis) is a low-temperature-sensitive tea variety. During the development of young shoots, the leaves of 'Anji Baicha' exhibit periodic albinism. The quality of 'Anji Baicha' is closely related to the color of the fresh leaves, with whiter leaves affording a higher amino acid content and superior sensory quality after processing. However, the metabolic mechanism of its quality formation is still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the metabolomic changes of young shoots of 'Anji Baicha' and screened for metabolic markers that may be involved in the periodic albinism. Positive- and negative-mode UPLC-QTOF-MS was applied to the metabolomic analysis of young leaves of 'Anji Baicha' during three developmental stages (i.e., the pre-albescent, albescent, and regreening stages). The results revealed significant differences in the metabolic profiles of the young leaves at the three stages. The differential metabolites were mainly related to the pathways of flavonoid, phenylpropanoid, and amino acid biosynthesis. The concentrations of several amino acids (primarily l-theanine, l-glutamate, N2 -acetyl-l-ornithine, l-aspartic acid, d-proline, l-glutamine, l-leucine, and pyroglutamic acid) and 12-OPDA were significantly higher in the albescent stage. In contrast, during the albescent stages, the concentrations of several carbohydrates (d-fructose, ß-d-galactopyranose, 3-O-fucopyranosyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxyglucopyranose, galactose-ß-1, 4-xylose acetyl-maltose, and 2-fucosyllactose) were significantly lower. Moreover, catechins (mainly epigallocatechin and catechin derivatives), dimeric catechins (primarily proanthocyanidins), and flavonol and flavonol/flavone glycosides (mainly kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, cyanidin, and delphinidin glycosides) were detected at the highest levels in the regreening or pre-albescent stages. The obtained results enhance the current understanding of the metabolic mechanisms of periodic albinism and quality development formation in 'Anji Baicha'. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The obtained results not only provide information regarding differential metabolites but also advance the understanding of the mechanism of periodic albinism in 'Anji Baicha' at the metabolite level and open up new possibilities for the genetic improvement of tea cultivars.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/química , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/análise , Catequina/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Glutamatos/análise , Glutamatos/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/análise , Quempferóis/análise , Quempferóis/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(23): 24132-24142, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228062

RESUMO

Mining tailing areas may contain metal minerals such as Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, and Cd at high concentrations and low nutrients for the growth of plants. This kind of conditions of the area, as well as lack of tailing structure, may limit the development of plants on these areas. Thus, the present study determined the metal, macronutrient, and micronutrient concentrations in the tissues of the roots and shoots of the Solanum viarum Dunal species as well as it evaluated the potential use of the plant for phytoremediation of mining tailing areas contaminated with heavy metals. The macronutrients, micronutrients, and heavy metals in the roots and shoots were determined by the digestion method with nitric and perchloric acid (HNO3-HClO4) and quantified by the ICP-OES. In S. viarum, the average concentrations of the metals presented in the dry biomass varied between the shoots and roots, being higher in the roots for metals such as Cu (229 mg kg-1), Zn (232 mg kg-1), Mn (251 mg kg-1), Cr (382 mg kg-1), Ni (178 mg kg-1), Pb (33 mg kg-1), and Ba (1123 mg kg-1). S. viarum indicates the possibility of a potential application in phytoremediation and treatment of areas contaminated with heavy metals.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solanum/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Brasil , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Solanum/efeitos dos fármacos , Solanum/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
6.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 141: 142-153, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163341

RESUMO

Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) are agriculturally important soil bacteria that increase plant growth. We subjected peppermint to inoculation with three species of PGPB. After inoculation, the plants were sprayed with methyl jasmonate solution (MeJA) or SA (salicylic acid). Then, the plants were harvested and the plant growth parameters, trichome density, EO content and endogenous phytohormones were measured. Shoot fresh weight was reduced in plants inoculated and treated with MeJA whereas EO content varied depending on the MeJA concentration applied. Plants inoculated and treated with MeJA 2 mM showed the maximum increase in EO production, revealing a synergism between PGPB and MeJA. SA treatments also enhanced EO yield. The increased growth and EO production observed upon PGPB application were at least partly due to an increase in the JA and SA concentrations in the plant, as well as to an associated rise in the glandular trichome density.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/química , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Mentha piperita/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Oxilipinas/química , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Ácido Salicílico/química , Tricomas/química , Bacillus subtilis , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mentha piperita/microbiologia , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/química , Pseudomonas fluorescens , Pseudomonas putida
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(26): 7232-7242, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184888

RESUMO

In the present study, the effect of imidacloprid uptake from contaminated soils on the growth of leaf vegetable Shanghaiqing was investigated. The result showed that during 35-day exposure, the concentration of imidacloprid (IMI) was in the order of vegetable shoots > vegetable roots > soil, indicating that IMI was more readily concentrated in vegetable shoots than in roots. Moreover, the biomass of IMI-treated vegetable shoots was comparable to that of the controls with early exposure, but was higher than that of the controls after 7-day exposure, showing that the test concentration of IMI could stimulate vegetable growth. The plant metabolic analysis of vegetable shoots using LC-QTOF/MS revealed that IMI may cause oxidative stress to the plant shoots with early exposure; however, the stressful situation of IMI seems to be relieved with the increase of some substances (such as spermidine and phenylalanine) with late exposure. Moreover, the upregulation of N-rich amino acids (glutamine, aspartate, and arginine) suggested that the process of fixing inorganic nitrogen in the plant should be enhanced, possibly contributing to enhanced growth rates. Additionally, four IMI's metabolites were identified by using MS-FINDER software, and the distribution of three metabolites in vegetable tissues was compared.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/farmacologia , Neonicotinoides/farmacologia , Nitrocompostos/farmacologia , Poluentes do Solo/farmacologia , Verduras/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Neonicotinoides/análise , Nitrocompostos/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras/química , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verduras/metabolismo
8.
Molecules ; 24(9)2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075937

RESUMO

The conversion of organic wastes into biochar via the pyrolysis technique could be used to produce soil amendments useful as a source of plant nutrients. In this study, we investigated the effects of fruit peels and milk tea waste-derived biochars on wheat growth, yield, root traits, soil enzyme activities and nutrient status. Eight amendment treatments were tested: no amendment (CK), chemical fertilizer (CF), banana peel biochar 1% (BB1 + CF), banana peel biochar 2% (BB2 + CF), orange peel biochar 1% (OB1 + CF), orange peel biochar 2% (OB2 + CF), milk tea waste biochar 1% (TB1 + CF) and milk tea waste biochar 2% (TB2 + CF). The results indicated that chlorophyll values, plant height, grain yield, dry weight of shoot and root were significantly (p < 0.05) increased for the TB2 + CF treatment as compared to other treatments. Similarly, higher contents of nutrients in grains, shoots and roots were observed for TB2 + CF: N (61.3, 23.3 and 7.6 g kg-1), P (9.2, 10.4 and 8.3 g kg-1) and K (9.1, 34.8 and 4.4 g kg-1). Compared to CK, the total root length (41.1%), surface area (56.5%), root volume (54.2%) and diameter (78.4%) were the greatest for TB2 + CF, followed by BB2 + CF, OB2 + CF, TB1 + CF, BB1 + CF, OB1 + CF and CF, respectively. However, BB + CF and OB + CF treatments increased ß-glucosidase and dehydrogenase, but not urease activity, as compared to the TB + CF amendment, while all enzyme activity decreased with the increased biochar levels. We concluded that the conversion of fruit peels and milk tea waste into biochar products contribute the benefits of environmental and economic issues, and should be tested as soil amendments combined with chemical fertilizers for the improvement of wheat growth and grain yield as well as soil fertility status under field conditions.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Argila/química , Solo/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carbono/análise , Fertilizantes , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nitrogênio/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Fósforo/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Brotos de Planta/química , Potássio/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Sementes/química , Triticum/anatomia & histologia
9.
Molecules ; 24(7)2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987219

RESUMO

A protocol for C. japonica micropropagation with a confirmation of genome size stability of the in vitro-propagated plantlets was developed. The highest number of shoots multiplied in vitro was obtained on Murashige & Skoog medium (MS) with 1.0 mg L-1 N6-benzyladenine plus 1.0 mg L-1 indole-3-acetic acid. The highest number of roots was observed for the shoots on MS with 15 g L-1 sucrose plus 1.0 mg L-1 indole-3-acetic acid. The acclimatization rate was significantly high. The qualitative HPLC analyses confirmed the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts. The extracts from both shoot cultures and the leaves from field-grown plants revealed antioxidant activity and they exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity. The conducted research confirmed the regeneration potential of genetically-stable plants of C. japonica under in vitro conditions, the ability of the plantlets to produce polyphenols as those present in field-grown plants, as well as their antioxidant potential.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Rosaceae/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenótipo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Brotos de Planta/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Rosaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Molecules ; 24(8)2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022860

RESUMO

Carpesium divaricatum Sieb. & Zucc. has a long history of use as both a medicinal and a food plant. However, except for terpenoids, its chemical constituents have remained poorly investigated. The composition of hydroalcoholic extract from aerial parts of C. divaricatum was analyzed by HPLC-DAD-MSn, revealing the presence of numerous caffeic acid derivatives that were formerly unknown constituents of the plant. In all, 17 compounds, including commonly found chlorogenic acids and rarely occurring butyryl and methylbutyryl tricaffeoylhexaric acids, were tentatively identified. Fractionation of lipophilic extract from cultivated shoots led to the isolation of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (12-OPDA), which is a newly identified constituent of the plant. The compound, at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.5 µM, significantly reduced IL-8, IL-1ß, TNFα, and CCL2 excretion by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human neutrophils. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by f-MLP was also significantly diminished in the neutrophils pretreated by 12-OPDA. The newly identified constituents of the plant seem to be partly responsible for its pharmacological activity and elevate the value of C. divaricatum as a potential functional food.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/química , Ácidos Cafeicos/química , Ácido Clorogênico/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Ácidos Cafeicos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Cafeicos/farmacologia , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Ácido Clorogênico/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interleucina-8/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/química , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(20): 5728-5735, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013079

RESUMO

The 87Sr/86Sr ratio of horticultural products mostly derives from that of the bioavailable Sr fraction of the soil where they grow and, therefore, varies according to the local geolithological features. This study investigated the intra- and intertree variability of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio in two apple orchards in South Tyrol and its relation with the soil 87Sr/86Sr ratio. In both orchards, a moderate homogeneity of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio was observed among subsamples of the same tree part (shoot axes, leaves, apple peels, and pulps). Moreover, the 87Sr/86Sr ratio homogeneity among tree parts was high intratree and low intertree. The variability of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio within the tree and within the orchard is explained in light of the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the soil. This 87Sr/86Sr variability within orchards does not preclude its use as a geographical tracer; however, this aspect should be evaluated to correctly design a sampling campaign or to generalize the results.


Assuntos
Malus/química , Solo/química , Isótopos de Estrôncio/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/química
12.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(3): 47, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834977

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to assess the scope of native potential endophyte Pseudomonas aeruginosa (LSE-2) strain (KX925973) with recommended Bradyrhizobium sp. (LSBR-3) (KF906140) for synergistic effect to develop as consortium biofertilizer of soybean. A total of 28 non-rhizobial endophytic bacteria were isolated from cultivated and wild sp. of soybean. All isolates were screened for multifarious PGP traits viz. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), phosphate (P) and zinc (Zn) solubilization, siderophore, cell wall degrading enzymes and pathogenicity. Compatible of LSBR-3 and LSE-2 enhanced IAA, P-solubilization, 1-aminocyclopropane-carboxylate deaminase and biofilm formation over the single inoculant treatment. Further, consortium was evaluated in vivo for growth, symbiotic traits, nutrient acquisition, soil quality parameters and yield attributes of soybean. Improvement in growth parameters were recorded with dual inoculant LSBR-3 + LSE-2 as compared to LSBR-3 alone and un-inoculated control treatments. Significantly (p ≥ 0.05) high symbiotic and soil quality parameters (phosphatase and soil dehydrogenase activity) was recorded with LSBR-3 + LSE-2 at vegetative and flowering stage as compared to LSBR-3 alone and un-inoculated control treatments. Single inoculation of LSBR-3 improved grain yield by 4.25% over the un-inoculated control treatment, further, enhancement in yield was recorded with consortium inoculant (LSBR-3 and LSE-2) by 3.47% over the LSBR-3 alone. Application of consortium inoculant (LSBR-3 + LSE-2) gave an additional income of Rs. 5089/ha over the un-inoculated control treatment. The results, thus strongly suggest that endophytic diazotroph LSE-2 can be used as potent bio-inoculant along with LSBR-3 as bio-enhancer for improving soybean productivity in a sustainable system.


Assuntos
Bradyrhizobium/fisiologia , Endófitos , Nutrientes , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/microbiologia , Simbiose , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bradyrhizobium/isolamento & purificação , Índia , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/análise , Oxirredutases/análise , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/análise , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Brotos de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/microbiologia , Potássio/análise , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/classificação , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sideróforos/metabolismo , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Solubilidade , Virulência , Zinco/metabolismo
13.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 127: 120-126, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878528

RESUMO

Bamboo shoot shell (BSS) was enzymatically decomposed to yield insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and total dietary fiber (TDF), which were investigated for their hypoglycemic properties using in vitro and in vivo methods. The results indicated that SDF exhibited significantly higher glucose adsorbing capacity than those of IDF and TDF. Moreover, SDF showed similar inhibition potential against α-amylase with acarbose. TDF displayed the greater capacities of delaying glucose diffusion and inhibition of α-glucosidase than those of SDF. In the diabetic mice, after 4-week administration of BSS fibers or metformin, the blood glucose levels were significantly reduced and the oral glucose tolerance was improved. TDF and IDF hardly influenced the blood insulin level, while SDF could significantly increase blood insulin level. The results showed that BSS fibers could be a potentially available dietary ingredient in functional food.


Assuntos
Bambusa/química , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Brotos de Planta/química , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Alimento Funcional , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Técnicas In Vitro , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Estreptozocina , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
14.
Chemosphere ; 225: 497-506, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897473

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) is a significant contaminant in the environment and its detection through macrophytes can provide a powerful tool. Myriophyllum alterniflorum constitutes a good candidate by virtue of its ability to accumulate contaminants, and moreover its biomarkers can respond to the presence of trace metals and metalloids. The objective of this study therefore is to evaluate the watermilfoil response to As exposure under several hydrodynamic conditions since it is well known that hydrodynamics affect plant functioning. For this purpose, fresh watermilfoil plants are subjected to three hydrodynamic conditions, namely laminar, turbulent and calm, in a synthetic medium either enriched or not by 100 µg.L-1 arsenic for 21 days. Growth, pigment content (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids), respiratory and photosynthetic activities, osmotic potential and hydrogen peroxide concentration are all monitored. Arsenic accumulation is measured separately in the roots and shoots of Myriophyllum alterniflorum. On the one hand, it should be noted that arsenic induces: (i) a significant increase in H2O2 content; (ii) a decrease in osmotic potential, pigment content, photosynthesis and respiration rates, shoot and root growth; and (iii) an inhibition of shoot branching. Moreover, a higher accumulation of this metalloid in roots than in shoots, regardless of the hydrodynamic condition, is witnessed. While on the other hand, hydrodynamic conditions only affect watermilfoil morphology and arsenic accumulation. Also, the younger and older parts have experienced differential toxic effects. Overall, our results suggest the effective use of M. alterniflorum in both water quality biomonitoring and phytoremediation studies.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hidrodinâmica , Raízes de Plantas/química , Brotos de Planta/química , Saxifragales/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Carotenoides/análise , Clorofila/análise , Clorofila A/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligoelementos/toxicidade , Qualidade da Água
15.
Chemosphere ; 224: 265-271, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825852

RESUMO

Two common organic wastes from agriculture (rice straw) and forestry (sawdust) were applied to a petroleum-contaminated soil to estimate their effectiveness in the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Rice straw was the more effective amendment than the other treatments in reducing TPH contents and addition of sawdust resulted in a significant decrease in PAH removal, particularly high-molecular-weight (5-6 ring) PAHs. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) indicates that rice straw treatment separated only the bacterial community but sawdust greatly affected both the soil bacterial and fungal communities. Moreover, the abundance of some petroleum degraders such as the bacteria Sphingomonas, Idiomarina and Phenylobacterium and the fungi Humicola, Wallemia and Graphium was promoted by inputs of the two agricultural and forestry wastes. These results highlight the potential of waste applications in accelerating hydrocarbon biodegradation which may be attributed to the enrichment of keystone taxa that show strong positive associations with hydrocarbon degradation.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Petróleo/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Oryza/química , Brotos de Planta/química , Madeira/química
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 176: 42-49, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921695

RESUMO

In order to investigate the toxicity-resistance of eighteen Chinese native plants in lead (Pb)-zinc (Zn) mine tailings, we categorized their resistance to Pb and Zn, and tested their potential for phytoremediation effectiveness of Pb and Zn. Fourteen woody plant species belonging to 12 families, and 4 herbaceous species belonging to 4 families, were grown in pots with mixtures of 100% tailing +0% peat (CK), 90% tailing +10% peat (A1), and 80% tailing + 20% peat (A2), respectively. Plant height and biomass, chlorophyll content, and Pb and Zn contents of non-rhizosphere spoil mixtures and plant tissues were measured. Fifteen of the plants grew in all three spoil mixtures. Both A1 and A2 had higher plant height and biomass increment and chlorophyll contents than CK. The content of Pb and Zn in plant shoots and roots was CK > A1 > A2. The value of BCF less than 0.1, compared to 1, was a more precise classification basis for plants excluding metals. Screening for Pb and Zn resistant plants and their bioremediation potential produced the following candidate species: Sapium sebiferum, Salix matsudana, Hibiscus cannabinus, Corchorus capsularis, Ricinus communis, and Populus nigra. These species were highly Pb and Zn tolerant species, with notable growth characteristics and capacities to bioaccumulate Pb and Zn from the mine tailings. Compared to CK, the removal of Pb and Zn from non-rhizosphere spoil increased by an average of 9.64% and 9.6%, respectively in A1, but decreased in A2. The results indicated candidate species and 10% peat addition in the tailing were significant in phytoremediation of Pb and Zn regarding environmental safety.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Chumbo/análise , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/fisiologia , Solo , Zinco/análise , Biomassa , China , Corchorus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Corchorus/metabolismo , Hibiscus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hibiscus/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Mineração , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/química , Populus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Populus/metabolismo , Ricinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ricinus/metabolismo , Salix/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salix/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Madeira/química , Madeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Madeira/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo
17.
Food Chem ; 288: 86-95, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902319

RESUMO

For the first time, the possibility of using vine-shoots as enological additives, similar to oak chips, is proposed. Their volatile and phenolic compounds contribution to a model wine was studied. Variables such as vine-shoot vinifera (Airén and Cencibel), size (chip and granule), toasting (toasted and non-toasted), dosage (4 and 12 g/L) and maceration time (1, 7, 21, 35 and 120 days) were tested. Results showed an important transference of high-value enological compounds after 35 days of maceration with 12 g/L of toasted vine-shoots. Vanillin or guaiacol were found in concentrations always higher than their wine odor thresholds, depending on the variety and vine-shoot formats used. Moreover, trans-resveratrol and ellagic acid stand out for their high concentrations. This transference rate shows the enological aptitude of vine-shoots with a possibly positive contribution in real wines, both at sensory and functional level, although future studies in real wines must be carried out.


Assuntos
Brotos de Planta/química , Vinho/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Benzaldeídos/análise , Guaiacol/análise , Fenóis/análise , Resveratrol/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
18.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 137: 102-112, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771564

RESUMO

Potassium (K) is the most required macronutrient by Eucalyptus, while sodium (Na) can partially substitute some physiological functions of K and have a positive response on plant growth in K-depleted tropical soils. However, the right percentage of K substitution by Na is not yet known for Eucalyptus seedlings, since a few experiments have only compared treatments receiving K or Na. This study evaluated five levels of Na supply (0, 0.45, 0.90, 1.35 and 1.80 mM) as substitution for K in Eucalyptus seedlings grown in nutrient solution. Plants growth, biomass, K-nutritional status, leaf gas exchange, leaf carbon isotopic composition (δ13C ‰), leaf water potential (Ψw), leaf area (LA), stomatal density (SD) and water use efficiency (WUE) were measured. The highest total biomass yield was achieved by the Na estimated rate of 0.25 mM, corresponding to a leaf K: Na ratio of 3.41, and having the lowest δ13C values. Conversely, the highest Na rate (1.8 mM) induced K deficiency symptoms, lower growth, reduced total dry matter yield, leaf gas exchange, LA, SD and a higher δ13C, which presented a trend to an inverse correlation with CO2 assimilation rate (A), WUE and shoot dry matter. Collectively, our results conclude that substitution of 25% of K by Na (0.45 mM of Na) provided significant gains in nutritional status and positive plant physiological responses by increasing WUE, stomatal diffusion, and by augmenting CO2 uptake efficiency. This nutritional management can therefore be an alternative option to optimize yields and resource use efficiencies in Eucalyptus cultivation.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Potássio/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , Eucalyptus/efeitos dos fármacos , Eucalyptus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômatos de Plantas/fisiologia , Potássio/farmacologia , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Sódio/farmacologia , Água/metabolismo
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30699929

RESUMO

Zinc (as an essential phytonutrient) and cadmium (as a toxic but readily bioavailable nonessential metal for plants) share similar routes for crossing plant biomembranes, although with a substantially different potential for translocation into above-ground tissues. The in situ distribution of these metals in plant cells and tissues (particularly intensively-dividing and fast-growing areas) is poorly understood. In this study, 17-day-old radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants grown in nutrient solution were subjected to short-term (24 h) equimolar contamination (2.2 µM of each 70Zn and Cd) to investigate their accumulation and distribution in the shoot apex (leaf primordia) and edible fleshy hypocotyl tissues. After 24-h exposure, radish hypocotyl had similar concentration (in µg/g dry weight) of 70Zn (12.1 ± 1.1) and total Cd (12.9 ± 0.8), with relatively limited translocation of both metals to shoots (concentrations lower by 2.5-fold for 70Zn and 4.8-fold for Cd) as determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The in situ Zn/Cd distribution maps created by high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS, Cameca, Gennevilliers, France) imaging corresponded well with the ICP-MS data, confirming a similar pattern and uniform distribution of 70Zn and Cd across the examined areas. Both applied techniques can be powerful tools for quantification (ICP-MS) and localisation and visualisation (NanoSIMS) of some ultra-trace isotopes in the intensively-dividing cells and fast-growing tissues of non-metalophytes even after short-term metal exposure. The results emphasise the importance of the quality of (agro)ecosystem resources (growing media, metal-contaminated soils/waters) in the public health risk, given that, even under low contamination and short-term exposure, some of the most toxic metallic ions (e.g., Cd) can relatively rapidly enter the human food chain.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Brotos de Planta/química , Raphanus/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Zinco/análise , Hipocótilo/química , Espectrometria de Massa de Íon Secundário
20.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791362

RESUMO

Edible sprouts with germinating seeds of a few days of age are naturally rich in nutrients and other bioactive compounds. Among them, the cruciferous (Brassicaceae) sprouts stand out due to their high contents of glucosinolates (GLSs) and phenolic compounds. In order to obtain sprouts enriched in these phytochemicals, elicitation is being increasing used as a sustainable practice. Besides, the evidence regarding the bioavailability and the biological activity of these compounds after their dietary intake has also attracted growing interest in recent years, supporting the intake of the natural food instead of enriched ingredients or extracts. Also, there is a growing interest regarding their uses, consumption, and applications for health and wellbeing, in different industrial sectors. In this context, the present review aims to compile and update the available knowledge on the fundamental aspects of production, enrichment in composition, and the benefits upon consumption of diverse edible cruciferous sprouts, which are sources of phenolic compounds and glucosinolates, as well as the evidence on their biological actions in diverse pathophysiological situations and the molecular pathways involved.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Dieta , Germinação , Glucosinolatos/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Brotos de Planta/química , Sementes/química , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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