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1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 85-92, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190653

RESUMO

Antisocial behaviors in adolescents are present and prevalent around the world and have harmful consequences for individuals and societies. The research focused on antisocial behaviors in young people has been very fruitful, but studies are usually fragmented and focused on specific problem behaviors either in school or outside of school. Although victim-offender overlap was described in many studies, most projects focused either on victims or on offenders. This prospective longitudinal study was conducted to discover patterns of antisocial behavior from a comprehensive perspective, including different problem behaviors in and out of schools, focusing on both victimization and offending. A sample of 450 early adolescents was followed-up during one school year. Latent class and latent transition analyses were performed and identified four groups of students. These groups were: low antisocial, highly antisocial and victimized, high bullying victimization, and high offending outside of school. Transition analyses showed that the low antisocial and offenders outside of school groups were relatively stable over time. Students in the high bullying victimization group transitioned to different groups, and students in the highly antisocial and victimized group either remained in the highly antisocial group or transitioned to high offending outside of school. Findings suggest that single antisocial behaviors are not common and students who display one problem behavior usually display other problem behaviors. Early adolescents who are involved in antisocial behaviors in one time period frequently remain involved one year later. It is therefore possible that the antisocial potential of some adolescents is expressed in different contexts. This has important implications for research and practice that need to adopt a more holistic and comprehensive approach


Las conductas antisociales de los adolescentes están presentes en todo el mundo y tienen consecuencias perjudiciales para individuos y sociedades. La investigación centrada en las conductas antisociales de los jóvenes ha sido muy fructífera, pero los estudios están generalmente fragmentados y se centran en comportamientos problemáticos específicos, ya sea en la escuela o fuera de la escuela. Aunque la superposición víctima-agresor se ha descrito en muchos estudios, la mayoría se ha centrado en las víctimas o en los agresores. Este estudio longitudinal prospectivo se ha realizado para descubrir patrones de conducta antisocial desde una perspectiva integral, que incluye diferentes comportamientos problemáticos dentro y fuera de la escuela, centrándose tanto en la victimización como en la agresión. Se ha seguido una muestra de 450 estudiantes durante un año escolar y se han realizado análisis de clases latentes y de transiciones latentes, identificando cuatro grupos de estudiantes: bajo antisocial, altamente antisocial y victimizado, alta victimización por bullying y alto en ofensas fuera de la escuela. Los análisis de transición mostraron que el grupo bajo antisocial y el grupo alto en ofensas fuera de la escuela eran relativamente estables en el tiempo. Los estudiantes del grupo alta victimización por bullying hicieron la transición a diferentes grupos y los estudiantes del grupo altamente antisocial y victimizado permanecieron en su grupo o pasaron al grupo alto en ofensas fuera de la escuela. Los resultados indican que no son frecuentes las conductas antisociales aisladas y que los estudiantes que muestran un comportamiento problemático, generalmente, presentan otros comportamientos problemáticos. Los adolescentes que están implicados en conductas antisociales en un momento temporal con frecuencia siguen implicados un año después. Por lo tanto, es posible que el potencial antisocial de algunos adolescentes se exprese en diferentes contextos. El estudio tiene importantes implicaciones para la investigación y la práctica, ya que tienen que adoptar un enfoque más holístico e integral


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Prospectivos
2.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 112, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Being bullied and socially excluded interferes with the fundamental need for humans to belong to a social group, which is necessary for well-being. This might underpin pain and the use of non-prescription analgesics. AIM: The aim of the study was to gain insight into how social exclusion and bullying affect well-being in adolescents reporting frequent pain and high use of non-prescription analgesics. METHODS: A phenomenological hermeneutical method based on in-depth interviews was used. Nineteen teenagers, 14-16 years of age voluntarily participated in the study. Those included had frequent pain and used non-prescription analgesics daily or several times a week. RESULTS: Bullying and social exclusion affects thoughts, feelings and attitudes and thereby the quality of life of the adolescents we interviewed. They described feelings such as sadness, loneliness and depression, and a sense of being an outsider among peers was common. It also appears that bullying has significant potential to spread in a school environment. CONCLUSION: The adolescents were self-aware and well-articulated. They conceptualised their experiences of being socially excluded and bullied. They described being socially excluded and bullied by peers as painful and they used non-prescription analgesics to alleviate pain. Teachers and health professionals should be aware of frequent pain and high use of non-prescribed analgesic medication as signs of psychosocial stress caused by social exclusion and bullying. Social exclusion and bullying should be systematically mapped, and targeted interventions implemented.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Bullying/psicologia , Manejo da Dor/estatística & dados numéricos , Dor , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Distância Social , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida
3.
Acad Med ; 95(10): 1529-1538, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006870

RESUMO

Though overt sexism is decreasing, women now experience subtle, often unconscious, gender bias as microaggressions. The authors sought to explore the prevalence and impact of the sexist microaggressions female surgeons experience, using a sequential exploratory mixed methods approach (January 2018-April 2018), to identify opportunities for education and prevention. First, all resident, fellow, and attending female surgeons at the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center (UNM HSC) were invited to participate in focus groups conducted by experienced moderators using a semistructured interview guide based on the 7 Sexist Microaggressions Experiences and Stress Scale (Sexist MESS) domains. Qualitative analysis was performed using line-by-line manual coding to identify themes aligned with the Sexist MESS domains as well as other gender bias experiences of female surgeons. Next, a survey was sent to all resident, fellow, and attending female surgeons at the UNM HSC, which included the Sexist MESS questionnaire and questions related to surgeon-specific experiences of gender bias that the authors developed based on major thematic categories from the focus groups.Four focus groups of 23 female surgeons were conducted, revealing 4 themes: exclusion, increased effort, adaptation, and resilience to workplace slights. The survey response rate was 64% (65/101 surgeons). Across Sexist MESS domains, the frequency and severity of microaggressions was higher for trainees than attendings. The variables of non-White race/ethnicity, having children under 18, and fellowship training generally did not demonstrate statistical significance. This exploratory study adds to the growing body of evidence that gender bias in surgery continues and frequently manifests as microaggressions. Trainees reported the highest rates and severity of microaggressions and bias experiences. Further research should investigate how to address microaggressions, the experiences of male surgeons, the perspectives of medical students and groups who were reported as often perpetuating gender bias, and the efficacy of possible interventions.


Assuntos
Médicas/psicologia , Sexismo/psicologia , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Agressão/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , New Mexico , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(11): 909-922, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107234

RESUMO

Through this meta-analysis, we sought to examine the prevalence of, risks for, and factors associated with bullying involvement (victimization, perpetration, perpetration-victimization) among students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Additionally, we attempted to examine sources of variance in the prevalence and effect sizes of bullying in students with ASD across studies. Systematic database and literature review identified 34 relevant studies (31 for Western countries, three for Eastern countries). Pooled prevalence estimates for victimization, perpetration, and perpetration-victimization in general were 67%, 29%, and 14%, respectively. The risk of victimization in students with ASD was significantly higher than that in typically developing students and students with other disabilities. Further, deficits in social interaction and communication, externalizing symptoms, internalizing symptoms, and integrated inclusive school settings were related to higher victimization, and externalizing symptoms were related to higher perpetration. Finally, moderation analyses revealed significant variations in the pooled prevalences thereof depending on culture, age, school settings, and methodological quality and in the pooled effect sizes according to publication year and methodological quality. Our results highlight needs for bullying intervention for students with ASD, especially those who are younger, are in an inclusive school setting, and have higher social difficulties and externalizing/internalizing symptoms; for intensive research of bullying experiences among students with ASD in Eastern countries; and for efforts to improve the methodological quality of such research.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Comparação Transcultural , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etnologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200097, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze sociodemographic, school, nutritional, and behavioral factors and body perception associated with being bullied in Brazilian students aged 13 to 17 years old. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study based on data from sample 2 of the 2015 Brazilian School Health Survey. The sample for this study was composed of 10,699 teenagers from schools in each of the largest regions of Brazil. RESULTS: The prevalence of being bullied was 6.2%, with the highest chance of in teens who bully others (OR = 1.91 95%CI 1.48 - 2.45), who are 13 years old (OR = 1.76, 95%CI 1.04 - 2.97), who consider themselves fat (OR = 1.45, 95%CI 1.06 - 1.98) and who are not treated well by their schoolmates (OR = 2.78, 95%CI 2.17 - 3.45). CONCLUSION: Preventive efforts that include programs to encourage greater social support among students, as well as the implementation of practices that encourage respect for students' differences and singularities can contribute to reducing bullying practices.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime , Estudantes/psicologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Brasil , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22409, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991470

RESUMO

Childhood bullying leads to life-long scars and hinders adult development. Schoolchildren involved in bullying are at risk of developing behavioural difficulties, physical health problems and suicidal ideation. This research aimed to evaluate the bullying experience of pupils in Nigerian primary schools.The study is a cross-sectional analytic survey conducted from June to November 2019. A total of 1080 pupils in participated in the study. A self-report questionnaire containing 3 questions was used for collecting data. Analysis of the collected data was done using percentage and Chi-Squared at 0.05 probability level.Results indicate that 51.4% of the male pupils and 50.8% of females reported being victims of bullying. 51.8% of the males and 49.5% of females were found to be perpetrators of bullying. 39.6% of the males and 42.9% of the females were bystanders of bullying. 35.1% of the males and 34.1% of females have experienced any 2 of the categories while 11.2% of the males and 12.4% of the females have experienced all the categories of bullying. Results show a non-significant difference between male and female pupils on bullying victimization (χ = .036, P = .849), bullying perpetration (χ = .589, P = .443), and bullying bystander problem (χ = 1.194, P = .275).In conclusion, school bullying is an increasing problem among Nigerian schoolchildren. Initiatives must, therefore, be taken by the Nigerian government to further prevent and counter bullying problem in Nigerian primary schools. Interventions aimed at helping schools to develop effective policies to reduce bullying behaviour among pupils should be initiated.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Bullying/psicologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais
7.
Rev. psicol. trab. organ. (1999) ; 36(2): 111-124, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194181

RESUMO

This study focused on the perceptions and reactions of observers in abusive supervision situations, with regard to the premises of the Bystander Intervention Framework. A 2 X 2 X 2 design was used based on observer's, perpetrator's, and victim's gender. Several vignettes for four different perpetrator-victim dyads (e.g., female perpetrator-male victim) were developed. Participants (N = 197) read these vignettes consecutively over five days and finally were asked to evaluate the perceived acceptability of the abusive supervision, and rate their willingness to help the victim. Results revealed that higher power distance orientation increased perceived acceptability of abusive supervision, and higher perceived acceptability increased avoidance of help while simultaneously decreasing willingness to provide direct or indirect help. The gender of the perpetrator was critical in perceived acceptability, whereby male observers were more tolerant toward male perpetrators. In addition, the gender of the victim was a determinant of the type of help given


El estudio se centra en la percepción y reacciones de las personas que presencian situaciones de supervisión abusiva en relación a las premisas del "marco de intervención de observadores". Se utilizó un diseño 2 X 2 X 2 teniendo en cuenta el sexo del observador, del perpetrador y de la víctima. Se diseñaron diversas historias para cuatro diadas diferentes perpetrador-víctima (por ejemplo, mujer perpetradora-varón víctima). Los participantes (N = 197) leían las historias seguidas a lo largo de seis días y luego se les pedía que valoraran la aceptación percibida de la supervisión abusiva y su disposición a ayudar a la víctima. Los resultados mostraban que a mayor orientación a la distancia de poder aumentaba la aceptación percibida de la supervisión abusiva y a mayor aceptación percibida aumentaba la evitación de ayuda a la vez que disminuía la disposición a prestar ayuda directa o indirecta. El género del perpetrador jugaba un papel básico en la aceptación percibida, siendo más tolerantes los observadores varones hacia los perpetradores varones. Además, el género de la víctima era determinante del tipo de ayuda prestada


Assuntos
Humanos , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento/métodos , 16054/psicologia , Condições de Trabalho , Bullying/psicologia , Poder Psicológico , Relações Trabalhistas , Distribuição por Sexo
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237406, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bullying is an emerging risk factor for poor mental health outcomes adversely affecting children and adolescents. However, it has rarely caught the attention of the health and education sector due to lack of evidence in many countries including Nepal. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with bullying behavior among adolescent students in Nepal. METHODS: We used nationally representative data from the Nepal Global School-Based Student Health Survey that involved two-stage cluster sampling design with the use of a standard set of self-administered questionnaires. Complex sample analysis was done to determine the prevalence and correlates of bullying among 6529 students of 68 schools studying in grade 7 to 11 using descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of bullying among Nepalese school adolescents was 51% (55.67% in male and 46.17% in female). Bullied adolescents more commonly reported mental health problems with higher risk of loneliness (aOR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.64), anxiety (aOR 2.04, 95% CI: 1.65, 2.52), suicide attempt (aOR 2.08, 95% CI: 1.54, 2.81), school absenteeism due to fear (aOR 1.72, 95% CI: 1.34, 2.21) and school truancy (aOR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.87). A significant association was seen between bullying victimization and negative health behaviors like involvement in physical fights (aOR 3.64, 95% CI: 2.94, 4.51) and tobacco use (aOR 2.05, 95% CI: 1.15, 3.65). CONCLUSION: School bullying is significantly associated with mental health factors like loneliness, anxiety, suicide attempt, school absenteeism and risky behavioral factors like smokeless tobacco use and involvement in physical fight. The insights provided by these findings have important implications for planning anti-bullying strategies in school settings in the Nepalese context.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Nepal , Assunção de Riscos
9.
Nurs Outlook ; 68(5): 647-656, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fisher (1985) argued that "there is no genre…that is not an episode in the story of life" (p. 347). As they incorporate moral claims, stories become 'sticky,' even when they are not accurate of fact, shifting listener beliefs, values, and sense of self. PURPOSE: This study examined 'sticky' storytelling and moral claims inherent in workplace bullying. METHOD: Critical hermeneutic method nested within an integrative review served as the research approach, extending findings reported in published research reports and gray literature. FINDINGS: Through polished use of rhetorical style and resource control strategies within tacitly or explicitly supportive workplace contexts, bullies construct convincing but morally disengaged narratives-sticky stories-that violate ethical principles and yield moral ambiguity for their victims as they impede workplace productivity. DISCUSSION: Largely ineffective, policies aimed to stem bullying have done little to date to mitigate bullying's impact. Recognizing the moral storytelling characterizing workplace bullying might strengthen policy for constraining workplace bullying.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Status Moral , Narração , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635567

RESUMO

This transversal study over a random representative sample of 1687 Mexican students attending public and private secondary schools (54% girls, 12-17 years old, M = 13.65. DT = 1.14) aimed to analyze psychosocial differences between victims and non-victims of bullying from the bioecological model. It included individual variables (ontosystem), familiar, community, and scholar factors (microsystem), and gender (macrosystem) to perform a multivariate discriminant analysis and a logistic regression analysis. The discriminant analysis found that psychological distress, offensive communication with mother and father, and a positive attitude toward social norms transgression characterized the high victimization cluster. For the non-victims, the discriminant variables were community implication, positive attitude toward institutional authority, and open communication with the mother. These variables allowed for correctly predicting membership in 76% of the cases. Logistic regression analysis found that psychological distress, offensive communication with the father, and being a boy increased the probability of high victimization, while a positive attitude toward authority, open communication with the mother, and being a girl decrease this probability. These results highlight the importance of open and offensive communication between adolescents and their parents on psychological distress, attitude toward authority, community implication, and bullying victimization.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Angústia Psicológica , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235477, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663843

RESUMO

Based on Social Learning Theory and the General Aggression Model, this study aims to explore the relationship between parental emotional warmth and the cyberbullying perpetration attitudes of college students and the mediating roles of trait gratitude and empathy. Using the stratified cluster random sampling method, 1198 college students (716 boys and 482 girls with an average age of 20.44 years) were tested using the subscale of the Parenting Styles Instrument, the Basic Empathy Scale, the Gratitude Questionnaire-6, and the Cyberbullying Attitude Questionnaire. Results: Emotional warmth, trait gratitude, cognitive empathy, and affective empathy all demonstrated significantly positive relationships with each other (rs from .175 to .403, ps < 0.01) and negative correlations with cyberbullying perpetration attitudes (rs from -.137 to -.306, ps < 0.01). Emotional warmth can exert an impact on cyberbullying perpetration attitudes through three fully mediating paths: the mediating roles of trait gratitude (41.91% of the total effect), cognitive empathy (14.5% of the total effect), and the chain mediating roles of trait gratitude-cognitive empathy (19.5% of the total effect). The results may have important implications for future studies to develop effective interventions for cyberbullying.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bullying/psicologia , Emoções , Empatia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Int J Psychol ; 55(5): 769-778, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643183

RESUMO

Little is known about the associations between cultural class composition, teacher support for diversity (TSD), cognitive and affective empathy, and bullying and victimisation. Research shows that empathy is negatively associated with bullying and victimisation; and support for diversity and classroom cultural diversity are positively linked to social skills. The present study examines whether cultural diversity and perceived TSD are protective factors against bullying and victimisation, either directly or mediated by empathy. Participants were 897 students from Grades 7 to 10 (Mage  = 13.45, SDage  = 1.07, 51.3% girls, 46.7% boys) in 36 classes. Multilevel mediation analyses were conducted. Age and gender were controlled for. More perceived TSD and affective empathy were associated with less bullying. Moreover, the effect of perceived TSD on bullying was partly indirect through affective empathy. Victimisation was not predicted by the study variables. The class level showed no effects. Bullying and victimisation are complex phenomena, which seem to be linked more to individual than to class characteristics. The result that higher perceived TSD was linked to empathy and bullying provides a promising starting point for measures of competence enhancement and bullying prevention.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Diversidade Cultural , Empatia/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Negociação
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234415, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Discrimination is associated with depressive symptoms and other negative health effects, but little is known about the mental health risks of workplace gender discrimination. We aimed to investigate the association of workplace gender discrimination and depressive symptoms among employed women in South Korea. METHODS: The 6th wave (2016) survey datasets of the Korean Longitudinal Survey of Women and Family (KLoWF) were analyzed for 2,339 respondents who are identified as wage workers. Depressive symptoms were evaluated by the short-form (10-item) Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. Association of workplace gender discrimination and depressive symptoms was assessed using multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounding variables including age, income satisfaction, education level, marital status, and currently diagnosed disease. We then measured the age effect using age stratification multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: Women who experienced gender discrimination at workplace had higher odds of depressive symptoms regardless of the type of the discrimination including hiring, promotion, work assignments, paid wages, and firing. These associations were consistent in younger women below 40 years of age in regard to hiring, promotion, paid wages and firing, whereas inconsistent among older women above 40 years of age. LIMITATIONS: We did not investigate the effect of workplace gender discrimination on depressive symptoms in a longitudinal manner. CONCLUSIONS: Workplace gender discrimination was found to be significantly associated with depressive symptoms after adjustment for socio-demographic factors. Further, women under 40 years of age were especially vulnerable to workplace gender discrimination.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Sexismo/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etiologia , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estado Civil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Satisfação Pessoal , República da Coreia , Salários e Benefícios , Sexismo/ética , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517209

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the prevalence, related factors, and emotional problems associated with teacher harassment victimization in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) assessed by self-reports and parent reports. A total of 219 adolescents with ASD participated in this study. The self-reported and parent-reported rates of teacher harassment victimization were calculated. Sociodemographic characteristics, parent-reported social communication deficits, attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms, and suicidality were surveyed. In total, 26 (11.9%) adolescents with ASD experienced teacher harassment based on self-reports or parent reports; the convergence between adolescent and parent reports on adolescent experiences of teacher harassment was low. Victims of teacher harassment exhibited more severe social communication deficits and ODD symptoms than nonvictims of teacher harassment. Victims of teacher harassment displayed more severe depression and anxiety and were more likely to have suicidality. Socio-communication deficits and ODD symptoms were related to teacher harassment victimization, which in turn was significantly associated with emotional problems among adolescents with ASD.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno Autístico , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 613-618, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372746

RESUMO

Noma affects the most marginalized communities in the world, beginning as oral ulceration and rapidly progressing to orofacial gangrene. With a mortality rate estimated to be as high as 90% and with very few able to access treatment in its active phase, very little is understood about the disease. This retrospective review of patients treated by Facing Africa for deformity and functional impairment secondary to noma between May 2015 and 2019 highlights some of the difficulties encountered by those afflicted. Eighty new patients with historical noma defects were identified and were seen over the course of nine surgical missions, with notes providing valuable geographical, socioeconomic, and psychosocial information. The mean self-reported age of onset was 5 years and 8 months, with a median time of 18 years from onset to accessing treatment. Before intervention, 65% covered their face in public, 59% reported difficulty eating, 81% were unhappy with their appearance, and 71% experienced bullying. We aimed at emphasizing the significant burden, both psychologically and physically of noma, demonstrating the disparity between recent decades of progress in the well-being of Ethiopians in general and the access to health care and mental health support for some of those most in need.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Água Potável , Ingestão de Alimentos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Noma/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Insatisfação Corporal/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Missões Médicas , Noma/fisiopatologia , Noma/psicologia , Pobreza , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Abastecimento de Água , Adulto Jovem
18.
Pediatrics ; 145(5)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe (1) the developmental trajectories of peer victimization from 6 to 17 years of age and (2) the early childhood behaviors and family characteristics associated with the trajectories. METHODS: We used data from 1760 children enrolled in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, a population-based birth cohort. Participants self-reported peer victimization at ages 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 15, and 17 years. Participants' behavior and family characteristics were measured repeatedly between ages 5 months and 5 years. RESULTS: We identified 4 trajectories of peer victimization from 6 to 17 years of age: low (32.9%), moderate-emerging (29.8%), childhood-limited (26.2%), and high-chronic (11.1%). Compared with children in the low peer victimization trajectory, children in the other 3 trajectories were more likely to exhibit externalizing behaviors in early childhood, and those in the high-chronic and moderate-emerging trajectories were more likely to be male. Paternal history of antisocial behavior was associated with moderate-emerging (odds ratio [OR] = 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-2.19) and high-chronic (OR = 1.93; 95% CI = 1.25-2.99) relative to low peer victimization. Living in a nonintact family in early childhood was associated with childhood-limited (OR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.11-1.97) and high-chronic (OR = 1.59; 95% CI = 1.09-2.31) relative to low peer victimization. CONCLUSIONS: Early childhood externalizing behaviors and family vulnerabilities were associated with the development of peer victimization. Some children entered the cascade of persistent peer victimization at the beginning of primary school. Support to these children and their families early in life should be an important component of peer victimization preventive interventions.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Quebeque/epidemiologia
19.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 144, 2020 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potential mechanisms underlying cyber victimization and the resulting psychological and physical symptoms remain unclear. Thus, the present study investigated whether Internet addiction mediates the association between peer victimization (e.g., cyberbullying) and psychological and physical symptoms. Furthermore, it was assessed whether physical exercise moderates the hypothetical mediation. METHODS: 1854 students from 11 middle and high schools in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China, were sampled for this study. Psychological and physical symptoms were assessed using the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF, while Internet addiction was evaluated using the Internet addiction test by Young. Cyber victimization was measured using a single question. In addition, this study examined whether Internet addiction mediated the association between cyber victimization and both psychological and physical symptoms. Additional work was conducted to test if physical exercise played a moderating role in the mediation hypothesized above. Mediation and moderation were analyzed using PROCESS macro for SPSS. RESULTS: Regression analysis showed that both cyber victimization (ß = - 0.102, p < 0.05) and Internet addiction (ß = - 0.278, p < 0.05) significantly predicted psychological and physical symptoms and demographic variables were controlled. Further mediation analysis suggested that Internet addiction mediated the relationship between cyber victimization and psychological and physical symptoms. The 95% CI (confidence interval) of the direct effect was (- 4.283, - 1.696) and the indirect effect (- 1.904, - 0.820), respectively, excluding zero. Finally, moderation analysis indicated that physical exercise moderated the relationship between Internet addiction and psychological and physical symptoms (p = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: Internet addiction plays a mediating role in the association between cyber victimization and both psychological and physical symptoms, Thus, addressing Internet addiction among cyberbullying victims is worthwhile. Furthermore, physical exercise alleviates negative impacts on health and should thus be promoted.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(6): 1328-1340, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236792

RESUMO

Immigrant and minority youth are at risk of experiencing victimization due to their ethnic, cultural, or religious background. Despite an increasing number of studies that aims at understanding the consequences of being the target of such negative experiences, little attention has been paid to the factors that might counteract the occurrence of ethnic victimization. The present study aimed to address this gap in knowledge by investigating the possible role of school context. Specifically, the present study examined the extent to which perceived positive contact norms in class and teachers' reactions to ethnic victimization are linked to engagement in ethnic victimization. It also examined whether such links differ across adolescents with different levels of tolerance toward immigrants. The sample included 963 adolescents residing in Sweden (Mage = 13.11, SD = 0.41; 46% girls). The results showed that perceived positive contact norms in class were associated with a lower likelihood of engagement in ethnic victimization across youth with different levels of tolerance toward immigrants. When adolescents perceived their teachers as not tolerating ethnic victimization, those with high levels of tolerance were less likely to engage in it. However, teacher reactions did not affect the behaviors of adolescents with low and moderate levels of tolerance toward immigrants. The findings indicate the importance of classroom context and teachers in counteracting negative interactions among students of diverse backgrounds.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Psicologia do Adolescente , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autoeficácia , Estudantes/psicologia , Suécia
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