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1.
Am J Public Health ; 111(2): 318-326, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351656

RESUMO

Objectives. To estimate US nonlethal violent victimization rates for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) males and females aged 16 years and older and to compare disparities among LGB and straight males and females, controlling for other correlates of victimization.Methods. We used data from the 2017 and 2018 National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to provide nationally representative rates of various forms of violent victimization for self-identified LGB and straight persons. Multivariable models assessed the risk for violence associated with LGB status.Results. Total violence rates were 2 to 9 times higher among LGB persons compared with heterosexuals. For some forms of violence (e.g., rape and sexual assault, violence with serious injuries, and multiple offender violence) there were notably high disparities between bisexuals and heterosexuals. With adjustment for covariates, LGB orientation was associated with odds ratios nearly 2 to 4 times those of heterosexuals.Conclusions. This is one of the first known uses of NCVS data to estimate LGB victimization, revealing substantially higher rates of violence directed at LGB individuals.Public Health Implications. Sexual orientation and gender identity questions in federal surveys such as the NCVS enable monitoring of violent victimization rates and should continue. Collecting these data can help researchers understand victimization risk and guide appropriate resources toward victim services, especially important given the high violent crime levels experienced by LGB individuals.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e046620, 2020 12 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380488

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Essential healthcare workers (HCW) uniquely serve as both COVID-19 healers and, potentially, as carriers of SARS-CoV-2. We assessed COVID-19-related stigma and bullying against HCW controlling for social, psychological, medical and community variables. DESIGN: We nested an analytical cross-sectional study of COVID-19-related stigma and bullying among HCW within a larger mixed-methods effort assessing COVID-19-related lived experience and impact. Adjusted OR (aOR) and 95% CIs evaluated the association between working in healthcare settings and experience of COVID-19-related bullying and stigma, controlling for confounders. Thematic qualitative analysis provided insight into lived experience of COVID-19-related bullying. SETTING: We recruited potential participants in four languages (English, Spanish, French, Italian) through Amazon Mechanical Turk's online workforce and Facebook. PARTICIPANTS: Our sample included 7411 people from 173 countries who were aged 18 years or over. FINDINGS: HCW significantly experienced more COVID-19-related bullying after controlling for the confounding effects of job-related, personal, geographic and sociocultural variables (aOR: 1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.0). HCW more frequently believed that people gossip about others with COVID-19 (OR: 2.2; 95% CI 1.9 to 2.6) and that people with COVID-19 lose respect in the community (OR: 2.3; 95% CI 2.0 to 2.7), both which elevate bullying risk (OR: 2.7; 95% CI 2.3 to 3.2, and OR: 3.5; 95% CI 2.9 to 4.2, respectively). The lived experience of COVID-19-related bullying relates frequently to public identities as HCW traverse through the community, intersecting with other domains (eg, police, racism, violence). INTERPRETATION: After controlling for a range of confounding factors, HCW are significantly more likely to experience COVID-19-related stigma and bullying, often in the intersectional context of racism, violence and police involvement in community settings.


Assuntos
Bullying , Pessoal de Saúde , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Racismo , Estigma Social , Violência , Adulto , Bullying/prevenção & controle , Bullying/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , /prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Saúde Global , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Racismo/prevenção & controle , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/legislação & jurisprudência , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e179, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153509

RESUMO

AIMS: Compared to their heterosexual peers, youth who identify as lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB) tend to suffer higher rates of peer victimisation from bullying. However, studies of LGB adolescents' participation as bullies are scarce. We aimed to examine the possible association of sexual minority identity and the heightened risk of not only being bullied but bullying others as well. We also explored the effect of one's sexual identity on their involvement in bullying through the mediation of coping strategies and mood states. METHODS: A total of 12 218 students were recruited from 18 secondary schools in China. The demographic information, positive and negative coping strategies, mood state (anxiety, depression and hypomania) and information related to bullying and being bullied were collected. Multinomial regression was used to assess the heightened risk of sexual minority groups in comparison to their heterosexual adolescents' counterparts. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to test the mediating role of coping strategy and mood state between one's sex, sexual identity and bullying experience. RESULTS: Two trends could be observed: (1) LGB groups reported heightened risks of being bullied and bullying others at school than heterosexual peers. However, being a sexual-undeveloped girl seemed to have a protective effect on bullying-related problems. (2) Birth-assigned males were more likely to be bullied as well as bullying others at school when compared to birth-assigned females. SEM analysis revealed that being a sexual minority was directly associated with a higher frequency of being bullied (B = 0.16, 95% CI [0.10, 0.22], p < 0.001) but not bullying others (B = 0.02, 95% CI [-0.02, 0.06], p = 0.398) when compared to the heterosexual group. Negative coping, hypomania, anxiety and depression were associated with a higher frequency of being bullied, while positive coping was associated with a lower frequency of being bullied. Moreover, negative coping, hypomania and depression were associated with a higher frequency of bullying others, while positive coping was associated with a reduced likelihood of bullying others. In addition, being bullied and bullying others were significantly correlated in the SEM model. CONCLUSIONS: This novel research investigated the dynamic nature of the interaction between victim and bullying of LGB school adolescents in China, with a specific exploration of the psychological mechanism behind the pattern of being bullied and bullying others. School-level interventions aimed at teaching positive coping strategies to lower psychological distress are recommended to support sexual minority students.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Bissexualidade/etnologia , Bissexualidade/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Homossexualidade Feminina/etnologia , Homossexualidade Feminina/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas
4.
Clín. salud ; 31(3): 147-153, nov. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197170

RESUMO

Todos los estudiantes sufren el riesgo de ser víctima de conductas agresivas de bullying durante el transcurso de su vida. Sin embargo, existen colectivos con mayor riesgo de sufrir estas conductas, en especial, el colectivo LGTB. Este estudio tiene tres objetivos: (1) analizar la prevalencia de víctimas y agresores de bullying entre adolescentes de secundaria, (2) explorar diferencias en función del sexo y (3) conocer las diferencias en función de la orientación sexual. Una muestra compuesta por 1,748 adolescentes del País Vasco cumplimentó dos cuestionarios. Los resultados evidencian (1) un elevado porcentaje de víctimas (41.6% globales, 11% severas) y de agresores (28.5% globales, 2,7% severos), (2) que las chicas muestran mayor victimización y los chicos agresión y (3) que hay un mayor porcentaje de víctimas no-heterosexuales, en especial de gais y bisexuales. En conclusión, las personas LGTB muestran una mayor vulnerabilidad a sufrir acoso escolar, por lo que es necesario desarrollar e implementar programas antidiscriminatorios en la comunidad educativa


Every student is at risk of aggressive bullying behavior during their lifetime. However, there are groups with a higher risk of suffering these aggressive behaviors, especially the LGTB group. This study has three objectives: (1) to analyze the prevalence of victims and aggressors of bullying among high school adolescents; (2) to explore differences based on sex; and (3) to identify differences based on sexual orientation. A sample consisting of 1,748 adolescents from the Basque Country completed two questionnaires. The results show (1) a high percentage of victims (41.6% global, 11% severe), as well as aggressors (28.5% global, 2.7% severe); (2) that girls show greater victimization and boys show aggression; and (3) a higher percentage of non-heterosexual victims, especially gay and bisexual. In conclusion, LGTB people show greater vulnerability to suffer bullying and, therefore, the need to develop and implement anti-discrimination programs in the educational community


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sexismo/psicologia , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha
5.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(11): 909-922, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107234

RESUMO

Through this meta-analysis, we sought to examine the prevalence of, risks for, and factors associated with bullying involvement (victimization, perpetration, perpetration-victimization) among students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Additionally, we attempted to examine sources of variance in the prevalence and effect sizes of bullying in students with ASD across studies. Systematic database and literature review identified 34 relevant studies (31 for Western countries, three for Eastern countries). Pooled prevalence estimates for victimization, perpetration, and perpetration-victimization in general were 67%, 29%, and 14%, respectively. The risk of victimization in students with ASD was significantly higher than that in typically developing students and students with other disabilities. Further, deficits in social interaction and communication, externalizing symptoms, internalizing symptoms, and integrated inclusive school settings were related to higher victimization, and externalizing symptoms were related to higher perpetration. Finally, moderation analyses revealed significant variations in the pooled prevalences thereof depending on culture, age, school settings, and methodological quality and in the pooled effect sizes according to publication year and methodological quality. Our results highlight needs for bullying intervention for students with ASD, especially those who are younger, are in an inclusive school setting, and have higher social difficulties and externalizing/internalizing symptoms; for intensive research of bullying experiences among students with ASD in Eastern countries; and for efforts to improve the methodological quality of such research.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Comparação Transcultural , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etnologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200097, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze sociodemographic, school, nutritional, and behavioral factors and body perception associated with being bullied in Brazilian students aged 13 to 17 years old. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study based on data from sample 2 of the 2015 Brazilian School Health Survey. The sample for this study was composed of 10,699 teenagers from schools in each of the largest regions of Brazil. RESULTS: The prevalence of being bullied was 6.2%, with the highest chance of in teens who bully others (OR = 1.91 95%CI 1.48 - 2.45), who are 13 years old (OR = 1.76, 95%CI 1.04 - 2.97), who consider themselves fat (OR = 1.45, 95%CI 1.06 - 1.98) and who are not treated well by their schoolmates (OR = 2.78, 95%CI 2.17 - 3.45). CONCLUSION: Preventive efforts that include programs to encourage greater social support among students, as well as the implementation of practices that encourage respect for students' differences and singularities can contribute to reducing bullying practices.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime , Estudantes/psicologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Brasil , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22409, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991470

RESUMO

Childhood bullying leads to life-long scars and hinders adult development. Schoolchildren involved in bullying are at risk of developing behavioural difficulties, physical health problems and suicidal ideation. This research aimed to evaluate the bullying experience of pupils in Nigerian primary schools.The study is a cross-sectional analytic survey conducted from June to November 2019. A total of 1080 pupils in participated in the study. A self-report questionnaire containing 3 questions was used for collecting data. Analysis of the collected data was done using percentage and Chi-Squared at 0.05 probability level.Results indicate that 51.4% of the male pupils and 50.8% of females reported being victims of bullying. 51.8% of the males and 49.5% of females were found to be perpetrators of bullying. 39.6% of the males and 42.9% of the females were bystanders of bullying. 35.1% of the males and 34.1% of females have experienced any 2 of the categories while 11.2% of the males and 12.4% of the females have experienced all the categories of bullying. Results show a non-significant difference between male and female pupils on bullying victimization (χ = .036, P = .849), bullying perpetration (χ = .589, P = .443), and bullying bystander problem (χ = 1.194, P = .275).In conclusion, school bullying is an increasing problem among Nigerian schoolchildren. Initiatives must, therefore, be taken by the Nigerian government to further prevent and counter bullying problem in Nigerian primary schools. Interventions aimed at helping schools to develop effective policies to reduce bullying behaviour among pupils should be initiated.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Bullying/psicologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais
8.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1102, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the burden and determinants of suicide during adolescence is key to achieving global health goals. We examined the prevalence and determinants of self-reported suicidal ideation and attempts among younger (13-15 years) and older adolescents (16-17 years). METHODS: Pooled prevalence estimates with 95% confidence interval, were calculated for suicide ideation and attempts for 118 surveys from 90 countries that administered the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) to adolescents (13-17 years of age) from 2003 to 2017. Indicators (including individual and social factors) associated with suicidal ideation and attempts were determined from multivariable linear regressions on key outcomes. RESULTS: The prevalence of suicidal ideation representing 397,299 adolescents (51.3% female) was significantly higher among girls than boys whereas attempts did not differ by age or sex. Being bullied, or having no close friends was associated with suicidal ideation among girls 13-15 years and 16-17 years, respectively. Among all boys, being in a fight and having no close friends was associated with suicidal ideation with the addition of serious injury for boys 13-15 years. Common to all younger adolescents was an association of suicide attempt with being bullied and having had a serious injury. Among young boys, having no close friends was an additional indicator for suicide attempt. Having no close friends was associated with suicide attempt in older adolescents with the addition to being bullied in older girls and serious injury in older boys. CONCLUSIONS: Building positive social relationships with peers and avoiding serious injury appear key to suicide prevention strategies for vulnerable adolescents. Targeted programs by age group and sex for such indicators could improve mental health during adolescence in low and middle-income countries, given the diverse risk profiles for suicidal ideation and attempts.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Amigos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e152, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772993

RESUMO

AIMS: The factors associated with suicidal ideation among adolescents have been extensively characterised, but the mechanisms underlying the complexities of the relationship between experiences of childhood trauma and suicidal ideation have been less studied. This study examined the direct effect of childhood trauma on suicidal ideation on the one hand and whether school bullying victimisation and Internet addiction mediate the association between childhood trauma and suicidal ideation on the other hand. METHODS: This school-based mental health survey was carried out in Qinghai Province in Northwest China in December 2019. We employed standardised questionnaires to collect sociodemographic and target mental health outcomes. Hierarchical multiple logistic regression and structural equation modelling were performed for the data analyses. RESULTS: This study included 5864 university students. The prevalence of lifetime suicidal ideation and Internet addiction were 34.7% and 21.4%, respectively. Overall, 16.4% and 11.4% of participants reported experiences of childhood trauma and school bullying victimisation, respectively. There were direct effects of childhood trauma, school bullying victimisation and Internet addiction on suicidal ideation. The total effect of childhood trauma on suicidal ideation was 0.201 (p < 0.001). School bullying victimisation and Internet addiction mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and suicidal ideation. Internet addiction played a mediating role between school bullying and suicidal ideation. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood trauma had both direct and indirect effects on suicidal ideation; these effects were mediated by school bullying victimisation and Internet addiction in Chinese university students. Elucidating these relationships will therefore be useful in developing and implementing more targeted interventions and strategies to improve the mental well-being of Chinese university students.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/psicologia , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635567

RESUMO

This transversal study over a random representative sample of 1687 Mexican students attending public and private secondary schools (54% girls, 12-17 years old, M = 13.65. DT = 1.14) aimed to analyze psychosocial differences between victims and non-victims of bullying from the bioecological model. It included individual variables (ontosystem), familiar, community, and scholar factors (microsystem), and gender (macrosystem) to perform a multivariate discriminant analysis and a logistic regression analysis. The discriminant analysis found that psychological distress, offensive communication with mother and father, and a positive attitude toward social norms transgression characterized the high victimization cluster. For the non-victims, the discriminant variables were community implication, positive attitude toward institutional authority, and open communication with the mother. These variables allowed for correctly predicting membership in 76% of the cases. Logistic regression analysis found that psychological distress, offensive communication with the father, and being a boy increased the probability of high victimization, while a positive attitude toward authority, open communication with the mother, and being a girl decrease this probability. These results highlight the importance of open and offensive communication between adolescents and their parents on psychological distress, attitude toward authority, community implication, and bullying victimization.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Angústia Psicológica , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
11.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23 Suppl 1: e200003.SUPL.1, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the factors associated with domestic violence against Brazilian adolescents. METHODOLOGY: Descriptive analysis of the variables and calculation of the prevalence of intrafamily violence reported by the students was performed, followed by multinomial regression with calculation of the adjusted odds ratio to analyze the association between the variables and the outcome investigated. RESULTS: Black skin color (ORa = 1.9; 95%CI 1.4 - 2.7) and brown (ORa = 1.4; 95%CI 1.0 - 1.9), insomnia (ORa = 1.8; 95%CI 1.4 - 2.4), bullying (ORa = 2.5; 95%CI 1.7 - 3.7) and alcohol consumption (ORa = 1.5; 95%CI 1.1 - 1.9) increased the chances of adolescents suffering an episode of intrafamily violence. Bullying (ORa = 3.9; 95%CI 2.8 - 5.3) and alcohol consumption (ORa = 2.2; 95%CI 1.7 - 2.7) contributed up to 4 times more not to suffer more than one episode of domestic violence. Habits such as eating with family (ORa = 0.7; 95%CI 0.5 - 1.0) and having parents who understand their problems (ORa = 0.6; 95%CI 0.5 - 0,7) proved to be protective factors for intrafamily violence. CONCLUSION: Intrafamily violence against adolescents is related to family interactions, psychoactive substance use and violence in the school environment. Thus, it reveals the importance of the participation of parents and guardians in the prevention of violence and risk behaviors in the lives of Brazilian adolescents.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Relações Pais-Filho , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517209

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the prevalence, related factors, and emotional problems associated with teacher harassment victimization in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) assessed by self-reports and parent reports. A total of 219 adolescents with ASD participated in this study. The self-reported and parent-reported rates of teacher harassment victimization were calculated. Sociodemographic characteristics, parent-reported social communication deficits, attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms, and suicidality were surveyed. In total, 26 (11.9%) adolescents with ASD experienced teacher harassment based on self-reports or parent reports; the convergence between adolescent and parent reports on adolescent experiences of teacher harassment was low. Victims of teacher harassment exhibited more severe social communication deficits and ODD symptoms than nonvictims of teacher harassment. Victims of teacher harassment displayed more severe depression and anxiety and were more likely to have suicidality. Socio-communication deficits and ODD symptoms were related to teacher harassment victimization, which in turn was significantly associated with emotional problems among adolescents with ASD.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno Autístico , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
13.
Occup Med (Lond) ; 70(4): 251-258, 2020 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Workplace bullying is a pervasive problem with significant personal, social and economic costs. Estimates of the resulting lost productivity provide an important societal perspective on the impact of the problem. Understanding where these economic costs fall is relevant for policy. AIMS: We estimated the value of lost productivity to the economy from workplace bullying in the public and private sectors in Ireland. METHODS: We used nationally representative survey data and multivariable negative binomial regression to estimate the independent effect of workplace bullying on days absent from work. We applied the human capital approach to derive an estimate of the annual value of lost productivity due to bullying by sector and overall, in 2017. RESULTS: Bullying was independently associated with an extra 1.00 (95% CI: 0.38-1.62) days absent from work over a 4-week period. This differed for public and private sector employees: 0.69 (95% CI: -0.12 to 1.50) versus 1.45 (95% CI: 0.50-2.40) days respectively. Applying official data, we estimated the associated annual value of lost productivity to be €51.8 million in the public sector, €187.6 million in the private sector and €239.3 million overall. CONCLUSIONS: The economic value of lost productivity from workplace bullying in Ireland is significant. Although bullying is more prevalent in the public sector, it has a larger effect on absence in the private sector. Given this, along with the greater overall share of employees, productivity losses from bullying are considerably larger in the private sector in Ireland.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Eficiência Organizacional/economia , Setor Privado/economia , Setor Público/economia , Local de Trabalho/economia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
15.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 32(2): 214-220, mayo 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-197260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aversive control techniques involve aversive stimuli to generate behavioral change. The purpose of this work is to analyze the use of verbal aversive control by psychologists during the clinical interaction, combining respondent and operant explanations. METHOD: observational methodology is used to analyze 26 session recordings of three different cases of anxiety disorder, relationship problem and low mood problem (27h 32') carried out by two psychologists of the Therapeutic Institute of Madrid. The variables considered were psychologists' aversive and non-aversive verbalizations and clients' antitherapeutic verbalizations. RESULTS: there is a strong relationship between clients' antitherapeutic verbalizations and psychologist's aversive verbalizations, both potential punishments (aversive verbalizations contingent on the client's response) and aversive pairings. Additionally, the possible psychologists' aversive verbalizations are accompanied by other verbalizations aimed to induce clients' non-problematic behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: This work opens a new way to an explanation of therapeutic change using learning processes (both respondent and operant conditioning) that take place through verbal interaction in clinical context


ANTECEDENTES: el término control aversivo se refiere a las situaciones en las que se genera un cambio conductual mediante el uso de estímulos que provocan algún tipo de malestar. En este trabajo analizamos el uso de verbalizaciones aversivas por parte del terapeuta durante la interacción clínica, combinando explicaciones pavlovianas y operantes. MÉTODO: mediante metodología observacional se analizaron 26 grabaciones de tres casos de ansiedad, problemas de pareja y bajo estado de ánimo (27h 32') tratados por dos terapeutas del Instituto Terapéutico de Madrid. Las variables consideradas fueron las verbalizaciones aversivas y no aversivas del terapeuta y las verbalizaciones antiterapéuticas del cliente. RESULTADOS: hay una fuerte correlación entre las verbalizaciones antiterapéuticas de los clientes y las verbalizaciones aversivas del terapeuta, tanto en forma de potenciales castigos (verbalizaciones aversivas contingentes a la respuesta del cliente) como de emparejamientos aversivos. Además, se comprueba que el posible control aversivo que ejerce el terapeuta se acompaña de otras acciones verbales encaminadas a desarrollar comportamientos no problemáticos en los clientes. CONCLUSIONES: trabajo preliminar que abre una nueva vía a la explicación del cambio terapéutico a partir de los procesos de aprendizaje (pavlovianos y operantes) que ocurren durante la interacción verbal en el contexto clínico


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Bullying/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Grupo Associado , Comportamento Verbal , Aculturação , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Itália , Modelos Logísticos
16.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(5): 1094-1109, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246306

RESUMO

Adolescents identifying as sexual and/or gender minorities face many challenges at school due to stigma-based peer harassment. This study examined the extent to which sexual and gender minority adolescents experience bias-based bullying across a range of stigmatized identities and attributes, as well as the potential of gay-straight alliances (GSAs, also referred to as gender-sexuality alliances) to reduce simultaneously multiple forms of bias-based bullying, and in turn support school adjustment. Using a United States sample of diverse sexual and gender minority adolescents (N = 17,112; Mage = 15.57, SDage = 1.27), multiple mediation analyses indicated lower levels of multiple forms of bias-based bullying (based on body weight, gender, religion, disability, gender typicality, sexuality) at schools with versus without GSAs, and in turn higher perceived school safety, as well as higher grades and reduced school suspension (due to less weight- and sexuality-based bullying). The findings shed light on the broad-reaching stigma-reduction potential of GSAs.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Identidade de Gênero , Assédio Sexual/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Instituições Acadêmicas , Assédio Sexual/prevenção & controle , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Estados Unidos
18.
Public Health Rep ; 135(3): 303-309, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243767

RESUMO

Bullying is a serious public health issue among children and adolescents in the United States. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of bullying victimization (defined as a child being bullied, picked on, or excluded by children) in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. We used data on bullying victimization from the 2016-2017 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH). We stratified the sample by age: children aged 6-11 years (n = 21 142) and adolescents aged 12-17 years (n = 29 011). We conducted bivariate analyses to determine the prevalence of bullying victimization by state for each age group. In the survey, parents/caregivers responded to a question about whether it was "definitely true," "somewhat true," or "not true" that their child "is being bullied, picked on, or excluded by other children." We combined "definitely true" and "somewhat true" responses to create a dichotomous variable for bullying victimization. Parents reported 22.4% of children aged 6-11 years and 21.0% of adolescents aged 12-17 years as experiencing bullying victimization during 2016-2017. The prevalence of bullying victimization among children ranged from 16.5% in New York State to 35.9% in Wyoming and among adolescents ranged from 14.9% in Nevada to 31.6% in Montana. The prevalence of bullying victimization among children or adolescents was >30% in 7 states: Arkansas, Kentucky, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming. These data can be used to inform state programs and policies to support bullying prevention efforts and services for children and adolescents who experience bullying. NSCH will continue to collect data on bullying victimization to track annual trends in national and state-level prevalence rates among children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Rev. Rol enferm ; 43(3): 192-199, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193820

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTOS: La elevada prevalencia del bullying y sus consecuencias lo convierten en un problema de salud pública. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la prevalencia de ser víctima de bullying entre adolescentes de 15 a 18 años y analizar los factores sociodemográficos y de salud que se asocian con la victimización. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal en 844 estudiantes matriculados en 5 institutos de educación secundaria de Cuenca (España) en el curso académico 2015-2016. Se utilizó un cuestionario autoadministrado que incluía variables sociodemográficas y de salud (afecciones clínicas, discapacidad, peso y talla). Ser víctima de bullying y el resto de variables se midieron mediante subescalas del instrumento KIDSCREEN-52, que mide la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de bullying fue 29,5 %. Las víctimas de acoso respecto a las no víctimas presentaron puntuaciones inferiores en todas las subescalas de KIDSCREEN-52. El análisis multivariante mostró que ser chico, tener discapacidad/problema de salud (β=2,349), presentar peor estado de ánimo (β=0,952), peor autopercepción (β=0,967), peor relación con los pares (β=0,978), menores recursos económicos (β=0,976) y percibir menor calidad de vida (β=0,892) fueron variables que se asociaron con aumento del riesgo de ser víctima de bullying. CONCLUSIONES: Los adolescentes más vulnerables son aquellos que presentan problemas físicos, psicológicos o sociales y por tanto son los más desprotegidos. Ser acosado tiene efectos nocivos sobre la salud y el desarrollo socioemocional, por lo que es necesario identificar a los adolescentes con un riesgo mayor


FUNDAMENTALS: The higher prevalence of bullying and its consequences make it a public health problem. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of being a victim of school bullying among adolescents aged 15 to 18 years and analyze the sociodemographic and health factors associated with victimization. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in 844 students enrolled in 5 Secondary Schools of Cuenca (Spain) in the academic year 2015-2016. It is a self-administered questionnaire that includes sociodemographic and health variables (clinical conditions, disability, weight and height). Being a victim of intimidation and the rest of the variables were measured using subscales of the KIDSCREEN-52 instrument, which measures the quality of life related to health. RESULTS: The prevalence of bullying was 29.5%. Victims of harassment regarding non-victims presented lower scores in all subscales of KIDSCREEN-52. The multivariate analysis showed that being boy, having a disability / health problem (β = 2,349), worse mood (β = 0,952), worse self-perception (β = 0,967), worse relation with the pairs (β = 0.978), the lowest economic resources (β = 0.976) and the lowest quality of life (β = 0.892) were variables that were associated with an increase in the risk of being a victim of harassment. CONCLUSIONS: The most vulnerable adolescents are those who present physical, psychological or social problems and therefore are more unprotected. Being harassed has harmful effects on health and socio-emotional development, which is why it is necessary to identify adolescents with a higher risk


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Vulnerabilidade em Saúde , Bullying/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência
20.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 64(5): 564-585, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020822

RESUMO

School bullying has received considerable criminological, psychological, educational, and governmental attention. However, much of the attention is focused on bullying in western, Asian, and Scandinavian countries. There appears to be scant, if any, attention paid to this problem on the African continent. Using cross-sectional data from a sample of 1,192 junior secondary school (middle school) students in Nigeria, this study examines the prevalence and correlates of bullying in this sample of secondary school students in Nigeria. Bullying prevalence rate in this sample was 59.9%. The study finds that males were more likely to bully than females, and the most prevalent form of bullying behavior for both genders was making fun of someone. Correlates for bullying perpetration were association with delinquent friends, negative school climate, attending a private school, and ethnicity.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adulto Jovem
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