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1.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(9): 944-946, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474079

RESUMO

To explore the mediating role of psychological resilience to childhood abuse and binge eating. This study assessed the childhood abuse, binge eating and psychological resilience of 3 453 middle school students in Harbin city, Heilongjiang Province. SPSS PROCESS macro program, combined with Bootstrap method, was employed to explore the mediating effect of psychological resilience. The incidence of middle school students experiencing at least one type of abuse in their childhood was 81.3% (2 807/3 453). Childhood abuse, psychological resilience and binge eating were all significantly different in terms of gender, household registration and whether they were only child (all P values<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between childhood abuse and binge eating. Psychological resilience was negatively associated with childhood abuse and binge eating. Childhood abuse could not only directly predict the binge eating behavior of adolescents, but also could indirectly affect it via psychological resilience.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Resiliência Psicológica , Adolescente , Bulimia/epidemiologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Eat Weight Disord ; 24(6): 1063-1070, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471885

RESUMO

PURPOSE: "Making weight" behaviors are unhealthy weight control strategies intended to reduce weight in an effort to meet weight requirements. This study aimed to examine a brief measure of making weight and to investigate the relationship between making weight and weight, binge eating, and eating pathology later in life. METHODS: Participants were veterans [N = 120, mean age 61.7, mean body mass index (BMI) 38.0, 89.2% male, 74.2% Caucasian] who were overweight/obese and seeking weight management treatment. Participants completed the making weight inventory (MWI), a measure of making weight behaviors engaged in during military service, and validated measures of eating behavior. Analyses compared participants who engaged in at least one making weight behavior (MWI+) versus those who did not (MWI-). RESULTS: The MWI had good internal consistency. One-third of participants were MWI+ and two-thirds were MWI-. The most frequently reported behavior was excessive exercise, reported in one-quarter of the sample, followed by fasting/skipping meals, sauna/rubber suit, laxatives, diuretics, and vomiting. MWI+ participants were significantly more likely to be in a younger cohort of veterans, to be an ethnic/racial minority, and to engage in current maladaptive eating behaviors, including binge eating, vomiting, emotional eating, food addiction, and night eating, compared to the MWI- group. Groups did not differ on BMI. CONCLUSIONS: One-third of veterans who were overweight/obese screened positive for engaging in making weight behaviors during military service. Findings provide evidence that efforts to "make weight" are related to binge eating and eating pathology later in life. Future research and clinical efforts should address how to best eliminate unhealthy weight control strategies in military service while also supporting healthy weight management efforts.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Militares , Veteranos , Perda de Peso , Bulimia/epidemiologia , Diuréticos , Exercício Físico , Jejum , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Dependência de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Laxantes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Banho a Vapor , Vômito
3.
J Behav Addict ; 8(3): 451-462, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gambling disorder (GD) and compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) may commonly co-occur. Yet, the psychiatric correlates of these co-occurring disorders are an untapped area of empirical scrutiny, limiting our understanding of appropriate treatment modalities for this dual-diagnosed population. This study examined the demographic and clinical correlates of CSB in a sample of treatment-seeking individuals with GD (N = 368) in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Psychiatrists and psychologists conducted semi-structured clinical interviews to identify rates of CSB and other comorbid psychiatric disorders. The Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire was administered to assess additional addictive behaviors. The TCI and BIS-11 were used to assess facets of personality. Demographic and gambling variables were also assessed. RESULTS: Of the total sample, 24 (6.5%) met diagnostic criteria for comorbid CSB (GD + CSB). Compared to those without compulsive sexual behaviors (GD - CSB), individuals with GD + CSB were more likely to be younger and male. No differences in gambling involvement emerged. Individuals with GD + CSB tended to have higher rates of psychiatric disorders (depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and bulimia nervosa) and engage in more addictive behaviors (problematic alcohol use, drug use, and exercise) compared to GD - CSB. Those with GD + CSB evidenced less self-directedness, cooperativeness, self-transcendence, and greater motor impulsivity. Logistic regression showed that the predictors of GD + CSB, which remained in the final model, were being male, a diagnosis of bulimia, greater gambling severity, and less self-transcendence. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Given those with GD + CSB evidence greater psychopathology, greater attention should be allocated to this often under studied comorbid condition to ensure adequate treatment opportunities.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Jogo de Azar/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bulimia/epidemiologia , Bulimia/fisiopatologia , Comorbidade , Comportamento Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 27(6): 628-640, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264316

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether obese patients with binge eating (BE) have higher alexithymic features; to explore the different relationships between psychological features (alexithymia, depression, and anxiety) and BE. METHOD: Three hundred sixty one obese BE-patients were evaluated for alexithymia, psychological distress, and BE. Alexithymia was measured with the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20); BE was assessed with the BE Scale (BES), and depression and anxiety symptoms were evaluated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). RESULTS: Patients with BE reported significantly higher TAS-20 total scores than those without BE (p < .001). The SEM analysis showed that the difficulty in identifying feelings (DIF) and difficulty in describing feelings (DDF) components of alexithymia affected BE along different pathways. DIF was found as a major factor influencing altered eating both directly (p = .20*) and above all through the mediation of psychological distress (p = .19***), whereas DDF affected BE only through psychological distress at a lesser extent (p = .09**). DISCUSSION: Alexithymic difficulties in affective awareness may play an important role in the onset and maintenance of BE, especially when patients experienced anxiety and depression symptoms. Clinicians involved in the management of obesity should address the combination of alexithymic traits and emotional distress by planning effective client-focused interventions.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Bulimia/epidemiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Redução de Peso , Adulto Jovem
5.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 27(6): 614-627, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095835

RESUMO

Psychiatric comorbidities are prevalent in youth eating disorders. In a sample of 1,906 youth from the United States (49.2% female), followed from elementary school into high school, we found support for a model to help explain this comorbidity. Endorsement of binge eating in fifth grade (elementary school) predicted increases in negative urgency, negative affect, and lack of planning in seventh grade (middle school). In turn, seventh grade negative urgency predicted increases in 10th grade (high school) externalizing dysfunction (binge eating, alcohol use problems, and smoking) and internalizing dysfunction (depressive symptoms). Seventh grade negative affect predicted increases in 10th grade binge eating and depressive symptoms. Seventh grade lack of planning predicted increases only in 10th grade externalizing behaviours. Early engagement in binge eating may elevate risk for multiple forms of dysfunction, at least in part due to its prediction of high-risk personality change in middle school.


Assuntos
Bulimia/epidemiologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Personalidade , Adolescente , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Criança , Comorbidade , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Med Clin North Am ; 103(4): 669-680, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078199

RESUMO

Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder and an important public health problem. Lifetime prevalence of BED in the United States is 2.6%. In contrast to other eating disorders, the female to male ratio in BED is more balanced. BED co-occurs with a plethora of psychiatric disorders, most commonly mood and anxiety disorders. BED is also associated with obesity and its numerous complications. Although BED is similar in men and women in presentation and treatment outcomes, there are some key neurobiological differences that should be taken in consideration when personalizing treatment.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/terapia , Bulimia/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Autoimagem , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos
7.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 27(4): 436-444, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016786

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine how childhood weight trajectories are associated with disordered eating behaviours (DEBs) in early adolescence. METHODS: Self-reports on DEBs (fasting, purging, and binge eating) were obtained from 18,337 children in the 11-year follow-up of the Danish National Birth Cohort. For this population, birth register information on gestational age and birth weight was categorized into the following: small, appropriate, and large for gestational age. Prospective parent-reported height and weight data at child ages 1 and 7 years were dichotomized using standardized cut-offs into non-overweight and overweight. A 12-category weight trajectory variable was created, and the associations between weight trajectory and DEBs were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: In total, 7.0% 11- to 12-year olds reported DEBs. Compared with children born appropriate for gestational age and being non-overweight at age 1 and 7 years, children born small for gestational age and who were overweight at age 1 and 7 years had a very high risk of disordered eating (OR 7.00; CI [2.57, 19.40]). The statistical analyses revealed, however, that overweight at age 7 years was the main contributor and independently of trajectory increased the risk of disordered eating at age 11-12 years significantly (OR 3.16 CI [2.73, 3.65]). CONCLUSION: Overweight not in the first year of life, but at age 7 years was more predictive for DEBs.


Assuntos
Trajetória do Peso do Corpo , Bulimia/epidemiologia , Jejum , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Sobrepeso , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
8.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(2): 217-224, Apr.-June 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013286

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the risk behavior for bulimia among female adolescents from public and private high schools. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a random sample of 850 female students aged 15-18 years was carried out in a city in northeastern Brazil, using the Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh (BITE) to assess the risk behavior for bulimia. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software and the Pearson's chi-square , Fisher's exact and robust Poisson regression tests, adopting the significance level of 5%. Results: Less than half of the sample (42.0%) showed standards of dietary risk and weight control practices; in 1.4% of the sample, bulimia signs were already installed. Fear of gaining weight was reported by 62.8% of the subjects. Risk practices were lower among students from public schools; (Odds Ratio - OR - 0.82; confidence interval of 95% - 95%CI - 0.69-0.97). Among restrictive practices, fasting for a whole day was the most applied (29.9% of the students). Among individuals who were at risk situation, almost half believed to have normal eating habits (prevalence ratio - PR - 0.42; 95%CI 0.36-0.49). Individuals who consider their eating habits normal, who are afraid of gaining weight, those who seek emotional comfort in food and follow strict diets had higher risk for bulimia (p<0.05). Conclusions: The number of female adolescent students with risk behavior practices for bulimia is high, and the frequency of those unaware of this situation is also very high. Risk situations emerge as a collective health problem, and individuals from private schools were more likely to be in this situation.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar comportamentos de risco para bulimia em adolescentes do sexo feminino de escolas públicas e particulares. Métodos: Estudo transversal com amostra aleatória de 850 estudantes do sexo feminino, com idades entre 15 e 18 anos, realizado em cidade do Nordeste do Brasil, utilizando o Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh (BITE) para avaliar comportamentos de risco para transtornos alimentares. Os dados foram analisados utilizando o teste do qui-quadrado de Pearson, o teste exato de Fisher e a regressão de Poisson, com o software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), adotando o nível de significância de p<0,05. Resultados: Da amostra estudada, 42,0% apresentou padrões de risco e práticas de dieta e controle de peso e 1,4% já apresentava sinais de bulimia instalados. O medo de ganhar peso foi relatado por 62,8% das adolescentes. As práticas de risco foram menos frequentes em estudantes de escolas públicas (Odds Ratio - OR - 0,82; intervalo de confiança de 95% - IC95% - 0,69-0,97). Entre as práticas restritivas, jejum por um dia inteiro foi o mais aplicado pelas participantes (29,9%). Entre os indivíduos com situação de risco, quase metade acreditava ter hábitos alimentares normais (razão de prevalência - RP - 0,42; IC95% 0,36-0,49). Estudantes que consideram seus hábitos alimentares normais, que têm medo de ganhar peso, que procuram conforto emocional em alimentos e seguem dietas rigorosas tiveram maior risco para bulimia (p<0,05). Conclusões: O número de estudantes com práticas de comportamento de risco para bulimia é alto, e o número daquelas que desconhecem essa situação também é muito alto. As situações de risco emergem como problemas de saúde coletiva, e indivíduos de escolas particulares são mais propensos a apresentar transtornos alimentares.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Estilo de Vida , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Bulimia/epidemiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Medição de Risco , Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Redutora/efeitos adversos , Dieta Redutora/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia
9.
Obes Surg ; 29(7): 2071-2077, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847764

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Food addiction and binge eating share overlapping and non-overlapping features; the presence of both may represent a more severe obesity subgroup among treatment-seeking samples. Loss-of-control (LOC) eating, a key marker of binge eating, is one of the few consistent predictors of suboptimal weight outcomes post-bariatric surgery. This study examined whether co-occurring LOC eating and food addiction represent a more severe variant post-bariatric surgery. METHODS: One hundred thirty-one adults sought treatment for weight/eating concerns approximately 6 months post-sleeve gastrectomy surgery. The Eating Disorder Examination-Bariatric Surgery Version assessed LOC eating, picking/nibbling, and eating disorder psychopathology. Participants completed the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II), and the Short-Form Health Survey-36 (SF-36). RESULTS: 17.6% met food addiction criteria on the YFAS. Compared to those without food addiction, the LOC group with food addiction reported significantly greater eating disorder and depression scores, more frequent nibbling/picking and LOC eating, and lower SF-36 functioning. CONCLUSION: Nearly 18% of post-operative patients with LOC eating met food addiction criteria on the YFAS. Co-occurrence of LOC and food addiction following sleeve gastrectomy signals a more severe subgroup with elevated eating disorder psychopathology, problematic eating behaviors, greater depressive symptoms, and diminished functioning. Future research should examine whether this combination impacts long-term bariatric surgery outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/epidemiologia , Dependência de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Gastrectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/complicações , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/cirurgia , Bulimia/complicações , Bulimia/epidemiologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Bulimia/cirurgia , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/cirurgia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Dependência de Alimentos/complicações , Dependência de Alimentos/psicologia , Dependência de Alimentos/cirurgia , Gastrectomia/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Obesidade Mórbida/psicologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Autocontrole/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 54(8): 1007-1017, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior research indicates that, compared to individuals born in the United States (US), immigrants are less likely to experience mental health and inhibitory control problems. However, our understanding of overeating and binge eating-both related to mental health and inhibitory control-among immigrants in the US remains limited. Drawing from a large national study, we report the prevalence of overeating and binge eating among immigrants vis-à-vis the US-born. METHODS: The data source used for the present study is the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III, 2012-2013), a nationally representative survey of 36,309 civilian, non-institutionalized adults ages 18 and older in the US. Logistic regression was employed to examine the relationship between immigrant status and key outcomes. RESULTS: The prevalence of any (immigrants = 7.8%, US-born = 17.0%) and recurrent overeating (immigrants = 2.9%, US-born = 5.3%) was lower among immigrants than US-born individuals. Among those reporting recurrent overeating, the prevalence of binge eating with loss of control was comparable among immigrant (37.2%) and US-born participants (39.9%), in general. However, stratified analyses revealed that risk of binge eating with loss of control was lower among immigrant women compared to US-born women (AOR 0.54, 95% CI 0.29-0.98). CONCLUSIONS: Findings from the present study provide clear results that immigrants are substantially less likely to overeat as compared to US-born individuals and that, among women but not men, immigrant status is associated with lower risk of binge eating with loss of control.


Assuntos
Bulimia/epidemiologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Hiperfagia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Clin Psychopharmacol ; 39(2): 145-152, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742591

RESUMO

PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Obesity is recognized as an important risk factor for many chronic diseases and is a major health issue. The current study examined attentional bias to food and the "cool" (inhibitory control and mental flexibility) and "hot" (affective decision making) executive functions (EFs) in obese patients preparing for bariatric surgery. In addition to body mass index (BMI), this study examined the impact of the binge-eating tendency and eating styles. METHODS: The study population comprised 21 morbidly obese patients preparing to undergo bariatric surgery (BMI ≥30 kg/m) and 21 normal-weight controls (24 kg/m > BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m). The Visual Probe Task was adopted to examine attentional bias toward food-related cues. The Stop-Signal Task and the Color Trails Test were used to assess inhibitory control and mental flexibility, respectively. The Iowa Gambling Task was administered to assess the affective decision making. RESULTS: (1) The obese patients showed poorer performances on cool EFs (for Color Trails Test, P = 0.016, ηp = 0.136; for Stop-Signal Task, P = 0.049, ηp = 0.093) and hot EF (for Iowa Gambling Task, normal controls showed progressed performance, P = 0.012, ηp = 0.077, but obese patients did not show this progress, P = 0.111, ηp = 0.089) compared with the normal controls; (2) participants with low binge-eating tendency had larger attentional biases at 2000 milliseconds than at 200 milliseconds on food-related cues (P = 0.003, ηp = 0.363); and (3) low-restrained participants exhibited attentional bias toward the low-calorie food cues, compared with the high-restrained group (P = 0.009, ηp = 0.158). CONCLUSIONS: The current study contributes to the development of a different therapeutic focus on obese patients and binge eaters.


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção , Bulimia/epidemiologia , Função Executiva , Obesidade Mórbida/psicologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Sinais (Psicologia) , Tomada de Decisões , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 37(2): 217-224, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810694

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the risk behavior for bulimia among female adolescents from public and private high schools. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with a random sample of 850 female students aged 15-18 years was carried out in a city in northeastern Brazil, using the Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh (BITE) to assess the risk behavior for bulimia. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software and the Pearson's chi-square , Fisher's exact and robust Poisson regression tests, adopting the significance level of 5%. RESULTS: Less than half of the sample (42.0%) showed standards of dietary risk and weight control practices; in 1.4% of the sample, bulimia signs were already installed. Fear of gaining weight was reported by 62.8% of the subjects. Risk practices were lower among students from public schools; (Odds Ratio - OR - 0.82; confidence interval of 95% - 95%CI - 0.69-0.97). Among restrictive practices, fasting for a whole day was the most applied (29.9% of the students). Among individuals who were at risk situation, almost half believed to have normal eating habits (prevalence ratio - PR - 0.42; 95%CI 0.36-0.49). Individuals who consider their eating habits normal, who are afraid of gaining weight, those who seek emotional comfort in food and follow strict diets had higher risk for bulimia (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The number of female adolescent students with risk behavior practices for bulimia is high, and the frequency of those unaware of this situation is also very high. Risk situations emerge as a collective health problem, and individuals from private schools were more likely to be in this situation.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Bulimia , Dieta Redutora , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bulimia/epidemiologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Redutora/efeitos adversos , Dieta Redutora/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Distribuição Aleatória , Medição de Risco
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 26, 2019 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few representative sample studies have reported estimates of bullying and sexual abuse in Australia. By using face-to-face interviews and self-labelling questions, we investigated the prevalence of these forms of abuse and their relationship with current harmful behaviours (smoking dependence, excessive alcohol intake, binge eating), antidepressant use, and the physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) components of health-related quality of life. METHODS: This study was a population-based survey that investigated 2873 South Australians in 2015 (48.8 ± 18.1 years; 49.3% males). Bullying and sexual abuse (age of onset and duration) and their outcomes were investigated through household interviews. Associations were adjusted for sociodemographic variables by using regression models. RESULTS: 45.6% (95% CI 43.3-47.9) of the participants were bullied, and 10.4% (95% CI 9.1-11.9) sexually abused; 7.3% (95% CI 6.2-8.5) reported experiencing both forms of abuse. Moreover, 15.8% of those bullied and 15.0% of those sexually abused suffered from these forms of abuse for > 24 months. Smoking dependence (7.8%) was twice as frequent among those who experienced bullying for > 24 months or when sexual abuse occurred in childhood (< 10 years) or adulthood (20+ years) or lasted ≥1 month. Excessive alcohol intake (14.3%) was more frequent when bullying occurred in childhood or lasted > 24 months. Binge eating (8.1%) was more frequent among those bullied or sexually abused in adulthood, but duration did not show a clear pattern. Antidepressant use was up to four times more likely, and PCS or MCS lower among those who were bullied or sexually abused, independent of when these forms of abuse started or their duration. The cumulative adverse relationship of bullying and sexual abuse with the investigated outcomes was more evident for smoking dependence, binge eating, PCS, and MCS than for antidepressant use, but no association was observed with alcohol intake. CONCLUSIONS: The use of self-labelling questions to investigate sensitive areas such as bullying and sexual abuse in a survey is feasible. Such questions provided estimates that are consistent with findings from studies using more detailed instruments. Bullying and sexual abuse have an additive adverse association with various outcomes. Identifying survivors of both forms of abuse is important to avoid more serious consequences.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Bulimia/epidemiologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Austrália do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Appetite ; 133: 166-173, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385263

RESUMO

Weight stigma and weight discrimination are prevalent in the United States and binge eating has been found to be associated with these experiences in numerous studies. One issue with the current literature on weight stigma and binge eating, however, is that study samples are primarily female, resulting in a lack of understanding of this relationship among males. To address this gap, we examined potential sex differences in the association between weight stigma and binge eating, as well as mediators of this relationship. Specifically, we examined experiences of weight discrimination and weight stigma consciousness as predictors of binge eating, and we assessed whether these relationships were mediated by depression, perceived stress, and/or perceived control. Results showed that, among females and males, experiences of weight discrimination significantly predicted binge eating and depression mediated this relationship; perceived stress also mediated this association, but only among males, and perceived control did not mediate for either sex. Results also showed that, among males, the relationship between weight stigma consciousness and binge eating was mediated by depression and perceived control, but not perceived stress. Weight stigma consciousness was unrelated to binge eating among females. Together, these findings suggest that weight stigma constructs differentially impact females and males, thereby illuminating the possible need for consideration of sex as an important component of efforts to reduce weight stigma.


Assuntos
Bulimia/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Discriminação Social , Estigma Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autonomia Pessoal , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 22(7): 869-875, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30080233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: although eating disorders are usually linked to young adolescents, these mental disorders can also appear in the elderly, especially in those living in nursing homes, which might be associated or not with the cognitive decline; however, there are few data regarding elderly subjects. OBJECTIVES: the objective of the present work was to evaluate the presence of abnormal eating attitudes in nursing home residents and its relation with several cognitive, nutritional and psychological factors that could be influencing their nutritional state. DESIGN AND SETTING: a observational experimental study was carried out at several nursing homes of Murcia, Spain. SUBJECTS: 139 nursing home residents. METHODS: EAT-26 test was used to screen classic eating disorders (anorexia and bulimia). Blandford's scale was employed to determine aversive eating attitudes. Moreover, subjective appetite sensations, body image perception, nutritional (MNA and diet composition) and biochemical data were also evaluated. RESULTS: 33% of the subjects had malnutrition. No subject showed symptoms of anorexia or bulimia; however, subjects with cognitive decline frequently showed aversive feeding behaviours (21.6%). Albumin values were significantly lower in subjects with cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: our data showed a clear relation between cognitive impairment and altered eating attitudes, which was reflected by both biochemical (albumin) and nutritional parameters, while no classic eating disorder was observed in residents with normal cognitive-status. These data confirm the need to strengthen our efforts towards maintaining the nutritional status of the subjects with cognitive impairment.


Assuntos
Anorexia/epidemiologia , Apetite/fisiologia , Bulimia/epidemiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Casas de Saúde , Espanha
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 267: 108-111, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29886272

RESUMO

The study examined associations between eating disorder behaviors measured via ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and eating disorder quality of life (EDQOL) in anorexia nervosa (AN). Women with AN (N = 82) completed an EDQOL measure and two-weeks of EMA. Greater frequency of EMA-assessed restriction and bulimic behavior were independently related to lower EDQOL scores. Lower psychological EDQOL was associated with increased EMA dietary restriction; lower work-related EDQOL was associated with increased EMA binge eating; aspects of EDQOL were unrelated to EMA purging. Findings suggest that severity of restriction and bulimic behaviors may serve as severity indicators of EDQOL in AN.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Bulimia/diagnóstico , Bulimia/epidemiologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Arq Bras Cir Dig ; 31(1): e1356, 2018 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29947690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the number of surgeries increases and the elapsed time of the realization increases as well, the postoperative evaluations would become increasingly necessary. AIM: To assess the psychological profile before and after surgery. METHODS: Were evaluated 281 patients from the public service of bariatric surgery. In this study, 109 patients completed the evaluations before surgery (T0) and up to 23 months after surgery (T1); 128 completed the evaluations in T0 and between 24 months and 59 months after surgery (T2); and 44 completed the evaluations in T0 and 60 months after surgery (T3). A semi-structured interview, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety (BAI), and the Binge Eating Scale (BES) were used. RESULTS: There was a higher prevalence of female (83%), patients with less than 12 years of education (83%), and patients who have a partner (64%). Analyzing all times of evaluation, regarding anxiety, depression, and binge eating, there was a reduction in all symptoms in T1, pointing to significant improvements in the first 23 months after surgery. Already, in T2 and T3, there was an increase in all indicators of anxiety, depression, and binge eating pointing to the transient impact of weight loss or bariatric surgery on these symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the importance of the continuous psychological evaluation and needs for the appropriate interventions for these patients who have undergone bariatric surgery, even after weight loss.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Cirurgia Bariátrica/psicologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/epidemiologia , Bulimia/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Obesidade Mórbida/psicologia , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Adulto , Ansiedade/etiologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/etiologia , Bulimia/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações
18.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198192, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29927937

RESUMO

Eating disorders comorbid with depression are an established risk factor for suicide. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of binge eating (BE) symptoms on suicidality and related clinical characteristics in major depressive disorder (MDD). A total of 817 community participants with MDD were included. We compared two groups (with and without lifetime BE symptoms). The MDD with BE group was subdivided into a frequent BE (FBE) subgroup (BE symptoms greater than twice weekly) and any BE (ABE) subgroup (BE symptoms greater than twice weekly). The MDD with BE group comprised 142 (17.38%) patients. The FBE and ABE subgroups comprised 75 (9.18%) and 67 (8.20%) patients, respectively. Comorbid alcohol use disorder, anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and history of suicide attempt were significantly more frequent in the MDD with BE group than MDD without BE group. Sexual trauma was also reported more frequently in MDD with BE group. No significant differences were observed between the ABE and FBE subgroups. Multivariate logistic regression revealed an association of suicide attempt with BE symptoms and sexual trauma. Structural equation modeling showed that sexual trauma increased BE (ß = 0.337, P <0.001) together with alcohol use (ß = 0.185, P <0.001) and anxiety (ß = 0.299, p<0.001), which in turn increased suicide attempt (ß = 0.087, p = 0.011). BE symptoms were associated with suicide attempt in MDD after adjusting for other factors associated with suicidality. BE symptoms also moderated an association between suicide attempt and sexual trauma.


Assuntos
Bulimia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Ferimentos e Lesões , Adulto , Bulimia/epidemiologia , Bulimia/fisiopatologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/fisiopatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia
19.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 26(4): 315-328, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700895

RESUMO

We examined the association between parental characteristics and disordered eating among 11- to 12-year-olds within the Danish National Birth Cohort. Frequency of fasting, purging, and binge eating was obtained by self-report from 37,592 children and combined into a measure of disordered eating (no, monthly, and weekly). Information on parental characteristics was obtained during pregnancy, from the 7-year follow-up, and by linkage to population registers. Data were analysed using multinomial logistic regression models with robust standard errors. In total, 3.1% reported weekly and 4.1% reported monthly disordered eating. Parental young age, low educational level, and overweight/obesity were associated with disordered eating. The relative risk ratios for, respectively, weekly and monthly disordered eating according to maternal eating disorder were 1.01 [0.75, 1.37] and 1.09 [0.84, 1.42]. Disordered eating is common among children and is associated with several parental characteristics. We found social inequality in disordered eating, but our data did not support an association with maternal eating disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/epidemiologia , Bulimia/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pais , Adulto , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
20.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 27(11): 1483-1490, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29550905

RESUMO

Much of the research on sexual orientation disparities in eating disorder behaviors has been conducted in the USA, Canada, and Australia. Data on the associations of sexual orientation and eating disorder symptoms among adolescents in the UK are lacking. Participants were children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a youth cohort born 1991-1992 (n = 5048; 53% female; 12% sexual minority). Sexual orientation was assessed at 16 years. Eating disorder symptoms were assessed at 14 and 16 years. Multivariable regression models (adjusting for BMI, ethnicity, socioeconomic status) examined associations between sexual orientation and (1) odds of past-year purging and binge eating, and (2) mean differences in body dissatisfaction, pressure to increase muscularity (boys only), and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire subscales. At age 14, gay and bisexual boys and mostly heterosexual girls reported greater body dissatisfaction than their same-gender heterosexual peers. All sexual minority boys and mostly heterosexual girls reported greater mean dysfunctional eating behaviors than their same-gender heterosexual peers. At age 16, gay and bisexual boys had 12.5 times the odds of heterosexual boys of binge eating; mostly heterosexual boys had over three times the odds of reporting binge eating. Sexual minority girls had over twice the odds of heterosexual girls of purging and binge eating. By mid-adolescence, sexual minority youth in the UK had elevated risk for eating disorder symptoms, suggesting the need for early prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Bissexualidade/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Homossexualidade Feminina/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Adolescente , Bissexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Imagem Corporal , Bulimia/epidemiologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Criança , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Heterossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Feminina/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
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