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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371967

RESUMO

Interventions that address binge eating and food insecurity are needed. Engaging people with lived experience to understand their needs and preferences could yield important design considerations for such interventions. In this study, people with food insecurity, recurrent binge eating, and obesity completed an interview-based needs assessment to learn facilitators and barriers that they perceive would impact their engagement with a digital intervention for managing binge eating and weight. Twenty adults completed semi-structured interviews. Responses were analyzed using thematic analysis. Three themes emerged. Participants shared considerations that impact their ability to access the intervention (e.g., cost of intervention, cost of technology, accessibility across devices), ability to complete intervention recommendations (e.g., affordable healthy meals, education to help stretch groceries, food vouchers, rides to grocery stores, personalized to budget), and preferred intervention features for education, self-monitoring, personalization, support, and motivation/rewards. Engaging people with lived experiences via user-centered design methods revealed important design considerations for a digital intervention to meet this population's needs. Future research is needed to test whether a digital intervention that incorporates these recommendations is engaging and effective for people with binge eating and food insecurity. Findings may have relevance to designing digital interventions for other health problems as well.


Assuntos
Bulimia/psicologia , Bulimia/terapia , Insegurança Alimentar , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Design Centrado no Usuário , Adulto , Idoso , Custos e Análise de Custo , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Autocuidado/métodos
2.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0231684, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836002

RESUMO

AIM: The present study aims to extend the knowledge of the neural correlates of emotion processing in first episode subjects affected by anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN). We applied an emotional distress paradigm targeting negative emotions thought to be relevant for interpersonal difficulties and therapeutic resistance mechanisms. METHODS: The current study applied to 44 female participants with newly diagnosed AN or BN and 20 matched controls a neuroimaging paradigm eliciting affective responses. The measurements also included an extensive assessment comprising clinical scales, neuropsychological tests, measures of emotion processing and empathy. RESULTS: AN and BN did not differ from controls in terms of emotional response, emotion matching, self-reported empathy and cognitive performance. However, eating disorder and psychopathological clinical scores, as well as alexithymia levels, were increased in AN and BN. On a neural level, no significant group differences emerged, even when focusing on a region of interest selected a priori: the amygdala. Some interesting findings put in relation the hippocampal activity with the level of Body Dissatisfaction of the participants, the relative importance of the key nodes for the common network in the decoding of different emotions (BN = right amygdala, AN = anterior cingulate area), and the qualitative profile of the deactivations. CONCLUSIONS: Our data do not support the hypothesis that participants with AN or BN display reduced emotional responsiveness. However, peculiar characteristics in emotion processing could be associated to the three different groups. Therefore, relational difficulties in eating disorders, as well as therapeutic resistance, could be not secondary to a simple difficulty in feeling and identifying basic negative emotions in AN and BN participants.


Assuntos
Anorexia/fisiopatologia , Bulimia/fisiopatologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Neuroimagem Funcional/psicologia , Imaginação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anorexia/psicologia , Anorexia Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Bulimia Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Bulimia Nervosa/psicologia , Feminino , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Psicopatologia/métodos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158105

RESUMO

Little is known about the characteristics of individuals seeking treatment for food addiction (FA), and the clinical utility of FA has yet to be established. To address these gaps, we examined (i) the demographic, eating pathology, and psychiatric conditions associated with FA and (ii) whether FA is associated with psychosocial impairments when accounting for eating-related and other psychopathology. Forty-six patients seeking treatment for FA completed self-report questionnaires and semi-structured clinical interviews. The majority of the sample were women and self-identified as White, with a mean age of 43 years. Most participants (83.3%) presented with a comorbid psychiatric condition, most commonly anxiety and mood disorders, with a mean of 2.31 comorbid conditions. FA was associated with binge eating severity and anxiety symptoms, as well as psychological, physical, and social impairment. In regression analyses controlling for binge eating severity, food cravings, depression, and anxiety, FA remained a significant predictor only of social impairment. Taken together, the results suggest that individuals seeking treatment for FA are likely to present with significant comorbid conditions, in particular anxiety disorders. The results of the present research provide evidence for the clinical utility of FA, particularly in explaining social impairment.


Assuntos
Dependência de Alimentos/psicologia , Dependência de Alimentos/terapia , Adulto , Bulimia/psicologia , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Análise de Regressão , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Psychiatry Res ; 293: 113472, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007684

RESUMO

The contribution of an addictive process to anorexia nervosa (AN) is an area of growing interest. Yet, little is known about how the food addiction concept (FA) may be of interest in understanding AN. This study investigates prevalence of FA diagnostic and its association with markers of severity in individuals with AN. We conducted a retrospective study in a sample of 73 patients with AN. We assessed FA with the Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0, depressive and anxiety disorders, impulsivity (Beck Depression Inventory, STAI, BIS-11) and eating behavior (BITE, EDE-Q). Prevalence of FA in our sample was 47%. FA was significantly associated and positively correlated with the binge-eating/purging subtype of AN, higher levels of depression, anxiety and greater eating psychopathology. FA was not associated with level of impulsivity nor leptin and IGF-1 blood levels. The relationship between FA severity and AN severity was mediated by the severity of binge eating behaviors. Our results suggest that the presence of FA may represent a more severe variant of AN. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the etiologic process between FA and AN.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Dependência de Alimentos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Anorexia Nervosa/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Bulimia/diagnóstico , Bulimia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Dependência de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Dependência de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Análise de Mediação , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e17880, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guided cognitive behavioral self-help is a recommended first-line treatment for eating disorders (EDs) such as bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge eating disorder (BED). Online versions of such self-help programs are increasingly being studied in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), with some evidence that they can reduce ED symptoms, although intervention dropout is variable across interventions. However, in-depth research into participants' experiences and views on the acceptability of web-based interventions is limited. OBJECTIVE: This is a qualitative process study of participants' experiences of everyBody Plus, a web-based cognitive behavioral intervention, integrated into a large RCT to aid the interpretation of the main trial's results. To our knowledge, this is the first such study in digital intervention for EDs research to include real-time feedback into the qualitative analysis. This study aims to build upon the emerging literature by qualitatively exploring participants' experiences of a web-based intervention for BN and BED. METHODS: Participants were those who took part in the UK arm of a larger RCT investigating the efficacy of the everyBody Plus intervention. Reflexive thematic analysis was completed on 2 sources of data from the online platform: real-time feedback quotes provided at the end of completing a module on the platform (N=104) and semistructured telephone interview transcripts (n=12). RESULTS: Four main themes were identified. The first theme identified positive and negative user experiences, with a desire for a more customized and personalized intervention. Another theme positively reflected on how flexible and easy the intervention was to embed into daily life, compared with the silo of face-to-face therapy. The third theme identified how the intervention had a holistic impact cognitively, emotionally, interpersonally, and behaviorally. The final theme was related to how the intervention was not a one size fits all and how the perceived usefulness and relevance were often dependent on participants' demographic and clinical characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, participants reported positive experiences with the use of the everyBody Plus web-based intervention, including flexibility of use and the potential to holistically impact people's lives. The participants also provided valuable suggestions for how similar future web-based interventions could be improved and, in the context of EDs, how programs can be designed to be more inclusive of people by encompassing different demographic and clinical characteristics.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/terapia , Bulimia/terapia , Intervenção Baseada em Internet/tendências , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adulto , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
6.
Psychiatry Res ; 293: 113451, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977048

RESUMO

This study compared women with binge eating disorders or bulimia nervosa with and without night eating syndrome regarding childhood maltreatment and psychopathology relative to healthy controls. The 426 participants (aged 18-60) were divided into two groups: eating disorders (n = 158) and healthy controls (n = 268). Eating disorders was divided into bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and night eating syndrome with binge eating. Participants completed questionnaires: childhood trauma, eating disorders, self-esteem, and psychopathology. No significant differences were found for most variables in the eating disorders subgroups except physical neglect, which was more prevalent in night eating syndrome with binge eating. All variables differed significantly between eating disorders and healthy controls. Significant correlations emerged between childhood maltreatment, psychopathology, emotional abuse, and self-esteem in eating disorders. Regression showed that emotional abuse significantly predicted self-esteem in eating disorders, and group significantly moderated the effect of emotional abuse on psychopathology. Results emphasize that in this specific sample and variables, night eating syndrome with binge eating may be a variant of binge eating disorder or bulimia nervosa and not a separate diagnostic entity. The results highlight the importance of early assessment of childhood maltreatment, particularly emotional abuse, in patients with night eating syndrome.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/complicações , Bulimia Nervosa/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome do Comer Noturno/epidemiologia , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992768

RESUMO

Converging evidence from both animal and human studies have implicated hedonic eating as a driver of both binge eating and obesity. The construct of food addiction has been used to capture pathological eating across clinical and non-clinical populations. There is an ongoing debate regarding the value of a food addiction "diagnosis" among those with eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa binge/purge-type, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Much of the food addiction research in eating disorder populations has failed to account for dietary restraint, which can increase addiction-like eating behaviors and may even lead to false positives. Some have argued that the concept of food addiction does more harm than good by encouraging restrictive approaches to eating. Others have shown that a better understanding of the food addiction model can reduce stigma associated with obesity. What is lacking in the literature is a description of a more comprehensive approach to the assessment of food addiction. This should include consideration of dietary restraint, and the presence of symptoms of other psychiatric disorders (substance use, posttraumatic stress, depressive, anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity) to guide treatments including nutrition interventions. The purpose of this review is to help clinicians identify the symptoms of food addiction (true positives, or "the signal") from the more classic eating pathology (true negatives, or "restraint") that can potentially elevate food addiction scores (false positives, or "the noise"). Three clinical vignettes are presented, designed to aid with the assessment process, case conceptualization, and treatment strategies. The review summarizes logical steps that clinicians can take to contextualize elevated food addiction scores, even when the use of validated research instruments is not practical.


Assuntos
Dieta/psicologia , Dependência de Alimentos , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Ansiedade , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Bulimia Nervosa , Comportamento Alimentar , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Obesidade
8.
Int J Eat Disord ; 53(10): 1719-1728, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776693

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Internet-based psychoeducational and self-help platforms hold promise for alleviating existing help-seeking barriers and addressing the unmet needs of people with eating disorders (EDs). In this paper, we report data related to the reach, engagement, and visitor profile of Break Binge Eating, an online platform designed to provide evidence-based information and self-help strategies for people at all stages of an ED. METHOD: Two sources of data were presented: (a) usage data from platform visitors generated through Google Analytics; and (b) characteristics of a sample of platform visitors (n = 786). RESULTS: In 13 months, approximately 46,311 unique users worldwide have accessed this platform, with usage rates rapidly increasing each month. Most visitors came from organic searches (when ED-related information is directly searched in a browser). Self-help content was the most accessed material, and 81% of the sample stated that their reason for accessing the platform was to get help. Sample visitors were highly symptomatic; 52% met criteria resembling a threshold ED and 87% engaged in at least one ED behavior in the past month. Across different symptomatic subgroups, ∼50% were unsure whether they needed help, ∼80% were not receiving any help, and ∼75% were highly concerned with their symptoms. CONCLUSION: This online platform has broad reach and is engaging its intended audience. It is an aim of this platform to improve mental health literacy, facilitate symptom recognition and improvement, and alleviate help-seeking barriers. Evaluating whether this platform is achieving its intended aims in a randomized controlled trial is the next step.


Assuntos
Bulimia/terapia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Intervenção Baseada em Internet/tendências , Grupos de Autoajuda/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bulimia/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Psychiatry Res ; 290: 113071, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464424

RESUMO

It has been hypothesized that leptin level alterations in Eating Disorders (EDs) represent a maintaining factor for pathological reward-related ED behaviors, given leptin role in the dopaminergic reward systems. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of leptin in EDs as a mediator for the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and several pathological behaviors, such as dietary restraint, compensatory exercise, vomiting, binge eating and emotional eating. Sixty-two patients with EDs and 41 healthy controls (HC) had their blood drawn and completed psychometric tests for the evaluation of general psychopathology, ED psychopathology and emotional eating. Moderated linear regression models showed that, in the presence of high levels of ED psychopathology, leptin levels were negatively associated with dietary restraint and compensatory exercise, and positively with emotional eating and binge eating. Finally, leptin showed an indirect effect on the association between BMI and all these reward-related behaviors. These results suggest that a variation of BMI maintains these pathological ED behaviors through a variation in leptin levels. Considering the role of leptin in reward circuits, the results seem to confirm an aberrant food-related reward mechanism in ED patients.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/sangue , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Bulimia/sangue , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/patologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Leptina/sangue , Psicopatologia , Recompensa , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bulimia/diagnóstico , Bulimia/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Emoções , Exercício Físico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/sangue , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino
10.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232979, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407345

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This project examined risk factors of disordered eating in athletes by adapting and applying a theoretical model. It tested a previously proposed theoretical model and explored the utility of a newly formed model within an athletic population across gender, age, and sport type to explain disordered eating. DESIGN: The design was cross-sectional and the first phase in a series of longitudinal studies. METHODS: 1,017 athletes completed online questionnaires related to social pressures, internalisation, body dissatisfaction, negative affect, restriction, and bulimia. Structural equation modelling was employed to analyse the fit of the measurement and structural models and to do invariance testing. RESULTS: The original theoretical model failed to achieve acceptable goodness of fit (χ2 [70, 1017] = 1043.07; p < .0001. CFI = .55; GFI = .88; NFI = .53; RMSEA = .12 [90% CI = .111-.123]). Removal of non-significant pathways and addition of social media resulted in the model achieving a parsimonious goodness of fit (χ2 [19, 1017] = 77.58; p < .0001. CFI = .96; GFI = .98; NFI = .95; RMSEA = .055 [90% CI = .043-.068]). Invariance tests revealed that the newly revised model differed across gender, age, level, competition status, and length of sport participation. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the formation of disordered eating symptomology might not be associated with sport pressures experienced by athletes. It revealed that disordered eating development varies across gender, competition level, sport type, and age, which must be considered to prevent and treat disordered eating in athletes.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/etiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Bulimia/etiologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Mídias Sociais , Esportes/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 50: 101998, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229430

RESUMO

AIM: The study was aimed at studying binge eating behavior in urban adolescents. This was in keeping with the increasing prevalence of obesity and lifestyle disorders amongst Indian population especially in adolescent groups. METHODS: 2000 adolescents English speaking schools in Mumbai were administered the Binge Eating Scale and the Eating Behaviors and Pattern Questionnaire after assent and parental consent. The prevalence of Binge eating behavior was estimated along with the socio-demographic data and other data from scale which was analyzed using the Chi square test and ANOVA where appropriate. RESULTS: The mean age of the total sample was 15.05 ± 1.65 years. Females reported higher Binge eating behavior than males and majority of the sample belonging to upper and lower middle- class families reported high binge eating behavior. The prevalence of Binge eating behavior was high with 1002 (50.1 %) adolescents reporting moderate binge eating while 736 (36.8 %) reporting severe binge eating. Significantly greater adolescents in the binge eating group reported irregular menses and being overweight and obese. There was a significantly greater proportion of adolescents in the binge eating group that ate out weekly and ate more fried food. CONCLUSION: There is an increasing trend of obesity and lifestyle disorders in adolescent population that can be linked to Binge eating behavior however, the role of binge eating in context of one of the potential cause of lifestyle disorders and obesity has not been studied in Indian adolescents despite the prevalence of Binge eating and overweight being high in this population, we need further larger studies to corroborate the findings of this study.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/complicações , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Bulimia/epidemiologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 59(8): 766-772, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274933

RESUMO

Binge eating disorder (BED) as well as individual subthreshold binge eating symptoms are related to deleterious physical and socioemotional outcomes among adolescents. The present study examined the prevalence of specific binge eating behaviors among a sample of primarily non-Hispanic Black outpatients presenting to weight management and endocrinology clinics. Analyses are based on 103 adolescents (69.9% female, 66.9% non-Hispanic Black) who endorsed one or more binge eating symptoms on a nonstandardized clinical assessment patterned after Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria. The most commonly endorsed symptom was eating in excess of what is considered normal (71.8%), while least commonly endorsed symptoms included guilt, distress, and embarrassment due to overeating (17.5% to 26.2%). More than half of the participants endorsed multiple specific binge eating symptoms. The level of subthreshold symptomatology reported underscores the importance of developmental and cultural tailoring of prevention and intervention efforts to address these behaviors as a means of curbing clinical-level onset of BED.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/instrumentação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tennessee
13.
Ann Epidemiol ; 45: 32-39, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340835

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to quantify the association between perceived everyday discrimination and binge eating among Latinas in the United States. METHODS: Participants included 1014 Latinas from the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study. Modified Poisson models with robust standard errors were used to estimate sociodemographic-adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of binge eating associated with overall and attribution-specific discrimination. RESULTS: Approximately 7% of Latinas reported binge eating. Increased frequency of discrimination was associated with a higher prevalence of binge eating (aPR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.23-2.06), and Latinas reporting frequencies of discrimination in the top tertile had the greatest prevalence elevation (aPR, 3.63; 95% CI, 1.32-10.00). There were important differences by discrimination attribution: Latinas experiencing primarily height/weight-based or skin color-based discrimination had the greatest prevalence elevation relative to those reporting no discrimination (aPR, 10.24; 95% CI, 2.95-35.51; and aPR, 8.83; 95% CI, 2.08-37.54, respectively), whereas Latinas reporting primarily race-based discrimination had the lowest prevalence elevation (aPR, 1.64; 95% CI, 0.47-5.69). CONCLUSIONS: Discrimination may be an important social determinant of Latinas' binge eating. Future research should incorporate expanded conceptual models that account for Latinas' complex social environment, focusing on intersecting dimensions of identity.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Aculturação , Adulto , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/complicações , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Bulimia/etnologia , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Características de Residência , Discriminação Social/etnologia , Meio Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 28(4): 423-432, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246543

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the utility of DSM-5 indicators of loss of control (LOC) eating in adult bariatric surgery patients who presented with binge-eating episodes. METHODS: Participants (all women) were 40 preoperative and 28 postoperative bariatric surgery patients reporting objective binge eating (OBE), 46 preoperative and 52 postoperative with subjective binge-eating (SBE), 53 bulimia nervosa (BN) controls, and 34 binge-eating disorder (BED) controls. Face-to-face Eating Disorder Examination interviews and questionnaires were administered. ANOVA, T-test, χ 2 , and regressions compared the groups in terms of LOC indicators endorsed and to explain disordered eating psychopathology. RESULTS: The indicator most commonly reported by bariatric patients with OBE was "feeling disgusted" (90% and 75% of pre- and postoperative groups), and the least endorsed was "eating alone" (40 and 28.6%). These indicators were reported by >84.9% of the BN and BED. Bariatric patients (pre- or post-surgery) with OBE only reported a higher number of indicators than patients with SBE only (t(150) = 2.34, p = .021). A higher number of indicators reported were associated with increased eating-related psychopathology (F(1,134) = 31.06, p < .001), but only for the post-surgery patients. CONCLUSIONS: The LOC indicators proposed by DSM-5 need to be refined or revised for the bariatric population. Highlights Bariatric patients endorse fewer LOC indicators than BN or BED during a binge-eating episode. Some of the DSM-5 LOC indicators may not be suited to assess episodes of loss of control eating among bariatric patients. The Higher the number of LOC indicators reported, the higher the eating-related psychopathology.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Bulimia/psicologia , Controle Interno-Externo , Adulto , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Bulimia Nervosa/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Reprod Infant Psychol ; 38(3): 243-258, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While research on Fear Of Childbirth (FOC) during pregnancy is on the rise, research regarding pretraumatic stress reactions is lacking. Moreover, less is known regarding negative anticipation of childbirth and Eating Disorders (ED). This study aims at identifying typologies of women in the prepartum period based on FOC and pretraumatic stress symptoms and investigating whether or not the identified profiles differ on levels of bulimic symptoms and Drive for Thinness (DT). PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: a sample of 213 pregnant women completed questionnaires assessing FOC, pretraumatic stress, DT and bulimic symptoms. RESULTS: four clusters based on pretraumatic stress and FOC symptoms were identified: one characterised by traumatic symptoms, one showing moderated FOC symptoms, one with high symptomatology and one with low symptoms. Higher ED symptoms were found in women with both FOC and pretraumatic stress symptoms, and in the cluster showing elevated pretraumatic stress symptomatology. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study focusing on anticipated traumatic reactions and ED in pregnant women. While some women evidenced FOC and pretraumatic stress symptoms, two different clusters, one with FOC and one with pretraumatic stress, were found. These findings suggest that, while sharing similarities, these constructs are different.


Assuntos
Bulimia/psicologia , Medo , Parto/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , França , Humanos , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Eat Behav ; 37: 101379, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146161

RESUMO

Negative urgency (NU: tendency to act rashly when distressed) is the facet of impulsive personality that has been most predictive of binge eating, but less is known about the relative role of positive urgency (PU: tendency to act rashly in response to positive emotions). In addition, most studies have exclusively focused on women and the examination of pathological eating outcomes, using a dimensional symptom approach, has been somewhat limited. This study aimed to replicate and extend upon prior work. We examined the extent to which NU and/or PU are uniquely associated with dysregulated eating, using a latent factor comprised of dimensional symptoms, and directly tested whether effects differ by sex. Two independent cross-sectional samples of women and men were used (Sample 1: Midwestern university, 437 females, 348 males; Sample 2: Southwestern university, 301 females, 236 males). NU and PU were assessed with the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, and dysregulated eating symptoms (i.e., binge eating, loss of control eating, eating concerns) were assessed with well-validated self-report questionnaires. Although both NU and PU showed significant positive associations with dysregulated eating, NU showed the strongest unique relationship with dysregulated eating in both samples. The relative role of PU was weakened in Sample 1 and completely attenuated in Sample 2 once its shared variance with NU was accounted for. All results were similar in men and women. Overall, findings continue to suggest that NU is the form of impulsivity that is most relevant to dysregulated eating in both men and women.


Assuntos
Bulimia/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121384

RESUMO

The growing number of women, who are characterized by restrictive and bulimic behaviours towards their own body is observed especially in countries influenced by Westernalization. However, there is a lack of cross-cultural studies in this area. The main aim of the present study was to examine the psychological and socio-cultural risk factors for eating disorders in Polish and Japanese women. A cross-sectional research study was conducted among 18- to 29-year old Polish (n = 89) and Japanese (n = 97) women. The variables were measured using the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Scale SATAQ-3, and the Eating Disorders Inventory EDI-3. The descriptive and comparative statistics, Spearman's rho, and the stepwise regression analysis were used. The global internalization of socio-cultural standards of body image proved to be a significant predictor of Body Dissatisfaction among Polish and Japanese women. The main analysis showed a significant relation between the Drive for Thinness and Interoceptive Deficits in the group of Japanese women, as well as a correlation between Drive for Thinness and Asceticism in the group of Polish women. The obtained results could improve the prevention aimed the dysfunctional eating behaviours. However, the cultural nuances need to be considered in understanding the risk factors for eating disorders.


Assuntos
Atitude/etnologia , Transtorno da Evitação ou Restrição da Ingestão de Alimentos , Insatisfação Corporal/psicologia , Bulimia/etnologia , Magreza/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bulimia/diagnóstico , Bulimia/psicologia , Comparação Transcultural , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Psicometria , Fatores de Risco , Magreza/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 28(4): 410-422, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212204

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Impulsivity and difficulties in regulating emotions are considered to be transdiagnostic characteristics of patients with eating disorders (EDs). The study aimed to investigate trait impulsivity and inhibitory components of impulsivity, related or unrelated to emotions in patients with EDs. METHOD: A total of 17 patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), 16 patients with bulimic-spectrum EDs (BSD) and 20 healthy control (HC) participants completed an impulsivity scale (UPPS-P) before performing an emotional inhibitory control task during electroencephalography (EEG) acquisition. RESULTS: Higher trait impulsivity in EDs than HC (with higher scores among BSD patients) was observed. However, no differences in behavioural measures or neural indexes [event-related potential (ERP)] of emotional and non-emotional inhibitory control were observed between patients and HC. CONCLUSION: The present results highlighted negative urgency, an impulsive personality trait related to emotions, as a common feature of AN and BSD. Lack of perseverance, a trait which is less related to emotions, specifically characterises patients with BSD. On the other hand, behavioural and ERP data did not show altered inhibitory control in EDs, for either general or emotional-related response inhibition.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 129(4): 387-396, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212743

RESUMO

Affect regulation models of eating disorder behavior, which predict worsening of affect prior to binge-eating episodes and improvement in affect following such episodes, have received support in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. However, limited work has examined the trajectories of affect surrounding binge eating in binge-eating disorder (BED). In the current study, ecological momentary assessment data from 112 men and women with BED were used to examine the trajectories of positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), guilt, fear, hostility, and sadness relative to binge-eating episodes. Prior to binge episodes, PA significantly decreased, whereas NA and guilt significantly increased. Following binge episodes, levels of NA and guilt significantly decreased and PA stabilized. Overall, results indicate improvements in affect following binge-eating episodes, suggesting that binge eating may function to alleviate unpleasant emotional experiences among individuals with BED, which is consistent with affect regulation models of eating pathology. Because improvements in negative affect were primarily driven by change in guilt, findings also highlight the relative importance of understanding the relationship between guilt and binge-eating behavior within this population. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Culpa , Hostilidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Bulimia/psicologia , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Appetite ; 144: 104470, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586596

RESUMO

Self-criticism and low self-compassion are implicated in the development and maintenance of binge eating. However, the association between these self-attitudes and binge eating symptoms remains unclear. Women with symptoms of Bulimia Nervosa (BN) or Binge Eating Disorder (BED) were randomised to either a self-compassion (n = 30) or self-critical rumination (n = 30) strategy following a negative mood induction. Responses to food cues (cue reactivity and affect) and calorie consumption in a 'taste test' were assessed. The self-compassion strategy was associated with a greater improvement in positive and negative affect following the negative mood induction. Despite the differential effects on mood, self-compassion and self-critical rumination led to similar self-reported food cravings and physiological reactivity to cues. However, participants in the self-compassion condition consumed significantly fewer calories, rated the consumed food as less pleasurable, and reported less desire to continue eating. The findings suggest that therapeutic strategies for cultivating self-compassion are associated with improved food-related self-regulation in the context of negative mood.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Bulimia Nervosa/psicologia , Empatia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Bulimia/psicologia , Fissura , Regulação Emocional , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Ruminação Cognitiva , Adulto Jovem
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