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1.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(10): 1617-1626, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Binge-eating disorder is associated with diminished self-control, emotional distress, and obesity. In this context, women are nearly twice as likely to develop binge-eating disorder and depression relative to men. Here, the physiological, psychological, and endocrine parameters were characterized in female rats subjected to a binge-eating protocol. METHODS: Nonrestricted female Long Evans rats (n = 8/group) received 2-hour restricted access to a high-fat diet (HFD) (4.54 kcal/g) every day or every third day. The progression of estrous cycling, the functional relevance of estrogen signaling for binge feeding, and binge-induced changes in food motivation were measured. RESULTS: Female rats developed a binge pattern of feeding that included alternation between caloric overconsumption and compensatory voluntary restriction without impacting estrous cycling. Notably, rats that received daily HFD exposure progressively decreased binge meals. Estrogen replacement in normal cycling or ovariectomized rats mimicked the reduction in body weight in female rats that received daily HFD access. Operant responding was unaffected by binge feeding; however, estrogen augmented operant performance in HFD-exposed rats. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these data suggest that estrogen protects against binge-induced increases in body weight gain without affecting food motivation in female rats.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bulimia/fisiopatologia , Estradiol/farmacologia , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bulimia/patologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Refeições , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 43(3): 151-160, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29688871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frontostriatal and frontoparietal abnormalities likely contribute to deficits in control and attentional processes in individuals with bulimia nervosa and to the persistence of dysregulated eating across development. This study assessed these processes and cortical thickness in a large sample of adolescent girls and women with bulimia nervosa compared with healthy controls. METHODS: We collected anatomical MRI data from adolescent girls and women (ages 12-38 yr) with full or subthreshold bulimia nervosa and age-matched healthy controls who also completed the Conners Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT-II). Groups were compared on task performance and cortical thickness. Mediation analyses explored associations among cortical thickness, CPT-II variables, bulimia nervosa symptoms and age. RESULTS: We included 60 girls and women with bulimia nervosa and 54 controls in the analyses. Compared with healthy participants, those with bulimia nervosa showed increased impulsivity and inattention on the CPT-II, along with reduced thickness of the right pars triangularis, right superior parietal and left dorsal posterior cingulate cortices. In the bulimia nervosa group, exploratory analyses revealed that binge eating frequency correlated inversely with cortical thickness of frontoparietal and insular regions and that reduced frontoparietal thickness mediated the association between age and increased symptom severity and inattention. Binge eating frequency also mediated the association between age and lower prefrontal cortical thickness. LIMITATIONS: These findings are applicable to only girls and women with bulimia nervosa, and our cross-sectional design precludes understanding of whether cortical thickness alterations precede or result from bulimia nervosa symptoms. CONCLUSION: Structural abnormalities in the frontoparietal and posterior cingulate regions comprising circuits that support control and attentional processes should be investigated as potential contributors to the maintenance of bulimia nervosa and useful targets for novel interventions.


Assuntos
Atenção , Bulimia Nervosa/patologia , Bulimia Nervosa/psicologia , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Atrofia/patologia , Bulimia/patologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 12(8): e0183063, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28813474

RESUMO

A compelling body of evidence suggests that the worldwide obesity epidemic is underpinned by excessive sugar consumption, typified by the modern western diet. Furthermore, evidence is beginning to emerge of maladaptive changes in the mesolimbic reward pathway of the brain in relation to excess sugar consumption that highlights the importance of examining this neural circuitry in an attempt to understand and subsequently mitigate the associated morbidities with obesity. While the basolateral amygdala (BLA) has been shown to mediate the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, it has also been shown to play an important role in affective and motivated behaviours and has been shown to undergo maladaptive changes in response to drugs of abuse and stress. Given the overlap in neural circuitry affected by drugs of abuse and sucrose, we sought to examine the effect of short- and long-term binge-like sucrose consumption on the morphology of the BLA principal neurons using an intermittent-access two-bottle choice paradigm. We used Golgi-Cox staining to impregnate principal neurons from the BLA of short- (4 week) and long-term (12 week) sucrose consuming adolescent rats and compared these to age-matched water controls. Our results indicate possibly maladaptive changes to the dendritic architecture of BLA principal neurons, particularly on apical dendrites following long-term sucrose consumption. Specifically, our results show reduced total dendritic arbor length of BLA principal neurons following short- and long-term sucrose consumption. Additionally, we found that long-term binge-like sucrose consumption caused a significant reduction in the length and complexity of apical dendrites. Taken together, our results highlight the differences between short- and long-term binge-like sucrose consumption on BLA principal neuron morphology and are suggestive of a perturbation in the diverse synaptic inputs to these neurons.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Tonsila do Cerebelo/patologia , Bulimia/metabolismo , Bulimia/patologia , Dendritos/patologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Sacarose , Fatores Etários , Animais , Masculino , Ratos
4.
eNeuro ; 4(3)2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28560316

RESUMO

Leptin receptors (LepRs) expressed in the midbrain contribute to the action of leptin on feeding regulation. The midbrain neurons release a variety of neurotransmitters including dopamine (DA), glutamate and GABA. However, which neurotransmitter mediates midbrain leptin action on feeding remains unclear. Here, we showed that midbrain LepR neurons overlap with a subset of dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. Specific removal of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in midbrain LepR neurons (KO mice) disrupted DA accumulation in vesicles, but failed to cause a significant change in the evoked release of either glutamate or GABA to downstream neurons. While KO mice showed no differences on chow, they presented a reduced high-fat diet (HFD) intake and resisted to HFD-induced obesity. Specific activation of midbrain LepR neurons promoted VMAT2-dependent feeding on chow and HFD. When tested with an intermittent access to HFD where first 2.5-h HFD eating (binge-like) and 24-h HFD feeding were measured, KO mice exhibited more binge-like, but less 24-h HFD feeding. Interestingly, leptin inhibited 24-h HFD feeding in controls but not in KO mice. Thus, VMAT2-mediated neurotransmission from midbrain LepR neurons contributes to both binge-like eating and HFD feeding regulation.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Mesencéfalo/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Receptores para Leptina/metabolismo , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Proteínas Vesiculares de Transporte de Monoamina/metabolismo , Animais , Bulimia/metabolismo , Bulimia/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/metabolismo , Dopamina/metabolismo , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Leptina/administração & dosagem , Leptina/metabolismo , Masculino , Mesencéfalo/citologia , Mesencéfalo/patologia , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/patologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Proteínas Vesiculares de Transporte de Monoamina/genética , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
5.
Nutr Res ; 39: 43-50, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28385288

RESUMO

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an atypical form of malnutrition with peculiar changes in the immune system. We hypothesized that different lymphocyte subsets are differentially affected by malnutrition in AN, and thus, our aim was to investigate the influence of body mass loss on the variability of lymphocyte subsets in AN patients. A group of 66 adolescent female patients, aged 12-17 years, referred for their first episode of either AN or feeding or eating disorders not elsewhere classified were studied upon admission (46 AN-restricting subtype, 11 AN-binge/purging subtype, and 9 feeding or eating disorders not elsewhere classified). Ninety healthy adolescents served as controls. White blood cells and lymphocyte subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. Relationships with the body mass index (BMI) z score were assessed in linear models adjusted by diagnostic subtype and age. Leukocyte numbers were lower in AN patients than in controls, and relative lymphocytosis was observed in AN-restricting subtype. Lower CD8+, NK, and memory CD8+ counts were found in eating disorder patients compared with controls. No differences were found for CD4+ counts or naive and memory CD4+ subsets between the groups. Negative associations between lymphocyte percentage and the BMI z score, as well as between the B cell counts, naive CD4+ percentage and counts, and the BMI z score, were found. In conclusion, increased naive CD4+ and B lymphocyte subsets associated with body mass loss drive the relative lymphocytosis observed in AN patients, which reflects an adaptive mechanism to preserve the adaptive immune response.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/metabolismo , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfocitose/etiologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adolescente , Anorexia Nervosa/patologia , Bulimia/metabolismo , Bulimia/patologia , Antígenos CD4/metabolismo , Antígenos CD8/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/metabolismo , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/patologia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Contagem de Linfócitos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/metabolismo , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Linfocitose/metabolismo , Desnutrição/metabolismo , Desnutrição/patologia
6.
Physiol Behav ; 178: 187-195, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27765644

RESUMO

Binge eating and binge alcohol intake are behavioral manifestations of pathological feeding and alcohol use disorder (AUD), respectively. Binge-feeding and AUD have high comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders such as depression, which could have important implications for the management of these conditions. Importantly, these behaviors share many common features suggesting a singular etiology. However, the nature by which binge-feeding affects the development or maintenance of AUD is unclear. The present study examined the impact of a binge-feeding from a nutritionally complete high-fat diet (HFD) on initiation and maintenance of alcohol intake, anxiolytic behavior and central genetic changes in brain regions that control alcohol-reinforced behaviors. To do this, male Long-Evans rats received chow (controls) or HFD every three days (HFD-3D) or every day (HFD-ED) for 5weeks. Rodent chow and water were available ad-libitum to all groups throughout the experiment. Following 5weeks of HFD cycling, 20.0% ethanol or 2.0% sucrose intake was evaluated. In addition, anxiety-like behavior was measured using a light-dark box apparatus. Both HFD-3D and -ED groups of rats consumed significantly large amount of food during 2h HFD access sessions and reduced their chow intake in the next 22h. Surprisingly, binge-fed rats displayed attenuated acquisition of alcohol intake whereas sucrose consumption was unaffected. Rats exposed to HFD spent more time in the light side compared to chow controls, indicating that binge-feeding induced anxiolytic effects. In addition, alterations in the brain neurotensin system were observed following HFD exposure. These data indicate that binge-feeding behavior induces behavioral and genetic changes that help explain how alcohol intake is influenced by co-morbid eating disorders.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Bulimia/complicações , Bulimia/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/patologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Animais , Ansiedade/patologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Peso Corporal , Encéfalo/patologia , Bulimia/patologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Sacarose na Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Long-Evans , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptores de Neurotensina/metabolismo
7.
Behav Brain Res ; 320: 420-430, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27984048

RESUMO

Binge eating episodes are characterized by uncontrollable, distressing eating of a large amount of highly palatable food and represent a central feature of bingeing related eating disorders. Research suggests that inflammation plays a role in the onset and maintenance of eating-related maladaptive behavior. Markers of inflammation can be selectively altered in discrete brain regions where they can directly or indirectly regulate food intake. In the present study, we measured expression levels of different components of cytokine systems (IL-1, IL-6, IL-18, TNF-α and IFN-É£) and related molecules (iNOS and COX2) in the preoptic and anterior-tuberal parts of the hypothalamus of a validated animal model of binge eating. In this animal model, based on the exposure to both food restriction and frustration stress, binge-like eating behavior for highly palatable food is not shown when animals are exposed to the frustration stress during the estrus phase. We found a characteristic down-regulation of the IL-18/IL-18 receptor system (with increased expression of the inhibitor of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-18, IL-18BP, together with a decreased expression of the binding chain of the IL-18 receptor) and a three-fold increase in the expression of iNOS specifically in the anterior-tuberal region of the hypothalamus of animals that develop a binge-like eating behavior. Differently, when food restricted animals were stressed during the estrus phase, IL-18 expression increased, while iNOS expression was not significantly affected. Considering the role of this region of the hypothalamus in controlling feeding related behavior, this can be relevant in eating disorders and obesity. Our data suggest that by targeting centrally selected inflammatory markers, we may prevent that disordered eating turns into a full blown eating disorder.


Assuntos
Bulimia/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/fisiologia , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Análise de Variância , Animais , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Bulimia/fisiopatologia , Citocinas/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Feminino , Privação de Alimentos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
8.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 17(4): 559, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25749747

RESUMO

The eating disorders (EDs) anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED) are severe psychiatric disorders with high mortality. There are many symptoms, such as food restriction, episodic binge eating, purging, or excessive exercise that are either overlapping or lie on opposite ends of a scale or spectrum across those disorders. Identifying how specific ED behaviors are linked to particular neurobiological mechanisms could help better categorize ED subgroups and develop specific treatments. This review provides support from recent brain imaging research that brain structure and function measures can be linked to disorder-specific biological or behavioral variables, which may help distinguish ED subgroups, or find commonalities between them. Brain structure and function may therefore be suitable research targets to further study the relationship between dimensions of behavior and brain function relevant to EDs and beyond the categorical AN, BN, and BED distinctions.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Bulimia Nervosa , Bulimia , Neuroimagem , Anorexia Nervosa/patologia , Anorexia Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/patologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/fisiopatologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Bulimia/patologia , Bulimia/fisiopatologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Bulimia Nervosa/patologia , Bulimia Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Bulimia Nervosa/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Neurobiologia
9.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 96(8): e15-7, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25350169

RESUMO

Acute gastric dilation is a rare but recognised complication in patients with bulimia and anorexia following binge episodes owing to decreased bowel motility. We present a rare case of acute gastric dilation secondary to bulimia in an otherwise healthy 18-year-old female patient that resulted in compression and complete occlusion of the abdominal aorta, leading to acute mesenteric and bilateral lower limb ischaemia. This resolved immediately following a laparotomy and gastric decompression. Management of these patients is very challenging owing to the lack of a successful precedent. To our knowledge, such a catastrophic complication has only ever been reported once in the literature and the outcome was fatal. Our case is of additional importance as it offers a successful management strategy for these patients.


Assuntos
Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Bulimia/patologia , Dilatação Gástrica/patologia , Adolescente , Aorta Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Laparotomia
10.
Av. diabetol ; 30(5): 156-162, sept.-oct. 2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-128607

RESUMO

Introducción: El tratamiento de la diabetes tipo 1 (DMT1) exige modificaciones de los hábitos alimentarios y estilos de vida que puede conducir a desarrollar trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA). Por lo tanto, se hace necesaria la detección precoz de estos trastornos. Existe escasa evidencia sobre la presencia de TCA y/o su relación con características psicosociales en este tipo de pacientes. Objetivos: Estimar el número de sujetos en riesgo de TCA sobre una muestra de jóvenes con DMT1 con 2 herramientas distintas y analizar su concordancia, estableciendo la relación entre los niveles de ansiedad, depresión, calidad de vida y funcionamiento emocional sobre el riesgo de desarrollar TCA. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal. La población estudiada estuvo compuesta por 40 jóvenes con DMT1 y 40 sujetos control. Para la detección de sujetos en riesgo de TCA se utilizó la herramienta EAT-26/ChEAT y el cuestionario DEPS/R. Diversas características, como depresión, ansiedad y relación con compañeros y familiares, se evaluaron mediante test autoadministrados. Resultados: Existe gran disparidad al identificar riesgo de TCA en sujetos con DMT1. Así, el cuestionario DEPS-R detectó un 40% más de casos que el EAT-26. Las conductas obsesivas, la fobia social y las relaciones con los semejantes se asociaron significativamente con el riesgo de TCA (p < 0,05 en todos los casos). Conclusiones: Para identificar correctamente los TCA en pacientes con DMT1 es necesario el desarrollo de herramientas de cribado específicas. Además, se debería educar a estos pacientes a manejar de forma eficaz situaciones sociales que puedan producir ansiedad y conductas indeseadas (AU)


Introduction: Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) treatment involves lifestyle changes that can lead to classic eating disorders (ED) like anorexia or bulimia. However, there is a lack of evidence on the presence of ED and/or its relation with psychosocial characteristics of these subjects. Objective: To estimate the number of subjects at risk of ED in a T1DM youth population sample using two different tools and to analyze its concordance, establishing the relations between anxiety, depression, quality of life and emotional-management, and the risk of developing ED. Material and methods: The population studied consisted of 40 young subjects with T1DM and40 control peers. To detect ED, EAT-26/ChEAT test for the general population and DEPS/R specific for T1DM was performed. Several characteristics such as depression, anxiety and peer relationships were analyzed by self-administered validated tests. Results: There is a great disparity in identifying ED in the T1DM patients on using the screening tool used. Thus, DEPS-R showed 40% more subjects at risk than the EAT-26 test. Obsessive behavior, social phobia, and peer-relationships and family-relationships were significantly associated with the risk of developing ED (P < 0.05 in all cases).Conclusions: To properly identify ED in T1DM patients, it would be necessary to develop specific screening tools that take into account the lifestyle modifications undergone by these patients. In addition, to prevent the development of ED, these patients should be taught to efficiently manage social situations that could lead to anxiety and undesirable behaviors (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/patologia , Depressão/patologia , Anorexia/patologia , Anorexia/prevenção & controle , Bulimia/patologia , Bulimia/prevenção & controle , Insulina/uso terapêutico
11.
Nutrire Rev. Soc. Bras. Aliment. Nutr ; 39(2): 252-264, ago. 2014. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-726001

RESUMO

O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar na literatura a associa��o do Diabetes Mellitus com os transtornos alimentares, bem como a influ�ncia desses transtornos sobre o controle metab�lico de pacientes com Diabetes Mellitus. Realizaram-se consultas aos bancos de dados Biblioteca Regional de Medicina ? Centro Latino-Americano e do Caribe de Informa��o em Ci�ncias da Sa�de; National Library of Medicine, Estados Unidos, e Scientific Electronic Library Online, publicados on-line entre 1992 e 2013, bem como trabalhos acad�micos e livros-texto. A maioria dos estudos revelou que a omiss�o/redu��o de insulina e o transtorno alimentar no Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 estiveram relacionados ao deficiente controle metab�lico, enquanto que a compuls�o alimentar no Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 (com sobrepeso ou obesidade) parece ter rela��o com preju�zo na sa�de f�sica. H� v�rios relatos de que o Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 associado ao transtorno da compuls�o alimentar peri�dica n�o influencia os resultados da Hemoglobina A Glicosilada. Al�m disso, h� evid�ncias de maior incid�ncia de depress�o entre os pacientes diab�ticos, fato que parece estar vinculado a altera��es no curso cl�nico da doen�a. Deve-se investigar a presen�a de comorbidades, como o transtorno alimentar no paciente com Diabetes Mellitus, visto que, juntos, os dist�rbios representam um problema no tratamento deste grupo de pacientes, tornando necess�rio um olhar atento na preserva��o do controle metab�lico adequado e na manuten��o da qualidade de vida dos pacientes.


The aim of this study was to review in the literature the association between diabetes and eating disorders, as well as the influence of this disorders on the metabolic control of patients with diabetes mellitus. There were queries to Regional Library of Medicine - The Latin American and Caribbean Center of information on Health Sciences, National Library of Medicine, United States and Scientific Electronic Library Online databases published on-line between 1992 and 2013 as well as theses and textbooks. Most studies have showed that the omission / reduction of insulin and eating disorders in type 1 diabetes were related to poor metabolic control, while binge eating in type 2 diabetes (with overweight or obesity) appears to be related to impaired physical health. There are several reports in which the type 2 diabetes associated with binge eating disorder have no influence on the results of Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated. Moreover, there is evidence of higher incidence of depression among diabetic patients, a fact that seems to be linked to changes in the clinical course of disease. The presence of comorbidities should be investigated such as eating disorders in Diabetes Mellitus patient, because together, disorders represent a problem in treating this group of patients, requiring a close eye on the preservation of adequate metabolic control and maintenance of quality of life of patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/classificação , Bulimia/patologia , Depressão/classificação , Hemoglobina A Glicada
12.
J Am Assoc Nurse Pract ; 26(8): 445-51, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24170676

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate binge eating (BE) and weight-related behaviors in overweight and obese college students. DATA SOURCES: This was a secondary analysis of data from 487 overweight and obese college-age students from a private university in the northeastern United States. CONCLUSIONS: BE was reported by 34.9% of students. Only 6.2% of participants reported the use of compensatory behaviors (i.e., self-induced vomiting, laxative, or diuretic use) to prevent weight gain. BE was associated with smoking and exercising to lose weight. Gender differences emerged from the data as women were more likely to report being obese, the use of compensatory behaviors, and to perceive themselves as moderately or extremely overweight. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: BE is a significant problem on college campuses and is associated with the development of obesity and eating disorders. Nurse practitioners (NPs) are in an excellent position to effect change in this population through their frequent contact with young adults in community and school-based venues. NPs are well-prepared to identify at-risk college students and provide them with individualized care, education, and support.


Assuntos
Bulimia/patologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Perda de Peso , Adolescente , Bulimia/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Eat Disord ; 46(8): 849-54, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23868197

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the type and frequency of restrictive eating behaviors across the two subtypes of anorexia nervosa (AN; restricting [ANr] and binge eating/purging [ANbp]) using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and to determine whether subtype differences in restrictive eating behaviors were attributable to severity of the disorder or the frequency of binge eating. METHOD: Participants (N = 118) were women at least 18 years of age with full (n = 59) or subthreshold (n = 59) AN who participated in a two week (EMA) protocol. RESULTS: General estimating equations revealed that individuals with ANbp generally reported more frequent restrictive eating behaviors than individuals with ANr. These differences were mostly accounted for by greater severity of eating psychopathology, indicating that the presence and frequency of restrictive eating behaviors in AN may be nonweight-based markers of severity. Binge eating frequency did not account for these findings. DISCUSSION: The present findings are especially interesting in light of the weight-based severity rating in the DSM-5.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/patologia , Bulimia/patologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Adolescente , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/classificação , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bulimia/classificação , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Dieta Redutora , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Classe Social , Meio Social , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 15(2): e12, 2013 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23380291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although eating disorders are common in the Netherlands, only a few patients are treated by mental health care professionals. To reach and treat more patients with eating disorders, Tactus Addiction Treatment developed a web-based treatment program with asynchronous and intensive personalized communication between the patient and the therapist. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study evaluated the web-based treatment program using intensive therapeutic contact in a population of 165 patients with an eating disorder. METHODS: In a pre-post design with 6-week and 6-month follow-ups, eating disorder psychopathology, body dissatisfaction, Body Mass Index, physical and mental health, and quality of life were measured. The participant's satisfaction with the web-based treatment program was also studied. Attrition data were collected, and participants were classified as noncompleters if they did not complete all 10 assignments of the web-based treatment program. Differences in baseline characteristics between completers and noncompleters were studied, as well as reasons for noncompletion. Furthermore, differences in treatment effectiveness, treatment adherence, and baseline characteristics between participants of the three major eating disorder diagnostic groups EDNOS (n=115), BN purging (n=24), and BN nonpurging (n=24) were measured. RESULTS: Of the 165 participants who started the web-based treatment program, 89 participants (54%) completed all of the program assignments (completers) and 76 participants (46%) ended the program prematurely (noncompleters). Severe body dissatisfaction and physical and mental health problems seemed to have a negative impact on the completion of the web-based treatment program. Among the participants who completed the treatment program, significant improvements were found in eating disorder psychopathology (F=54.6, df = 68, P<.001, d=1.14). Body dissatisfaction, quality of life, and physical and mental health also significantly improved, and almost all of these positive effects were sustained up to 6 months after the participants had completed the web-based treatment program. Body Mass Index improved only within the group of participants suffering from obesity. The improvement in eating disorder psychopathology occurred in all three eating disorder diagnostic groups, and the percentage of completers did not differ significantly between these groups. Participants' satisfaction with the treatment program, as well as with their therapist, was high, and participants indicated that they would recommend the program to other patients with eating disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that the web-based treatment program has the potential to improve eating disorder psychopathology in patients with different types of eating disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Internet , Telemedicina/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/terapia , Imagem Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bulimia/patologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Bulimia/terapia , Bulimia Nervosa/patologia , Bulimia Nervosa/psicologia , Bulimia Nervosa/terapia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/patologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Países Baixos , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Cooperação do Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Med Hypotheses ; 79(4): 508-11, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22854106

RESUMO

Excessive food consumption has been recognized to show similarities with substance dependence. Subsequently, it has been proposed that food addiction might contribute to the obesity epidemic. Recent studies using questionnaires for the assessment of food addiction have found statistically significant, but negligible positive correlations with body-mass-index (BMI). Moreover, group comparisons between food-addicted and non-addicted individuals in normal-weight or obese samples did not show differences in BMI. However, the prevalence of food addiction diagnoses is remarkably increased in obese individuals. In the current article, it is suggested that there might be a cubic relationship between food addiction and BMI. Food addiction symptomatology may remain stable in the under- and normal-weight range, increase in the overweight- and obese range, and level off at severe obesity. Empirical data in support of this view are presented.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/etiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/patologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Hiperfagia/patologia , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Bulimia/patologia , Bulimia/fisiopatologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Humanos , Hiperfagia/etiologia , Hiperfagia/fisiopatologia , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Modelos Psicológicos , Dinâmica não Linear , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/psicologia
16.
Curr Top Behav Neurosci ; 6: 125-38, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21107929

RESUMO

In bulimia nervosa (BN), and in related binge-purge syndromes, factors affecting central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) function appear to contribute not only to appetitive dysregulation but also to temperamental and personality manifestations. Drawing upon findings from neurobiological, molecular-genetic, and brain-imaging studies, we present an integrative model of the role of 5-HT function in bulimic syndromes. At the core of our model is a consideration of the ways in which diverse hereditary and environmental influences impact the action of the 5-HT system. We believe that our model helps account for heterogeneous traits seen in the bulimic population, for disproportionate representation of individuals displaying pathological personality traits and exposure to severe environmental stressors, and for interindividual variations as to treatment response.


Assuntos
Sintomas Comportamentais/etiologia , Encéfalo , Bulimia , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Bulimia/complicações , Bulimia/metabolismo , Bulimia/patologia , Humanos , Serotonina/metabolismo , Temperamento
17.
Qual Life Res ; 20(5): 675-82, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21103941

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recent research has begun investigating the impact of eating disorders on health-related quality of life (QOL). The present study examined the impact of eating disorder psychopathology on QOL within a community sample. METHODS: Two hundred and fourteen women completed questionnaires assessing eating disorder symptoms, body dissatisfaction, body checking and body avoidance behaviors, and general psychopathology. RESULTS: Eating disturbance and body image dissatisfaction were associated with poorer QOL. In addition, eating disorder psychopathology uniquely predicted QOL above and beyond the variance accounted for by general psychopathology. Both subjective bulimic episodes and objective bulimic episodes were associated with impairments in QOL. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that eating disorder psychopathology may adversely affect the lives of women within the community. Early intervention and detection could reduce the negative impact of eating disorder psychopathology on women's lives and protect individuals with mild eating disorder symptoms from a further reduction in QOL.


Assuntos
Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Características de Residência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/patologia , Bulimia/patologia , Depressão , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Psicometria , Análise de Regressão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Neuroimage ; 50(2): 639-43, 2010 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20035881

RESUMO

This study investigated whether bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge-eating disorder (BED) are associated with structural brain abnormalities. Both disorders share the main symptom binge-eating, but are considered differential diagnoses. We attempted to identify alterations in grey matter volume (GMV) that are present in both psychopathologies as well as disorder-specific GMV characteristics. Such information can help to improve neurobiological models of eating disorders and their classification. A total of 50 participants (patients suffering from BN (purge type), BED, and normal-weight controls) underwent structural MRI scanning. GMV for specific brain regions involved in food/reinforcement processing was analyzed by means of voxel-based morphometry. Both patient groups were characterized by greater volumes of the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) compared to healthy controls. In BN patients, who had increased ventral striatum volumes, body mass index and purging severity were correlated with striatal grey matter volume. Altogether, our data implicate a crucial role of the medial OFC in the studied eating disorders. The structural abnormality might be associated with dysfunctions in food reward processing and/or self-regulation. The bulimia-specific volume enlargement of the ventral striatum is discussed in the framework of negative reinforcement through purging and associated weight regulation.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Bulimia Nervosa/patologia , Bulimia/patologia , Adulto , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto Jovem
19.
Psychosom Med ; 71(1): 93-7, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19124623

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the hypothesis that young women suffering from active bulimia nervosa (BN) have more visceral fat and increased adrenal gland volumes (AGV) than healthy controls (HC). METHODS: Thirteen patients with BN of purging type and 11 healthy age and weight matched women (HC), aged between 19 and 36 years (mean 24 +/- 3 years), with a BMI of 19 to 29 (mean 24 +/- SD 3) were examined. BN was diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria and the severity of illness by the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2). Whole body fat distribution and AGV were determined using a whole body magnetic resonance (MR) scan (T1w) and a 3D-sequence (T1w) at 1.5 Tesla. Salivary cortisol was determined at 9 AM and 4 PM. RESULTS: BN patients had significantly more visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (HC, 1589.3 +/- 967.6 ml versus 927.2 +/- 428.4 ml, p < .05) and an increased relative AGV (0.068% of body volume versus 0.048% of body volume, p < .05) compared with HC, although waist circumference and BMI did not differ. Although the VAT part in the upper abdomen was increased, especially the VAT of lower abdomen along with the pelvis or any subcutaneous fat compartment was not increased. CONCLUSIONS: The increase of the VAT volume and the increased AGV in BN women with purging point to chronic high stress levels associated with a hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in these patients. This is the first MR study showing morphological changes in stress associated endocrine organs of young BN patients.


Assuntos
Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Composição Corporal , Bulimia/patologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Adulto , Amenorreia/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Anticoncepcionais Orais , Síndrome de Cushing/patologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Hipertrofia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Projetos Piloto , Saliva/química , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 116(1): 89-95, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19082524

RESUMO

Numerous symptoms related to eating disorders have been shown to be influenced by serotonergic (5-HT) functioning, with the 5-HT(2A) receptor subtype being one of the most relevant involved in the pathophysiology of bulimia nervosa (BN). In line with this, Ca(2+) mobilization as mediated by 5-HT(2) receptors in platelets was shown to serve as a peripheral model for central nervous 5-HT functioning. Here, the 5-HT-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization in platelets was measured in 13 female normal weight bulimic patients (14-18 years) upon admission and at the end of inpatient treatment. Findings were compared to 21 age-matched healthy female adolescents. 5-HT-induced Ca(2+) release was significantly decreased in bulimic patients upon admission and normalized during inpatient treatment. Antidepressive medication caused a significant improvement. The data provide further evidence that altered 5-HT(2) receptor functioning is involved in the pathophysiological underpinnings in BN.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bulimia/patologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Serotonina/farmacologia , Adolescente , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
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