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1.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 78, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Within the last decades, a substantial number of reports have established bullying behaviours as a severe risk to the health and safety of workers. However, in Hungary, the severity of this issue remains largely unknown. Therefore, the current study aimed to 1) determine the prevalence of offensive workplace behaviours in the Hungarian working population and 2) examine the relationship between exposure to these offensive behaviours and certain mental health indicators. METHODS: The cross-sectional analyses of the present study are based on a sample of 13,104 active workers being representative of the Hungarian working population according to gender, age, educational level, and 18 occupational sectors. The mid-length version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II (COPSOQ II) was used to measure workplace offensive behaviours (bullying, sexual harassment, threats of violence, and physical violence) in the 12 months preceding the survey. Examined mental health correlates included depressive symptomatology (Beck Depression Inventory), functional somatic symptoms (PHQ-15), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale), and general well-being (WHO Well-being Index). RESULTS: Almost half (48.7%) of the sample reported exposure to some form of offensive behaviour; 37.6% of participants reported occasional-, while 11.1% reported weekly or daily exposure. More women than men were exposed to offensive workplace behaviours, and those targeted the most were individuals aged 18-29 and in companies employing 20-49 employees. Top managers reported the lowest amount of bullying, while unskilled labourers reported the most frequent exposure. A moderately strong relationship was discovered between exposure to workplace offensive behaviours and all indicators of mental health. CONCLUSION: Workplace bullying was revealed to be a significant public health concern according to this large, representative data set from Hungary. Strategies to reduce the occurrence and impact of these behaviours on employee health should be a priority for occupational health and safety interventions.


Assuntos
Bullying , Saúde Mental , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Hungria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Risco
2.
J Affect Disord ; 324: 379-386, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the association of bullying victimization with anxiety and depressive symptoms among Chinese adolescents and explored the role of coping styles in the foregoing associations. METHOD: Data were drawn from the 2019 School-based Chinses Adolescents Health Survey (n = 19,809). Information about bullying victimization, coping styles, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms were measured. Linear mixed-effects models were performed. RESULTS: After adjusting for covariates, verbal victimization (ß = 1.94 for anxiety symptoms; ß = 4.62 for depressive symptoms), relational victimization (ß = 3.40 for anxiety symptoms; ß = 8.37 for depressive symptoms), physical victimization (ß = 2.63 for anxiety symptoms; ß = 6.07 for depressive symptoms) and cyber victimization (ß = 4.68 for anxiety symptoms; ß = 10.72 for depressive symptoms) were associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Moreover, the severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms tended to increase with the number of victimization types. The interaction effects between bullying victimization and coping style on anxiety and depressive symptoms were significant. Further stratified analyses by coping styles indicated that the association of relational and cyber victimization on anxiety and depressive symptoms were significantly stronger in adolescents with negative coping style than in those with positive coping style. LIMITATIONS: Causal inference is limited due to the cross-sectional design. CONCLUSION: Bullying victimization is associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms, and coping styles may play a moderate role in these associations. Interventions to promote mental health could focus on developing positive coping styles, particularly among adolescents with bullying victimization.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Humanos , Adolescente , Saúde Mental , Estudos Transversais , Adaptação Psicológica , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia
3.
J Affect Disord ; 324: 469-476, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608851

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The prevalence rates of injury and bullying victimization in adolescents are continuing to rise; however, little is known about the influence of social determinants, especially for vulnerable adolescents. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of serious injury and bullying victimization in vulnerable adolescents with mental health issues or poor social support and examine the associations between social indicators and these two outcomes. METHOD: We used the most recent datasets from the Global School-based Student Health Survey, and vulnerable adolescents aged 12-15 years from 54 countries were included. The pooled overall and regional estimates were obtained by random-effects models. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to estimate the adjusted association between five common social indicators and the two outcomes. Dose-response association was estimated by using a restricted cubic spline. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of serious injury and bullying victimization were high in vulnerable adolescents, with apparent variation between regions and countries. The pooled prevalence of serious injury ranged from 45.10 % to 50.11 %, whereas the pooled prevalence of bullying victimization ranged from 35.54 % to 45.21 %. Social indicators of national wealth, health status, income and gender inequality were significantly associated with the prevalence of serious injury and bullying victimization in vulnerable adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Serious injury and school bullying victimization are prevalent in vulnerable adolescents aged 12-15 years. Social indicators were prominent associated factors of serious injury and bullying victimization in vulnerable adolescents. The results emphasize the importance of social environment when developing intervention measures to address injury and bullying among disadvantaged teenagers.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Humanos , Adolescente , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudantes/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Bullying/psicologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674114

RESUMO

Despite the extensive literature on the psychosocial determinants of bullying and cyberbullying among adolescents, there is not sufficient comprehensive analysis of the differences between perpetrators. This study aims to assess the psychosocial similarities and differences between bullies and cyberbullies. Data of 3650 students from two grades, K9 and K11 (47% females, mean age = 16.53), were used from a survey conducted in Poland in 2018 as part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Perpetration was measured by questions adapted from the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. The following predictors were analyzed: demographic, socioeconomic status measured with the Family Affluence Scale-III (FAS), and individual and social factors. Multiple binary logistic regression was applied. The random sampling design was based on stratification according to the local deprivation index of the region where the school was located. Male gender, younger age, and non-intact family were associated with a higher risk of bullying and cyberbullying. Family support, empathy, school performance, and school attachment had a protective effect against both aggressive behaviors. Life dissatisfaction and high FAS were revealed as determinants of cyberbullying and local deprivation of bullying only. Bullying and cyberbullying school prevention programs should take into account these psychosocial differences and consider the economic deprivation of the region.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Cyberbullying , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Polônia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674128

RESUMO

Students, colleagues, and other members of society are increasingly using digital media. Students utilize digital media for a variety of reasons, including communication, gaming, making new friends, and simply being curious. However, there are some disadvantages to using digital media. Cyberbullying, cyberharassment, and cyberstalking are examples of useful digital media activities that can have a negative impact on digital media users and lead to societal issues. Surprisingly, limited studies have investigated cyberbullying in depth, utilizing a broad and varied sample of Middle Eastern institutions. As a result, the purpose of this study is to fill a research vacuum by questioning students' use of digital media for cyber involvement. This research aims to create a model for assessing the ethical consequences of behaviors that directly impact students' psychological health because of their use of digital media. The questionnaire looked at how people used digital media to engage in cyberbullying and cyber engagement, the ethical implications of bullying, and being harassed, stalked, and bullied. The study employed a quantitative questionnaire to collect data to achieve the research goal. It was given to 1012 students who are digital media users. Partial least squares (PLS) and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to examine the data. Considering the empirical data, nearly half of the participants admitted to being harassed, stalked, or bullied on different digital platforms. The evaluation of discriminant validity is a prerequisite factor for examining possible variables' relationships. The goodness-of-fit index indicates that the model is well-fit. Through the established model, decision-makers and school administration would be able to implement measures that would effectively reduce cyber harassment among students and improve the digital media usage experience.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Cyberbullying , Humanos , Adolescente , Internet , Estudantes/psicologia , Escolaridade , Bullying/psicologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674330

RESUMO

Incidents of bullying have increased on students in schools. This has a negative impact such as mental health problems and risk of suicide. Interventions related to bullying are still focused on being carried out independently. Meanwhile, collaborative interventions between nurses and the school are needed to acquire maximum results in preventing and reducing the incidence of bullying. The purpose of this study is to describe school-based nursing interventions in preventing and reducing the incidence of bullying among students at school. This study used scoping review with a search strategy using the PRISMA Extension for Scoping Review process to find the articles. The PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus electronic databases were searched. We found 12 articles from 594 articles in 3 databases which discussed nursing interventions based on school to prevent and reduce incidence of bullying in students. The studies included are design randomized control trials and quasi experiments. The samples with the range of 40-7121 respondents. We classified the school-based nursing interventions being three methods, there are Game programs, physical activity programs, training programs, and peer-group programs. The content of interventions are psychoeducation, empathy training, counseling, and self-management. This study shows that school-based nursing interventions can be an option in preventing and reducing the incidence of bullying among students at school.


Assuntos
Bullying , Serviços de Enfermagem Escolar , Humanos , Incidência , Bullying/prevenção & controle , Bullying/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia
7.
J Psychosom Res ; 164: 111103, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36521322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore geographical variations in the prevalence of traditional and cyberbullying and their individual and additive role on psychological and somatic health issues of adolescents. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from 188,003 adolescents (50.9% females; mean age 13.6 years) from the nationally representative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2014 survey in 38 European countries. Multivariable linear regression analyses were conducted to explore the role of bullying on health outcomes whilst meta-analyses were conducted to generate pooled regression coefficients. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of traditional bullying was 26.9%, ranges from 8.8% in Armenia to 49.7% in Latvia, and cyberbullying was 15.8%, ranges from 5.8% in Greece to 38.3% in Greenland. 1 in 10 (8.4%) adolescents reported experiencing both forms of bullying, with the prevalence ranging from 2.5% (Greece) to 21.0% (Greenland). Meta-analytic estimates suggest a significant role of both traditional and cyberbullying in poor somatic and psychological health issues. The additive effect of both forms of bullying was more prominent on psychological health issues (ß 0.70, 95% CI 0.66-0.74) than on somatic health issues (ß 0.50, 95% CI 0.47-0.53). These associations varied across countries. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of traditional and cyberbullying varied significantly across European countries while their individual and additive links with an increased risk of poor psychological and somatic health issues remain common in majority countries. To ensure both forms of bullying are prevented, a multifaceted approach and particular attention to mental health issues in bullying victims are needed in countries with high prevalence of bullying.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Cyberbullying , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia
8.
Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 28(1): 60-66, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36526270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigates both offline and online bullying perpetration and victimization in association with problematic internet use (PIU) and problematic smartphone use (PSU), while also considering the related psychosocial difficulties. METHODS: A total of 3939 adolescents (49.4% boys, aged 13-15 years) from a representative sample of schools in Slovakia was obtained from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) project in 2018. Due to the lack of similar complex research and the expected mutual associations among the constructs, we compared exploratory network models that provided separate estimates for boys and girls. RESULTS: The constructs formed similarly clustered networks for both genders, with a few notable differences. Unlike PIU, PSU was not associated with bullying experiences in boys or girls; however, PSU and PIU were partially related in girls. Bullying experiences formed a strong cluster in both networks. Two strong bridges were identified, and they are potential candidates for intervention in both boys and girls: first, traditional bullying victimization connected the cluster of bullying experiences to psychosocial difficulties; and, second, frequently missing sleep or meals due to internet use (behavioral salience) that is connected to the bullying cluster with PIU. CONCLUSIONS: The findings offer an indication for the preventive and interventive work of practitioners who deal with adolescents, as well as complex gender comparisons for the mutual relations of problematic internet and smartphone use, bullying experiences, and the psychosocial difficulties of youth. This study provides evidence that problematic digital media can play a role in bullying experiences irrespective of whether bullying happens offline or online.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Cyberbullying , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Feminino , Smartphone , Internet , Bullying/psicologia , Cyberbullying/prevenção & controle , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36498029

RESUMO

Interest in how the school built environment impacts bullying behaviour has gained momentum in recent years. While numerous studies have identified locations within schools where bullying frequently occurs, few studies have investigated the potential conceptual pathways linking school locations to bullying behaviour. This study aimed to (i) identify school built environment factors that may prevent or facilitate bullying behaviour in primary and secondary schools; and (ii) develop a conceptual model of potential pathways between the school built environment and bullying behaviour for future anti-bullying intervention research. Seventy individual semi-structured interviews were conducted between May and December 2020, with policymakers (n = 22), school staff (n = 12), parents (n = 18), and students (n = 18). School staff, parents and students, were recruited from six metropolitan primary and secondary schools in Perth, Western Australia. Interviews were conducted online and face-to-face using semi-structured interview guides. A thematic analysis was undertaken. Participants identified school bullying locations (e.g., locker areas, bathrooms, corridors) and built environment factors linked to bullying behaviour via (i) visibility and supervision; (ii) physical and psychological comfort and safety; and (iii) social-emotional competencies. The findings have policy and practice implications regarding the design of school built environments to prevent bullying behaviour.


Assuntos
Bullying , Humanos , Bullying/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Emoções , Habilidades Sociais
10.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 299, 2022 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36503593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study is to explore whether (experienced and witnessed) workplace incivility is a risk factor for (experienced and witnessed) workplace bullying. An additional aim is to explore whether experienced workplace incivility is associated with psychological well-being above and beyond the influence of (experienced and witnessed) workplace bullying on well-being. METHODS: A survey was distributed via e-mail to a panel of Swedish engineers. The survey was administered at three time points over one year. In total, N = 1005 engineers responded to the survey. Of these, N = 341 responded to more than one survey, providing longitudinal data. N = 111 responded to all three surveys. RESULTS: The results showed that the likelihood of being targeted by workplace bullying was higher for those who had previously experienced incivility, even when taking previous bullying exposure into account. There was also partial support for a higher likelihood of witnessing bullying at a later time point for those that had previously witnessed incivility. Additionally, the results showed that experienced workplace incivility was negatively related to psychological well-being over time, even when controlling for previous levels of experienced and witnessed workplace bullying and well-being. However, this result was only found over one of the two time lags. CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study suggests that workplace incivility can be a risk factor for future bullying. In addition, the findings suggest that experienced workplace incivility exerts a unique negative effect on psychological well-being, even when accounting for exposure to workplace bullying.


Assuntos
Bullying , Local de Trabalho , Humanos , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Bullying/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Risco
11.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 310, 2022 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36522669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although previous studies have identified that workplace bullying causes serious mental health problems to the victims, it is not yet fully investigated moderating factors on the association between workplace bullying and psychological distress. This longitudinal study, therefore, examined the moderating role of organizational resources such as supervisor support or coworker support as well as individual resources such as stress coping styles or personal resilience on the association. METHODS: A prospective cohort study for 2036 civil servants was conducted with a one-year time lag (follow-up rate: 77.2%). At baseline, Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Brief Scales for Coping Profile, and Brief Job Stress Questionnaire were used to measure workplace bullying, personal resilience, stress coping styles, and social support, respectively. Psychological distress was measured using K6 both at baseline and follow-up. RESULTS: The results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that workplace bullying was associated with subsequent increased psychological distress even after adjusting for individual and occupational characteristics, but its association disappeared after adjusting for psychological distress at baseline. After adjusting for psychological distress at baseline, greater resilience, greater seeking help, greater changing view, and lower avoidance were associated with lower subsequent psychological distress when being bullied. In contrast, worksite social support and family/friends support was not associated with lower subsequent psychological distress when being bullied. A significant interaction effect of workplace bullying and changing mood was observed on subsequent psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS: The effects or moderating factors were limited on the longitudinal association between bullying and mental health because psychological distress at baseline was the strongest predictor of subsequent psychological distress.


Assuntos
Bullying , Estresse Ocupacional , Angústia Psicológica , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Longitudinais , Bullying/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Apoio Social , Adaptação Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497823

RESUMO

Cyberbullying has increased worryingly in the last decade, becoming a mental health problem in adolescence. Research usually focuses on cyber-bullies or cyber-victims, overlooking that these roles may overlap (e.g., cyber-victim-bystander). AIM: To identify possible common predictors to cyber-victimisation and bystanding. SAMPLE: The study sample consisted in 560 students, 12-15 years old, 47.5% female. METHOD: Canonical correlation, examining linear relationship between a group of X variables, and a group of Y variables. MAIN RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Two canonical varieties were built (Cor (U1,V1) = 0.442; Cor (U2,V2) = 0.270). Minors with high scores in cyber-victimisation (r = -0.888) and bystanding (r = -0.902) would have more favourable attitude towards violence, greater number of contacts on social networks/messaging and greater attention to emotions. The second variety discriminates minors with high cyber-victimisation score, but low observation and would relate to low attitudes towards violence and contacts on social networks/messaging, together with high scores in parental monitoring. Results suggest the possible overlapping of roles and how cyber-victimisation and bystanding share predictive factors.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Cyberbullying , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Masculino , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Emoções
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36498195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: School bullying is a major public health problem with a large impact on children's health. There is an increasing number of cases of school bullying reported in China. Studies have shown that the health consequences of different ways of responding to school bullying may be quite different and that psychological resilience is also closely related to aggressive behaviors. However, there has been little research on whether individuals with different psychological resilience levels respond differently. OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between responses to school bullying and psychological resilience, which may provide new ideas and strategies to better prevent and intervene in school bullying. METHODS: A random sample of 5425 primary school students aged 7-14 years were recruited in Luzhou, China. All students completed a questionnaire anonymously. The statistical significance of differences between groups was tested using the χ2 test or t test. Binary logistic regression was conducted to explore the relationship between responses and psychological resilience. RESULTS: Over two-thirds of primary school students in this study reported experiencing bullying in the past year. The rate of positive responses among victims was 69.10% (2596/3757, 95% CI: 67.62~70.58%). There was a positive relationship between psychological resilience and positive responses. This relationship was observed for all victims (OR = 1.605, 95% CI: 1.254~2.055), especially male victims (OR = 2.300, 95% CI: 1.624~3.259). CONCLUSIONS: There was a positive relationship between primary school bullying responses and psychological resilience among victims, with differences by sex. Therefore, increasing students' level of psychological resilience, possibly by improving their responses, is important for preventing school bullying. Meanwhile, effective interventions for school bullying should be developed from multiple perspectives, particularly sex, bullying roles, and psychological resilience.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Resiliência Psicológica , Criança , Masculino , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Bullying/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36498416

RESUMO

Bullying has been identified as the most common form of aggression experienced by school-age youth. However, it is still unclear about the family's influence on school bullying. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore the associations between sibling bullying and school bullying, sibling victimization and school victimization, and parental acceptance-rejection and school bullying victimization. The study was cross-sectional and conducted on a sample of students aged between 11 and 20 years recruited from middle schools in Algeria. The study used a survey adopted from the scale of Sibling Bullying, Student Survey of Bullying Behavior-Revised 2, and the Survey of parental acceptance-rejection in collecting the data. The model's results assessing the association between sibling bullying and school bullying demonstrated that the effect of sibling physical and sibling verbal victims on school victimization was statistically significant. Despite the non-significant effect of sibling emotional victims on school victimization, the effect of sibling physical and sibling verbal bullying on school bullying was statistically significant. However, the effect of sibling emotional bullying on school bullying was not statistically significant. The direct effect of parental acceptance on school victimization was not statistically significant, whereas the effect of parental rejection on school victimization was statistically significant. The direct effect of parental acceptance on school bullying was not statistically significant, while the effect of parental rejection on school bullying was statistically significant. Based on the results, this study provides insights into the understanding of how the family and siblings contribute to school bullying. In particular, sibling victimization, sibling bullying, and parental acceptance-rejection are predictive factors of school bullying among adolescents. Future research should take into account factors based on family to explore the risks of school bullying.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Adolescente , Humanos , Criança , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Agressão/psicologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361075

RESUMO

The prevention of cyberbullying at school requires assessing its prevalence by means of brief measurement instruments with adequate psychometric properties. The present study aims to study the psychometric properties of the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (ECIP-Q) in a sample of 1777 Spanish adolescents (54.1% women, M = 15.71 years; SD = 1.26), selected by stratified random cluster sampling. The two-factor model (victimization and aggression) displayed appropriate goodness of-fit indices. Configural measurement invariance model across gender was found. The omega reliability coefficient for the victimization subscale was 0.82, and for the aggression subscale was 0.68. The ECIP-Q scores were negatively associated with self-esteem and prosocial behavior, and positively associated with depression symptoms and emotional and behavioral difficulties. Significant differences were found between victim and non-victim groups, and between aggressor and non-aggressor groups on the same variables. Victims and aggressors scored lower on self-esteem, and higher on depression symptoms and emotional and behavioral difficulties than those not involved in cyberbullying situations. These findings contribute to demonstrate the satisfactory psychometric quality of the ECIP-Q scores as an assessment tool for cyberbullying in Spanish adolescents.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Cyberbullying , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361078

RESUMO

Peer victimization has been considered a main source of risk-taking behavior among adolescents, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this association. Based on the social-cognitive theory and the person-environment interactions model, the current study built a moderated mediation model to explore whether self-control mediated the link between peer victimization and adolescent risk-taking behavior and whether positive parenting moderated this link. We used a 2-time longitudinal design (6 months apart) to investigate 488 adolescents (Mage = 15.63 years, SD = 1.64) from 3 middle schools in Guangzhou. The results were as follows: (1) There were significant correlations among peer victimization, adolescent risk-taking behavior, self-control, and positive parenting when controlling for demographic variables. (2) Peer victimization not only influenced risk-taking behavior directly, but also indirectly through self-control. (3) Positive parenting moderated the influence of self-control on risk-taking behavior. In other words, positive parenting could enhance the inhibitory effect of self-control on risk-taking behavior. The results help reveal the mechanism by which adolescent risk-taking behavior forms and may help inform interventions against adolescent risk-taking behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Adolescente , Humanos , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Assunção de Riscos , China
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361186

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to adapt and make available a valid instrument based on a joint questionnaire (self-report type) to detect the risk of bullying and emotional problems in pupils aged from 11 to 13 years. The questionnaires used were that of Spain's Ombudsman (Defensor del Pueblo) to detect the risk of becoming a victim of bullying and an adaptation of Spain's CECAD to assess the risk of emotional problems. The participants were 1077 gender-matched subjects enrolled in the 6th year of Primary Education (n = 467) and the 1st year of Lower Secondary Education (n = 610) from 19 schools in the Region of Extremadura. High reliability was obtained in both questionnaires, as well as a significant relationship between bullying and emotional problems (0.36). The scales place the pupils at either a certain risk level (mild, moderate, or severe) or no risk. The study concludes with the description of four situations deriving from the cross relationship between victimization and the pupil's emotional problems: (1) no risk of bullying and no risk of emotional problems (73.2%), (2) risk of bullying but no risk of emotional problems (11.1%), (3) no risk of bullying but risk of emotional problems (9.4%), and (4) risk of bullying and risk of emotional problems (6.3%).


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Autorrelato , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Span J Psychol ; 25: e27, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36324239

RESUMO

Bullying remains one of the most serious problems affecting school systems around the world. The negative consequences of bullying in the short and long term have been widely documented, showing that victimized students are at greater risk of suffering psychosocial distress. In this paper, we first summarize the current situation of bullying prevention, adopting a contextual perspective, and briefly highlighting the characteristics of the most effective prevention programs. Secondly, we address a disturbing phenomenon detected in classrooms where bullying has been reduced through interventions and which has been termed "the healthy context paradox". In these healthier contexts, students who remain in a situation of victimization have been found to present poorer psychological adjustment after the intervention. Understanding the causes of this phenomenon may offer clues for the prevention of bullying. In this regard, we present three hypotheses recently proposed to explain the phenomenon. Finally, we offer some implications for the study and prevention of bullying derived from "the healthy context paradox".


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Bullying/prevenção & controle , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia
19.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 260, 2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bullying victimization is a repetitive exposure to negative actions from one or more students over time. Bullying victim adolescents have higher levels of mental health problems, worse mental health outcomes, and lowered social status than non-victim adolescents. Literature on bullying among adolescents in Ethiopia is limited. This study aimed to assess the magnitude of bullying victimization and its associated factors among adolescents. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out among 847 adolescents in Mettu town. A Stratified sampling technique was used to select eligible Study participants from September, 1 to 30, 2020. Linear regression analysis model was used; first bivariate analysis was performed to see the association of each independent variable with bullying victimization. Variables with (P < 0.25) in bivariate analysis were entered into a multivariate linear regression model to identify the association of each independent variable with bullying victimization. The statistical significance was considered at P value < 0.05. RESULTS: From the total of 847 adolescents 819 were voluntarily involved in the study giving the response rate of 96.7%. The prevalence of bullying victimization in this study was 30.4%. Being male (ß = 1.135, p = 0.001), physical abuse (ß = 0.622, p ≤ 0.001), emotional abuse (ß = 0.512, p ≤ 0.001), current substance use (ß = 1.153, p = 0.005), psychological distress (ß = 0.406, p ≤ 0.001) and having medical illness (ß = 3.500, p ≤ 0.001) were significantly associated with bullying victimization. CONCLUSIONS: Bullying victimization is quite common among adolescents and has both short- and long-term consequences. Bullying prevention treatments should focus on male adolescents and those who report being bullied. Anti-bullying policies in schools are critical for educating teachers, parents, and students about bullying.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Adolescente , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360733

RESUMO

The prevalence of traditional bullying victimization has been estimated at around 36%, while that of cyberbullying has been estimated at 15%. The victimization of bullying brings with it harm to mental health that must be compensated for, after a forensic evaluation, by the aggressor or legal guardian. Thus, a meta-analytic review was undertaken with the aim of knowing the effect of bullying victimization on psychological harm, as well as quantifying the magnitude of the harm and estimating the probability that no harm associated with bullying victimization is generated. METHOD: A random-effects correlational meta-analysis correcting effect size by sampling error and criterion and predictor unreliability was performed. RESULTS: The results exhibited a positive (i.e., more victimization and more psychological harm) and significant mean true effect size, implying an average psychological harm associated to bullying victimization of 29.7%. Nevertheless, 26.7% of students victimized by bullying did not develop psychological harm. CONCLUSIONS: Bullying victimization causes psychological harm, with an average increase in psychological harm associated with bullying victimization of 29.7%.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Cyberbullying , Humanos , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Prevalência
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