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1.
Infez Med ; 28(suppl 1): 37-41, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532936

RESUMO

In December 2019, a new Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in China, causing the pandemic disease COVID-19. The clinical presentation is variable, but the predominant symptoms are those of the upper respiratory tract. AIM: The aim of the current study is to describe the incidence and type of the gastrointestinal injury (GI) in COVID-19, as well as their prognostic value. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a coincidental search on this topic in PubMed, Web of Science and EMBASE. We also followed a group of 31 Bulgarian COVID-19 patients throughout the course of their disease and analyzed their symptoms (catarrhal and other) and outcome. RESULTS: The publications concerning our survey followed a total of 1509 COVID-19 patients. In the Bulgarian cohort, only 14 from the 31 patients were laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases. Approximately 1/3 of the infected individuals presented with GI. In some patients this was the first, or only, symptom of the disease. It was also indicative of a more severe disease course. CONCLUSION: GI may be an important symptom and prognostic factor in COVID-19. Therefore, patients with acute gastrointestinal symptoms must be actively tested for SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Diarreia/etiologia , Náusea/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Vômito/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bulgária/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Resfriado Comum/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Sintomas , Vômito/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Exp Parasitol ; 212: 107874, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179068

RESUMO

Bulgaria is one of European countries where trichinellosis continues to be regularly diagnosed and registered. The clinical and epidemiological features of 72 cases of trichinellosis associated with five outbreaks caused by Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi between 2009 and 2011, are described. At hospital admission, patients were often initially treated with antibiotics, without any improvement. A range of signs and symptoms were recorded, including: myalgia, elevated temperature, arthralgia, difficulty with movement, facial oedema, conjunctival hyperaemia, ocular haemorrhages, diarrhoea, skin rash, headache, and fatigue. Due to the variable clinical course of the disease, the diagnostic process for trichinellosis is often complex and difficult. This means the diagnosis may be established late for an appropriate treatment, potentially leading to a severe course of the disease with complications. Laboratory abnormalities were expressed by marked eosinophilia (97.2%), leucocytosis (70.8%), elevated serum creatine phosphokinase levels (82%), and antibody-positive results by ELISA and indirect hemagglutination. Patients were treated with albendazole (Zentel) 10 mg/kg for 7-10 days. In two outbreaks, the aetiological agent was T. spiralis, in one outbreak T. britovi, and an unknown Trichinella species in the fourth outbreak. The sources of infection were domestic pigs, probably fed with scraps and offal of wild game. In one outbreak, T. spiralis was also detected in brown rats trapped close to where the pig had been raised in the backyard. These epidemiological factors are relevant in considering implementation of targeted control programmes.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Trichinella spiralis , Triquinelose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Bulgária/epidemiologia , Criança , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Eosinofilia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Carne/parasitologia , Produtos da Carne/parasitologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ratos , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Trichinella/isolamento & purificação , Trichinella spiralis/isolamento & purificação , Triquinelose/sangue , Triquinelose/diagnóstico , Triquinelose/prevenção & controle , Ursidae/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229600, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134932

RESUMO

The effects of habitat loss on the distribution of populations are often linked with species specialization degree. Specialist species can be more affected by changes in landscape structure and local patch characteristics compared to generalist species. Moreover, the spatial scale at which different land covers (eg. habitat, cropland, urban areas) affect specialist species can be smaller. Specialization is usually assumed as a constant trait along the distribution range of species. However, for several taxa, there is evidence of higher specialization degree in peripheral populations compared with populations in the core. Hence, peripheral populations should have a higher sensitivity to habitat loss, and strongest effects should be found at a smaller spatial scale. To test these expectations, we implemented a patch-landscape approach at different spatial scales, and compared effects of landscape structure and patch characteristics on occupancy probability among northern peripheral, more specialized populations (Czech Republic) and core populations (Bulgaria) of the eastern green lizard Lacerta viridis. We found that landscape structure and patch characteristics affect differently the occupancy probability of Lacerta viridis in each region. Strongest effects of habitat loss were found at a spatial scale of 150m around patches in the periphery, but at a scale of 500m in the core. In the periphery occupancy probability of populations was principally affected by landscape composition, and the effect of habitat quality was stronger compared to core populations. In the core, persistence of populations was mainly explained by characteristics of the spatial configuration of habitat patches. We discuss possible ecological mechanisms behind the relationship between sensitivity to habitat loss, populations' specialization degree and position in the distribution range, and suggest conservation measures for L. viridis.


Assuntos
Lagartos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Bulgária , República Tcheca , Ecologia/métodos , Ecossistema , Probabilidade
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 194: 110413, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163775

RESUMO

Polymetal dust is a common industrial pollutant. While the use of remediation filters and equipment in lead smelters has reduced pollutant emission, surrounding areas remain contaminated due to the long-term transfer of heavy metals along the food chain. Here we assess the mutagenic potential of the lead-zinc smelter near Plovdiv (Bulgaria) situated in an area that has been contaminated with heavy metals for 60 years. We aimed to evaluate the genomic response of the yellow-necked mouse (A. flavicollis), a biomonitor species, in three sampling sites along the pollution gradient. Mice from Strandzha Natural Park were used as a negative control. The bioaccumulation rate of two non-essential heavy metals, lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), in liver tissues was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Genetic alterations attributable to chronic exposure to trace levels of heavy metals were assessed in different blood cell populations using two independent methods: a micronucleus test was applied to evaluate the clastogenic and aneugenic alterations in erythrocytes, while a comet assay was used to assess DNA instability, as evidenced by single- and double-stranded breaks and alkali-labile sites, in leucocytes. We observed elevated levels of Pb and Cd in livers derived from mice from the impacted area: the mean Pb concentration (21.38 ± 8.77 µg/g) was two-fold higher than the lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels (LOAELs), while the mean Cd concentration (13.95 ± 9.79 µg/g) was extremely close to these levels. The mean levels of Pb and Cd in livers derived from mice from the impacted area were 31-fold and 63-fold higher, respectively, than the levels measured in mice from the control area. The mean frequency of micronuclei was significantly higher (four-fold) than that observed in the control animals. Furthermore, parameters measured by the comet assay, % tail DNA, tail length and tail moment, were significantly higher in the impact area, indicating the degree of genetic instability caused by exposure to heavy metals. In conclusion, this study shows that despite the reported reduction in lead and cadmium emissions in Bulgaria in recent years, A. flavicollis individuals inhabiting areas subject to long-term contamination exhibit significant signs of DNA damage.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Instabilidade Genômica/efeitos dos fármacos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Animais , Bulgária , Cádmio/análise , Ensaio Cometa , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Poeira/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Chumbo/análise , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Testes para Micronúcleos
7.
Waste Manag Res ; 38(1_suppl): 3-22, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928165

RESUMO

This article focuses on quantitative prevention of municipal solid waste among the 28 member countries of the European Union. A strict definition of waste prevention is used, including waste avoidance, waste reduction at source or in process, and product reuse, while recycling is outside the scope of this article. In order to provide a solid overview of the European situation, the study selected six countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Italy, the Netherlands, Romania and Spain). Several selection requirements have been considered, such as geographic location or municipal solid waste per capita production trends from 1995 to 2017. A review of prevention programmes and other national strategic documents has been conducted. Extended producer responsibility, Pay-As-You-Throw schemes, Deposit-Refund Systems and Environmental Taxes implementation among the selected countries have been studied in order to understand how these market-based instruments can be used for the sake of waste prevention. Each market-based instrument has been further analysed using the Drivers Pressures State Impact Response model. Based on the results of this study, the effectiveness of market-based instruments implementation is strictly related to the context they are enforced in. It is particularly important to tailor the market-based instruments based on the implementation area. Nevertheless, market-based instruments, which are now mostly meant to boost the recycling sector of the considered Member States, should be designed to improve waste prevention performances, ensuring the achievement of the highest level of waste hierarchy promoted by the European Union.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Bélgica , Bulgária , União Europeia , Itália , Países Baixos , Reciclagem , Romênia , Resíduos Sólidos , Espanha
8.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(2): 323-327, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659380

RESUMO

Microbial changes in vaginal ecosystem may accelerate the process of cervical carcinogenesis. The developed cervical cancer can lead to changes in the vaginal microbiota. The aim of our study is to determine the vaginal microbiota changes at women with FIGO I stage cervical cancer. We conducted an open, single-site survey in the Department of Gynecology of the Military Medical Academy in Sofia, Bulgaria, from 2014 to 2019 year. The study included a total of 32 women aged 38-55 years with clinical and pathology established cervical cancer (FIGO I stage). The underlying vaginal DNA microbiological test indicated presence or absence of bacterial vaginosis, other vaginal infections or normal vaginal microbiota. Of 32 (100%) women enrolled in our study, 19 (59.4%) was with FIGO IA stage cervical cancer and 13 (40.6%) with IB stage. Disturbances of vaginal microbiota in we found at 23 (71.9%) of women with cervical cancer included in our study. At the rest of 9 (28.1%) women we found out normal vaginal microbiota. Bacterial vaginosis was determined clinically and microbiologically in 15 (46.9%) women enrolled in the study. Aerobic vaginitis caused by Streptococcus species we establish at 4 (12.5%) of women. Trichomonas vaginalis infection have 1 (3.1%) women and Candida Albicans the last one 1 (3.1%) from this group with disturbed vaginal microbial balance. Bacterial dysbacteriosis, characterized by a predominance of Gardnerella vaginalis alone or in complex with other anaerobic bacteria, aerobic vaginitis and other sexually transmitted vaginal pathogens from one side and a concomitant paucity of vaginal Lactobacillus species may be an HPV-dependent cofactor for cervical neoplasia development. Only with this single observation it is difficult to confirm that vaginal microbiota dysbiosis contributes to HPV infection and carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/microbiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Adulto , Bulgária , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Gardnerella vaginalis/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lactobacillus/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vaginite por Trichomonas/parasitologia , Trichomonas vaginalis/isolamento & purificação , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/microbiologia
9.
J Homosex ; 67(3): 325-334, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372374

RESUMO

This article explores the development of LGBTQ studies and scholarship in Bulgaria. In part, it brings to the forefront the personal experiences of some of the first Bulgarian scholars working on LGBTQ studies. The personal is interpreted in part through explorations of Bourdieu's concept of "symbolic violence." Elaborating on the challenges regarding the emergence and the development of LGBTQ studies on an institutional and personal level, I discuss three main topics: (1) the emergence and the development of LGBTQ scholarship and university courses in Bulgaria; (2) the main institutional obstacles and the "symbolic violence" within the academia against scholars dealing with LGBTQ subjects, including issues of funding, evaluation, and discrimination; and (3) the future development of the subject in Bulgaria, with a particular attention to the need for "LGBTQ studies solidarity" to overcome the disadvantaged position of LGBTQ scholars in post-socialist countries.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Bulgária , Educação/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa/tendências , Comunicação Acadêmica , Socialismo , Universidades , Violência
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847692

RESUMO

A GC-MS method in SIM mode is proposed for routine analysis of nineteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm. The latter is collected on Whatman® QM-A quartz filters via OPSIS SM200 sampler during autumn and spring periods at two different points, i.e. the one affected from communal and industry sectors and the other affected mainly from the transportation sector. In order to recover PAHs of interest ultrasonic assisted extraction is employed by utilization of various solvents. Accuracy data of the developed analytical method are within acceptable limits for the studied concentration range, i.e. trueness 60.0-120.0% and precision < 20.0%. The elaborated methodology is characterized by advantages such as short extraction time, low solvent and reagent consumption and simplified cleaning and is successfully applied to airborne PM10, collected in the urban area of Burgas, Bulgaria.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Bulgária , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Limite de Detecção , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Solventes/química
11.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(12)2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835382

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a histological type of malignant tumor arising from the uncontrolled mitosis of transformed cells originating in epithelial tissue. It is a rare subtype of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. There are significant differences in frequency, mean age, viral status, and outcomes in Asian or Caucasian patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of all cases of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the cervix at the Clinic of Oncogynecology, University Hospital, Pleven, Bulgaria between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2016 was performed. All patients were followed-up till March 2019. We analyzed some clinical characteristics of the patients, calculated the frequency of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the cervix from all patients with stage I cervical cancer, and looked at the overall survival rate, the 5-year survival rate, and the correlation between overall survival, lymph node status, and the size of the tumor. Results: The frequency of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma was 3.3% for all cases with cervical carcinoma at stage I. The mean age of the patients with LELC was 49.6 years (range 32-67). Fourteen patients (82.4%) were in the FIGO IB1 stage, three patients (17.6%) were in the FIGO IB2 stage. Lymph nodes were metastatic in three patients (17.6%), non-metastatic in 13 patients (76.5%), and unknown in one patient. The overall survival rate was 76.47% for the study period and the 5-year survival rate of the patients that were followed-up until the 5th year (14 patients) was 69.23%. Conclusions: Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma is a rare SCC subtype, but it could be more frequent among western patients than previously thought. Our results do not confirm the data showing low risk of lymph metastasis and good prognosis of LELC, which is why we think that the treatment in these cases has to be more aggressive than is reported in the literature.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bulgária/epidemiologia , Carcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/radioterapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitalização , Humanos , Histerectomia , Excisão de Linfonodo/métodos , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Linfoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1648, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) field in Europe has been a focus of research developments and public health policy changes for years. However, these processes are still in their infancy phase in Bulgaria. In this paper, homeopathy is the investigated CAM-modality at a Bulgarian context. The aim is threefold: 1) to outline the sociodemographic profile of the chronically ill adult patients (≥18 years old) who choose homeopathic medical treatment (HMT); 2) To identify the patients' sources and needs of information about homeopathy, and the reasons to use HMT; and 3) to measure health-related outcomes in patients who have visited homeopathic clinics to look for HMT of their chronic conditions. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational multi-centered study (≥18 years old, n = 211) was conducted between June 2016 to Dec. 2017 in Bulgaria. Potentially eligible participants for the study were all chronically ill patients who had been receiving HMT for a year or more and had visited the homeopathic clinics for a follow up within the study period. The EQ-5D-3L instrument was applied with an additional questionnaire on sociodemographic and health related data. RESULTS, DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The study results outlined the country specific sociodemographic profile of the chronically ill homeopathic patients in Bulgaria: they are predominantly female, with higher education and at the age groups between 30 and 50. The EQ-5D-3L version, was applied to measure patients' health-related quality of life and to promote the use of a standardized generic instrument as a complementary and reliable scientific tool to assess the patient-reported outcomes of the homeopathic patients. Regarding the reasons of choice: the participants choose HMT because it is safe and mild, to avoid excessive antibiotic use, because the conventional treatment was not successful, etc. The study confirms the social demand for more scientific information about homeopathy. Participants stated that the medical universities' curriculum should keep pace with the modern CAM-developments. A key message is that the future of the successful chronic disease management is in the integration of the conventional and CAM-modalities and these processes should be facilitated through public health regulations, education and research. The presented study is a supportive action in this direction.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Doença Crônica/terapia , Homeopatia/métodos , Fitoterapia/métodos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Bulgária , Comportamento de Escolha , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Homeopatia/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 19(1): 132, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This analysis evaluates the cost-effectiveness of insulin degludec (degludec) versus biosimilar insulin glargine U100 (glargine U100) in patients with type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Bulgaria. METHODS: A simple, short-term model was used to compare the treatment costs and outcomes associated with hypoglycaemic events with degludec versus glargine U100 in patients with T1DM and T2DM from the perspective of the Bulgarian National Health Insurance Fund. Cost-effectiveness was analysed over a 1-year time horizon using data from clinical trials. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was the main outcome measure. RESULTS: In Bulgaria, degludec was highly cost-effective versus glargine U100 in people with T1DM and T2DM. The ICERs were estimated to be 4493.68 BGN/quality-adjusted life year (QALY) in T1DM, 399.11 BGN/QALY in T2DM on basal oral therapy (T2DMBOT) and 7365.22 BGN/QALY in T2DM on basal bolus therapy (T2DMB/B), which are below the cost-effectiveness threshold of 39,619 BGN in Bulgaria. Degludec was associated with higher insulin costs in all three patient groups; however, savings from a reduction in hypoglycaemic events with degludec versus glargine U100 partially offset these costs. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the results were robust and largely insensitive to variations in input parameters. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of 39,619 BGN/QALY, the probability of degludec being cost-effective versus glargine U100 was 60.0% in T1DM, 99.4% in T2DMBOT and 91.3% in T2DMB/B. CONCLUSION: Degludec is a cost-effective alternative to biosimilar glargine U100 for patients with T1DM and T2DM in Bulgaria. Degludec could be of particular benefit to those patients suffering recurrent hypoglycaemia and those who require additional flexibility in the dosing of insulin.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Insulina Glargina/uso terapêutico , Insulina de Ação Prolongada/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Medicamentos Biossimilares/economia , Bulgária/epidemiologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina Glargina/economia , Insulina de Ação Prolongada/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Avian Dis ; 63(4): 641-650, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865679

RESUMO

The aim of the present investigation is to report the prevalence of spontaneous fractures associated with leg skeletal pathology and compromised welfare in commercial broiler chickens. Our studies focused on fractures of different leg segments (femur, tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus) detected as incidental findings during pathoanatomic examinations in cases of rickets, tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), and femoral head necrosis (FHN). The morphogenetic and etiopathogenetic aspects of the findings were further investigated through histopathologic, bacteriologic, and bone mineral analyses. The gross anatomy study showed that in about 10% of bones affected by rickets-specific lesions, fractures of the proximal tibiotarsus were present. A relatively low percentage (6.5%) of fractures of the same anatomic location could be attributed to TD lesions. The highest prevalence of fractures (68.5%), mainly of the proximal femur, was associated with FHN and osteomyelites. The results from the large-scale field surveys allowed us to confirm that the prevalence of spontaneous bone fractures of the legs in broiler chickens was largely associated with FHN, rickets, and TD. The poor vascularization of the grown prehypertrophic cartilage in cases of rickets and TD, as well as the osteolytic lesions in FHN, resulted in degenerative, necrobiotic processes which may entail bone fractures.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal/estatística & dados numéricos , Galinhas , Fraturas Ósseas/veterinária , Osteocondrodisplasias/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Tíbia/patologia , Animais , Bulgária/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/patologia , Incidência , Osteocondrodisplasias/epidemiologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Prevalência
15.
Nutrients ; 11(12)2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847144

RESUMO

The present study describes the geographically isolated Pomak population and its particular dietary patterns in relationship to cardiovascular risk factors. We collected a population-based cohort in a cross-sectional study, with detailed anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, and lifestyle parameter information. Dietary patterns were derived through principal component analysis based on a validated food-frequency questionnaire, administered to 1702 adult inhabitants of the Pomak villages on the Rhodope mountain range in Greece. A total of 69.9% of the participants were female with a population mean age of 44.9 years; 67% of the population were overweight or obese with a significantly different prevalence for obesity between men and women (17.5% vs. 37.5%, respectively, p < 0.001). Smoking was more prevalent in men (45.8% vs. 2.2%, p < 0.001), as 97.3% of women had never smoked. Four dietary patterns emerged as characteristic of the population, and were termed "high in sugars", "quick choices", "balanced", and "homemade". Higher adherence to the "high in sugars" dietary pattern was associated with increased glucose levels (p < 0.001) and increased risk of hypertension (OR (95% CI) 2.61 (1.55, 4.39), p < 0.001) and nominally associated with high blood glucose levels (OR (95% CI) 1.85 (1.11, 3.08), p = 0.018), compared to lower adherence. Overall, we characterize the dietary patterns of the Pomak population and describe associations with cardiovascular risk factors.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Açúcares da Dieta/análise , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adulto , Bulgária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão , Islamismo , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 605, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parasites may actively seek for hosts and may use a number of adaptive strategies to promote their reproductive success and host colonization. These strategies will necessarily influence their host specificity and seasonality. Ticks are important ectoparasites of vertebrates, which (in addition to directly affecting their hosts) may transmit a number of pathogens. In Europe, three hard tick species (Ixodidae: Ixodes ariadnae, I. simplex and I. vespertilionis) and at least two soft tick species (Argasidae: Argas transgariepinus and A. vespertilionis) are specialized for bats. METHODS: Here we report data on the host range of these ticks and the seasonality of tick infestation on wild caught bats in south-east Europe. We collected 1803 ticks from 30 species of bats living in underground shelters (caves and mines) from Romania and Bulgaria. On the basis of tick-host associations, we tested several hypotheses on host-parasite evolutionary adaptations regulating host specificity, seasonality and sympatric speciation. RESULTS: We observed significant differences in host specificity and seasonality of abundance between the morphologically different bat specialist ticks (I. simplex and I. vespertilionis) likely caused by their host choice and their respective host-seeking behavior. The two highly generalist, but morphologically similar tick species (I. ariadnae and I. vespertilionis) showed temporal differences in occurrence and activity, thus exploiting significantly different host communities while occurring in geographical sympatry. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that bat-specialist ticks show a wide range of adaptations to their hosts, with differences in specificity, seasonality of occurrence, the prevalence and intensity of infestation and all these contribute to a successful division of temporal niches of ticks sharing morphologically similar hosts occurring in geographical sympatry.


Assuntos
Argas/fisiologia , Quirópteros/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Ixodes/fisiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Argas/classificação , Argas/genética , Bulgária , Quirópteros/classificação , Ixodes/classificação , Ixodes/genética , Filogenia , Romênia , Estações do Ano , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
17.
Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat ; 28(4): 149-152, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855267

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and dermatomyositis (DM) share a similar pathogenesis, and genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors are known to trigger the autoimmune process. The X-ray repair cross-complementing genes (XRCC1 and XRCC3) are known to play a central role in mammalian DNA repair processes. Evidence suggests that impaired DNA repair efficiency is implicated in the development of autoimmune diseases. This case-control study investigates the association between the XRCC1 Arg194Trp (C>T) and Arg399Gln (G>A) polymorphisms and the susceptibility to DM and SLE in Bulgarian patients. METHODS: Altogether 88 patients, 55 with SLE and 33 with DM, and 94 unrelated healthy controls were included in this study. RESULTS: None of the polymorphisms showed an association with SLE, DM, or their clinical parameters. The allele and genotype frequency of the two single nucleotide polymorphisms was similar to those found in other healthy Caucasian populations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the XRCC1 rs1799782 Arg194Trp and rs25487 Arg399Gln polymorphisms do not play a role in the susceptibility to SLE and DM.


Assuntos
Dermatomiosite/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Proteína 1 Complementadora Cruzada de Reparo de Raio-X/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Bulgária , Dermatomiosite/epidemiologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 902, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The statins are а developing group of cardiovascular medicines, widely used for dyslipidemia. As a whole statins consumption leads to reduction in cardiovascular events and death, and improves the disease control. The main study issue considers the differences in an affordability to lipid lowering medicines in the countries with the highest morbidity and mortally rate within and outside EU. The affordability has been researched by exploring the price differences and average wages. METHODS: On total 7 international nonproprietary names and 19 dosage forms available on both markets are observed during 2013-2016. An average, minimum, and maximum retail prices per DDD, standard deviation (SD) has been calculated for all marketed dosage forms. A price ratio between the minimal and maximal price per DDD is estimated in order to evaluate their difference. Affordability of the treatment is determined as the number of working hours per month needed for patient to purchase medicines for a monthly therapy. RESULTS: Large variations of price per DDD, SD and the average price exist between different dosage forms in both countries. The highest value of a price ratio is observed for 5 mg rosuvastatin in Bulgaria and 10 mg rosuvastatin in Ukraine. The number of working hours needed to cover monthly therapy has increased during 2013-2016 in Ukraine. The most affordable is treatment with a generic atorvastatin in Bulgaria and generic rosuvastatin in Ukraine. The most expensive rosuvastatin in Bulgaria and atorvastatin in Ukraine are found as the least affordable for a monthly therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The decrease of prices for statins is not the only reason influencing patients' affordability to therapy for statin therapy in Ukraine and Bulgaria. The difference in affordability in Ukraine and Bulgaria is affected mainly by the economic development in the country as well as wages variation.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos e Análise de Custo , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/economia , Bulgária , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Ucrânia
19.
Fitoterapia ; 139: 104421, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730794

RESUMO

Three new prenyloxy chromanone derivatives, aucherine A-C (6, 7 and 9) as well as six known prenylated phloroglucinols (1-5 and 8) were isolated from the aerial parts of Hypericum aucheri Jaub. Et Spach. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by means of spectral techniques (HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR). The new compounds were tested on а panel of human tumor cell line using MTT assay. All tested compounds exerted moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging from 19.6 to 57.8 µM. The influence of the new compounds on some key signaling molecules (procaspase-9 and Bcl-xL), implicated in the regulation of programmed cell death was assessed by Western blot analysis.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Cromonas/farmacologia , Hypericum/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Apoptose , Bulgária , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromonas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Floroglucinol/isolamento & purificação , Floroglucinol/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Prenilação , Proteína bcl-X/metabolismo
20.
Zootaxa ; 4688(3): zootaxa.4688.3.8, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719442

RESUMO

Titanoeca deltshevi sp. n. is described and illustrated from Bulgaria. It appears closely related to T. praefica (Simon, 1870), T. spominima (Taczanowski, 1866) and partially (males only) to T. flavicoma L. Koch, 1872. A faunistic synopsis of the genus Titanoeca Thorell, 1870 in Bulgaria is also presented that is based on new field data and a review of the published literature. Titanoeca flavicoma is newly recorded for Bulgaria and T. turkmenia Wunderlich, 1995 is new for Bulgaria and Albania. Titanoeca incerta (Nosek, 1905) is removed from the Bulgarian, and therefore from the European spider checklists. The possible division of the European members of Titanoeca into three groups based on differences in copulatory and somatic traits is discussed.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Albânia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Península Balcânica , Bulgária , Masculino
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