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2.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(1): 103-109, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929215

RESUMO

Background: Psychological violence is the most common form of workplace violence (WPV) that can affect job performance and health of the workers. Aims: This study sought to determine the prevalence of psychological WPV among employees working in a tertiary health institution in a South-eastern state of Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study done in 2018 among healthcare workers at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu State using a pretested self-administered questionnaire adapted from Workplace Violence in the Health Sector Country Case Study Questionnaire. Proportionate sampling method was used to select 412 respondents. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 23 using Chi-square test of significance and P value set at 0.05. Results: Prevalence of psychological violence among the participants was 49.7%. Verbal abuse was the most form of psychological violence experienced 168 (40.8%) followed by bullying 29 (7.0%) while sexual abuse was reported by 8 (1.9%). Majority 114 (55.6%) of the perpetrators of the psychological violence were patient's relative, whereas 48 (23.4%) were staff members. In response to the violence, 58 (28.6%) of the healthcare workers took no action, while only 2 (1%) completed incident/accident form. Bullying was statistically significantly higher in healthcare workers who have spent less than 10 years (χ2 = 3.978 P = 0.046). There was a significant association between verbal abuse and frequent interaction with patients (χ2 = 4.757, P = 0.029). Conclusion: This study has shown that the prevalence of psychological WPV was high among healthcare workers in University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu State. Therefore, there is need for the hospital management to develop policy interventions specific to psychological WPV.


Assuntos
Agressão , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência no Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Bullying/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Relações Profissional-Família , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência no Trabalho/psicologia
3.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226506, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860673

RESUMO

Workplace bullying experienced by clinical nurses is associated with burnout, a factor that threatens the quality of nursing care and patient safety. This study examined the association of workplace bullying with burnout, professional quality of life, and turnover intention among clinical nurses. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using a structured questionnaire. Data were collected from 324 nurses and were analyzed using t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and multiple regression. Controlling for the general characteristics of the participants, workplace bullying had a significant association with emotional exhaustion (B = 0.29, p < 0.01) and depersonalization (B = 0.15, p < 0.01) among the subdomains of burnout, compassion fatigue among the components of professional quality of life (B = 0.15, p < 0.01), and turnover intention (B = 0.05, p < 0.01). Thus, preventing workplace bullying is important to reduce clinical nurses' burnout and turnover. The role of nursing leadership is crucial to develop interventions that reduce workplace bullying and successfully create a professional, nurturing, and supportive work culture.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Fadiga por Compaixão/epidemiologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Reorganização de Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Fadiga por Compaixão/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(7): 639-653, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711401

RESUMO

Shame and Compassion: Potential Mechanisms Behind Bullying and Depressive Symptoms With a prevalence of 11 % depression is a relevant topic for child- and adolescent-psychiatry. Different factors play a role in genesis and maintenance of depressive symptoms. Shame-proneness and experience with bullying are discussed as reinforcing factors. On the other hand self-compassion is considered to be a protective factor. In this study it is analyzed, whether shame-proneness and self-compassion moderate the influence of bully-experience on depressive symptoms. Data of depressive adolescent in-patients (n = 37) and healthy controls (n = 19) is analyzed. It could be shown that high shame-proneness reinforces the influence of bully-experience on depressive symptoms. General self-compassion has no moderating influence. However, self-kindness is a protective factor against the negative impact of bully-experience on depressive symptoms. Results are discussed regarding their relevance for therapy and prevention.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Empatia , Fatores de Proteção , Vergonha , Adolescente , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Depressão/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo/prevenção & controle , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Humanos
5.
J Appl Meas ; 20(4): 367-383, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730544

RESUMO

While youth bullying is a critical public health problem, standardized exposure screening is not routinely practiced. The Child-Adolescent Bullying Scale, (CABS), a psychometrically robust 22-item tool, was designed and evaluated for this purpose using classical test theory. The goals of the present study were to examine and optimize the measurement properties of the CABS using a Rasch psychometric analysis to develop a brief screening tool appropriate for clinical use. A methodologic design and the Rasch rating scale model were employed. Three hundred and fifty-two youths from two clinical sites participated. Rasch-based analyses included evaluation of response category functioning, measurement precision, dimensionality, targeting, differential item functioning and guidance in item reduction. After iterative revisions, the resulting screening instrument consists of 9 items. Cut-scores and interpretive guidance are provided to aid clinical identification of bullying-related risk. Findings suggest the CABS-9 holds promise as a useful screening tool for identifying bullying exposure.


Assuntos
Bullying , Psicometria , Adolescente , Bullying/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(12): 2403-2417, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605292

RESUMO

Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth are more likely to use alcohol than their heterosexual cisgender peers. At the same time, SGM youth experience sexuality- and gender identity-specific stressors known to exacerbate negative health outcomes. Though scholars have established a link between minority stressors (e.g., internalized stigma and victimization) and increased alcohol use for SGM youth as a whole, there is little indication of whether internalized stigma and victimization are more strongly associated with alcohol use for specific groups of SGM youth. A United States sample of 11,811 racially and geographically diverse 13-17 year old SGM youth was used to employ a series of gender-stratified multivariable regression models to examine the association among internalized stigma, victimization, and alcohol-related behaviors, and whether they differed for specific groups of sexual minority youth. Sexual orientation moderated several associations between sexual minority stressors (i.e., victimization and stigma) and youth's alcohol use (i.e., recent use and heavy episodic drinking) across models stratified by gender (i.e., male, female, and non-binary). For example, bisexual boys had stronger associations between SGM-specific victimization and alcohol use frequency and heavy episodic drinking relative to gay boys; conversely, victimization and alcohol use frequency were more weakly associated among bisexual girls relative to lesbian/gay girls. Pansexual girls showed weaker associations between internalized stigma and alcohol use frequency compared to lesbian/gay girls. This paper demonstrates who among SGM youth are more likely to engage in alcohol-related behaviors as a function of differential forms of SGM-related victimization and stigma. These findings can inform substance use interventions that are tailored to youth of diverse sexual orientations and gender identities.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Estigma Social , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Mecanismos de Defesa , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 697, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The reason for doctor visits associated with bad working conditions (and workplace bullying) remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between perceived working conditions as well as workplace bullying and the number of doctor visits as well as the reason for seeing a doctor. METHODS: Data were derived from the German General Social Survey, a representative cross-section of the population in the year 2014. Self-reported doctor visits in the last 3 months were used as outcome measure. Self-rated working conditions (noise, bad air; time/performance pressure; bad working atmosphere; overtime; shifts/night work; hard physical labour) and workplace bullying were assessed. The reason for seeing a doctor was also recorded (acute illness; chronic illness; feeling unwell; requesting advice; visit to the doctor's office without consulting the doctor (e.g., need to get a prescription); preventive medical check-up/vaccination). Regression analysis stratified by sex was conducted. RESULTS: Adjusting for various potential confounders, Poisson regressions showed that workplace bullying was associated with increased doctor visits in men, but not in women. Contrarily, time/performance pressure at work was only associated with increased doctor visits in women, but not in men. Furthermore, the probability of visiting the doctor for reasons of acute illness or feeling unwell increased with workplace bullying in men. The probability of visiting the doctor because of feeling unwell increased with time/performance pressure in women. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings stress the association between adverse working conditions (workplace bullying as well as time/performance pressure at work) and doctor visits, with remarkable gender differences. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm the present findings and to obtain further insights into this relationship.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Visita a Consultório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(12): 2360-2376, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595383

RESUMO

Research is inconclusive about the trajectory of dating violence during adolescence and whether there are differences across gender and race/ethnicity. We examined dating victimization and perpetration trajectories among a diverse sample of rural youth (N = 580, 52.7% female, 49% Black, 39% White, 11% Hispanic or other minorities) in middle and high school who were surveyed annually across four years and explored the influences of gender and ethnicity. The results based on cohort-sequential latent growth modeling revealed that for boys, victimization peaked at 11th grade, and then declined. For girls, victimization was stable throughout adolescence. Perpetration was reported less frequently and increased steadily for males and females. For White youth, victimization peaked at grades 9 and 10, followed by a decline. For Black youth, victimization followed a linear increase. Perpetration trajectory followed a linear increase for White and Black but not Hispanic youth. The findings indicate that the developmental progression of dating violence during adolescence varies by demographics. The discussion focuses on future directions for research on teen dating violence among rural youth and implications for prevention and interventions initiatives.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Bullying/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Percepção Social
9.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 32(6): 777-795, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Drawing on the stressor-emotion model, the study aimed to identify some predictors of the active and passive types of counterproductive work behavior (CWB). Specifically, 1) the direct effect of bullying on CWB, 2) the 2-way interaction effects of the Dark Triad (DT) and job control (JC), as well as 3) the 3-way interaction effect (DT×JC) on the bullying-CWB link were investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected from 659 white- and blue-collar workers. The 2- and 3-way interactional effects were analyzed by means of PROCESS macros. RESULTS: The analysis showed that high bullying was directly related to high active and passive types of CWB. The 2- and 3-way interactional effects were observed but only in relation to active (not passive) CWB. Bullying was associated with active CWB when the Dark Triad and job control were high. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed different ways of both types of CWB development. The findings provide further insight into processes leading to an increase in active and passive CWB. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(6):777-95.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Polônia , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(10): 2005-2022, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482513

RESUMO

How the interplay between peer relationships and behaviors unfolds and how this differs between classrooms is an understudied topic. This study examined whether adolescents befriend or dislike peers whom they consider as aggressor or victim and whether these results differ in classrooms that received an intervention to promote prosocial behavior compared to classrooms without the intervention. The sample was composed of 659 seventh graders (Mage = 12.32; 48% girls) from nine intervention and seven control classrooms in eight schools in Santiago, Chile. It was hypothesized that adolescents in intervention classrooms would be less befriended and more disliked by classmates who considered them as aggressors, and more befriended and less disliked by classmates who considered them as victims, compared to control classrooms. Longitudinal multiplex social network analyses (RSiena) indicate that antipathies toward peers considered as aggressive and victimized were significantly lower in intervention classrooms than in control classrooms, but no significant differences were found for friendships. These findings suggest that the impact of an educational intervention may go beyond changing individual behavior and extend to the way peer relations develop in classrooms.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Amigos/psicologia , Adolescente , Bullying/prevenção & controle , Chile , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Grupo Associado
11.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 965-970, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484262

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effects of precollege peer bullying at different stages, on quality of life (QOL) among college students. Methods: A stratified cluster sampling method was used to select participants in October, 2018. Cluster sampling method was adopted to recruit a sample of 4 034 college students from four universities in Hefei city, Anhui province. Relations between peer bullying at different stages before entering college, and the quality of life, were investigated. t test and analysis of variance were used to compare the differences of QOL in different groups. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the associations between various types of peer bullying at different stages and the QOL at precollege days. Results: Among all the 4 034 college students under study, mean scores of the 4 dimensions of QOL appeared as physical (12.61±2.02), psychological (14.09±2.62), social relationship (13.72±2.71) and environment (13.77±2.46), respectively. After adjusting the confounding factors, data from multiple linear regression showed that, factors as verbal bullying victimization during primary school (ß=-0.21)/secondary school (ß=-0.27)/or at both periods (ß=-0.56), relational (ß=-0.21) and physical (ß=-0.38) bullying victimization in secondary school, and physical bullying victimization in both periods (ß=-0.67) were negatively correlated with the physical dimension of QOL. Verbal bullying victimization in both periods (ß=-0.41) and relational bullying victimization in secondary school (ß=-0.42) were negatively correlated with psychological dimension of QOL. Factors as relational (ß=-0.32) and physical (ß=-0.51) bullying victimization in secondary school, physical/cyber bullying victimization in both periods (ß=-0.57) were negatively correlated with the social dimension of QOL. Verbal bullying victimization during primary school (ß=-0.20) and both periods (ß=-0.46), relational bullying perpetration during primary school (ß=-0.35) or at both periods (ß=-0.90) were negatively correlated with the environmental dimension of QOL (All P<0.05). Index related to bullying victimization (ß=-0.33, -0.36, -0.30, -0.33) and bullying perpetration ß=-0.28, -0.31, -0.23, -0.28) were both negatively correlated to all the 4 dimensions (physical, psychological, social relationship and environment) of QOL (P<0.001). Conclusions: Various forms of peer bullying experiences occurring before college, were associated with the decreased scores of QOL in different domains, among the university students. Programs on prevention and control of peer bullying in different stages before college days seemed important thus should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
12.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 19(3): 237-242, sept. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184970

RESUMO

Background/Objective: To test the effectiveness of an 8-week before-school physical activity program to reduce bullying victimization among a group of socially disadvantaged children in the Active-Start study. Method: A non-blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted in three public schools classified as highly vulnerable and located in a deprived area of Santiago (Chile). A total of 5 classes participated, totaling 170 fourth grade children. The intervention was delivered before starting the first school-class (8:00-8:30 a.m.). The program lasted for 8 weeks. Primary outcome measurement on bullying victimization was assessed by the CUBE questionnaire at baseline and post-intervention. Results: There was a statistically significant reduction in the probability of suffering physical bullying (OR= 0.18, 95% CI, 0.04-0.82; p= .027) and verbal bullying (OR=0.13, 95% CI, 0.02-0.97; p= .046) after the 8-week program. Conclusions: Participation in an 8-week before-school physical activity intervention implemented in schools located in a disadvantaged district in Santiago (Chile) resulted in lower levels of bullying victimization among study participants. The Active-Start program may be a feasible and potentially scalable intervention option to improve the climate and pro-sociality environment at schools


Antecedentes/Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad de un programa de actividad física antes de la escuela de ocho semanas para reducir el bullying en niños en desventaja social del estudio Active-Start. Método: Se realizó un ensayo controlado aleatorio no ciego en tres escuelas públicas vulnerables y ubicadas en Santiago (Chile), con un total de cinco clases e incluyendo 170 niños de Cuarto Grado. La intervención de ocho semanas se realizó cinco veces por semana antes de comenzar la primera clase (8:00-8:30 a.m.). La medida de resultado primaria fue la victimización por bullying evaluado a través del cuestionario CUBE al inicio y después de la intervención. Resultados: Hubo una reducción estadísticamente significativa en la probabilidad de sufrir bullying físico (OR= 0,18, IC 95%, 0,04-0,82; p= 0,027) y verbal (OR= 0,13, IC 95%, 0,02-0,97; p= 0,046) después del programa de ocho semanas. Conclusiones: La participación en una intervención de actividad física antes de la escuela de ocho semanas implementada en escuelas ubicadas en una comuna desfavorecida en Santiago (Chile) dio lugar a niveles más bajos de victimización por bullying entre sus participantes. El programa Active-Start puede ser una opción de intervención viable y potencialmente escalable para mejorar el clima y el ambiente escolar


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Bullying/prevenção & controle , Bullying/psicologia , Atividade Motora , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1046, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While power imbalance is now recognized as a key component of bullying, reliable and valid measurement instruments have yet to be developed. This research aimed to develop a self-report instrument that measures power imbalance as perceived by the victim of frequent aggressive behavior. METHODS: A mixed methods approach was used (468 participants, Grade 4 to 6). This paper describes the exploratory (n = 111) and confirmatory factor analysis of the new instrument (n = 337), and assessment of reliablity and construct validity. RESULTS: A 2-factor model represented physical and social aspects of power imbalance (n = 127: normed chi-square = 1.2, RMSEA = .04, CF1 = .993). The social factor included constructs of group and peer valued characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: This research will enhance health and education professionals understanding of power imbalance in bullying and will inform the design and evaluation of interventions to address bullying in children.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Autorrelato , Agressão/psicologia , Criança , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(12): 2377-2390, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414374

RESUMO

It is widely accepted that adolescents exposed to violence are more likely to become perpetrators of dating aggression. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of exposure to violence on later perpetration of dating aggression vary based on the nature of the violence exposure (e.g., witnessing versus being a victim) and the contexts of exposure to violence. Thus, the relationships between two types of exposure to violence (witnessing and victimization) in early adolescence and perpetrating dating aggression in late adolescence were compared within and across three social contexts: the home, the community, and the school. Participants included 484 youth (51% females; 81% African-Americans, 18% European-Americans, 1% Hispanic or Other). Information on exposure to violence were collected at Waves 1 and 2 during early adolescence (Wave 1: M = 11.8 years old; Wave 2: M = 13.2 years old) and dating aggression data were collected during late adolescence (Wave 3: M = 18.0 years old). The results showed that across all contexts witnessing violence was a more consistent predictor of later dating aggression relative to victimization. Being exposed to violence in the home either via observation or victimization was a stronger predictor of physical dating aggression and threatening behaviors compared to being exposed to violence in the school. These findings provide a deeper understanding of the roles of various forms of exposure to violence during early adolescence in perpetrating dating aggression later in the life course.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Bullying/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Fatores de Risco , Meio Social
15.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(10): 2051-2064, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444690

RESUMO

In bullying situations, adolescent bystanders may help bullied others, just stand by, or join in the antisocial behavior. Current studies have yet to fully examine the moral and social factors motivating these varied responses to bullying encounters. Extending from pertinent developmental theories, the present study investigated the relative contributions of moral identity (i.e., viewing moral qualities as central to the self), moral judgment, and social self-efficacy to adolescents' bystander behaviors vis-à-vis bullies. Also investigated were the interactions among these variables. Three hundred and thirty-seven adolescents (M age = 13 years, 56.1% female) who self-identified as Caucasian (90.2%), Hispanic-American (2.1%), Asian-American (0.9%), African-American (3.9%), or Other/Unknown (2.9%) participated in the study. Students completed questionnaires assessing moral identity, moral judgment, social self-efficacy, and how they would respond if they observed a peer being bullied. Moral identity predicted more prosocial action, particularly for adolescents high in social self-efficacy. Moral identity related positively to moral judgment, and both predicted less antisocial (joining in) behavior. Interestingly, moral judgment maturity primarily diminished antisocial behavior when moral identity was relatively low. Social self-efficacy predicted less passive bystanding. Overall, moral identity strongly relates to defending behavior, and-as does moral judgment maturity-predicts less antisocial behavior among bystanders.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Julgamento , Princípios Morais , Autoeficácia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Grupo Associado , Comportamento Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(11): 2222-2240, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407188

RESUMO

Despite prior studies supporting the existence of "aggressive-victims", it remains unclear if they possess unique risk factors from adolescents who are mostly aggressive or victimized. The present study sought to determine whether aggressive-victims differ from adolescents with distinct patterns of involvement in aggression and victimization in their social and emotional adjustment. Secondary analyses were conducted on baseline data from 984 seventh grade students (54% female) from three schools. Most participants identified their race as White (49%) or African American (19%), with 24% identifying as Latino/a. Latent class analysis identified four subgroups: predominant-aggressors (25%), predominant-victims (17%), aggressive-victims (12%), and limited-involvement (47%). The findings did not provide evidence of unique social-emotional characteristics of aggressive-victims that were not accounted for by their involvement in both aggression and victimization. Further evidence of unique differences in risk factors is needed to support targeted interventions for aggressive-victims.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Ajustamento Emocional , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Bullying/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Instituições Acadêmicas , Ajustamento Social , Estudantes/psicologia
18.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 31(3): 263-270, ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185352

RESUMO

Background: Despite the recent popularity of the classification for maladaptive traits proposed by the DSM-5, little is known about the implications of these traits in adolescent populations. This study examines the relationship between the five broad maladaptive traits included in the DSM-5 (Negative Affect, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition and Psychoticism) and a wide range of criteria of adolescent functioning: behavioural (bullying, cyberbullying, victimization, cybervictimization, problematic Internet use, substance use), emotional (negative and positive emotions, life satisfaction, self-esteem, loneliness) and motivational (extrinsic and intrinsic aspirations). Methods: Data were collected from 921 community adolescents, who were administered the brief form of the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5-BF) as well as self-reported measures of the behavioural, emotional and motivational criteria. Results: Antagonism and Disinhibition were the most important traits for behaviour problems, with face-to-face bullying being more associated with maladaptative traits than cyberbullying; Negative Affect, Detachment and Psychoticism were more closely related to emotional dissatisfaction, and adolescents’ goals were associated with most of the maladaptative traits. Conclusions: This study supports the relevance of the PID-5 traits for adolescents, and extends the nomological net of pathological personality traits to multiple facets of emotions, motivations and social behaviour in young people


Antecedentes: a pesar de la reciente popularidad de los rasgos desadaptativos de la personalidad propuestos por el DSM-5, se sabe poco sobre sus implicaciones en la adolescencia. Este estudio examina la relación entre los cinco grandes rasgos desadaptativos incluidos en el DSM-5 (Afecto Negativo, Desapego, Antagonismo, Desinhibición y Psicoticismo) y múltiples criterios de funcionamiento adolescente: conductuales (acoso, ciberacoso, victimización, cibervictimización, uso problemático de Internet, uso de sustancias), emocionales (emociones negativas y positivas, satisfacción con la vida, autoestima, soledad) y motivacionales (aspiraciones extrínsecas e intrínsecas). Método: se recogieron datos en 921 adolescentes de la población general, a quienes se les administró el PID-5-BF, así como medidas autoinformadas de los criterios a analizar. Resultados: Antagonismo y Desinhibición fueron los rasgos más asociados con los problemas de conducta, y el bullying se vio más relacionado con los rasgos PID que el ciberbullying; Afecto Negativo, Desapego y Psicoticismo se relacionaron más estrechamente con la insatisfacción emocional, y los rasgos desadaptativos contribuyeron también a predecir las metas de los jóvenes. Conclusiones: este estudio apoya la relevancia de los rasgos del PID-5 en la adolescencia, y extiende su red nomológica a múltiples facetas de las emociones, motivaciones y conducta social de los adolescentes


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Bullying/psicologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Emoções , Motivação , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Afeto , Anedonia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Internet , Satisfação Pessoal , Inventário de Personalidade , Assunção de Riscos , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Isolamento Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
19.
Pap. psicol ; 40(2): 109-124, mayo-ago. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183641

RESUMO

El presente estudio es una revisión sistemática de las investigaciones realizadas sobre los factores de riesgo y los factores protectores relacionados con el ciberbullying entre adolescentes. La búsqueda se realizó en las bases de datos Web of Science, PsycARTICLES, EBSCOhost, Science Direct Journals, Scopus y Springer Journals. Luego de aplicar los criterios de inclusión a los 226 artículos encon-trados inicialmente, se tuvo como resultado un total de 39 artículos que conformaron la muestra final. El N total de las muestras fue 173.179 adolescentes. La investigación con la muestra más pequeña tuvo 90 participantes y la muestra más grande estuvo conforma-da por 72.327 personas. Los factores de riesgo y los factores protectores están relacionados con el uso de Internet y las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación, aspectos familiares, sociales, psicológicos e individuales. La información consignada en esta re-visión sistemática deja ver la importancia de programas de intervención que prevengan y atiendan el ciberbullying, en los que se in-volucre a la familia, la escuela y la sociedad


The present study is a systematic review of the research on the risk and protective factors related to cyberbullying among adolescents. The research was carried out using the databases Web of Science, PsycARTICLES, EBSCOhost, Science Direct journals, Scopus and Springer journals. Applying the inclusion criteria to the 226 articles initially found, resulted in a total of 39 articles that made up the final sample. The total N of the samples was 173,179 adolescents. The research with the smallest sample had 90 participants and the largest sample was made up of 72,327 participants. The risk and protective factors are related to the use of the Internet and information and communication technologies, family, social, psychological and individual aspects. The information contained in this systematic review shows the importance of intervention programs that prevent and address cyberbullying, involving family, school and society


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Bullying/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Proteção , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente , Internet , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 28(2): 67-73, ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183647

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to analyze the connections between victimization and perpetration of face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying with self-perceived childhood stress and diverse emotional and behavioral problems (EBPs) evaluated by parents. Participants were 1,993 students, aged 9-13 years, from the Basque Country (Spain) (49.8% females). The results of the analyses of variance (MANOVA-ANOVA) and correlational analyses showed that: (1) students who had higher scores in victimization and perpetration of bullying/cyberbullying had significantly high levels of stress and many EBPs; (2) participants who had higher scores in victimization/cybervictimization and perpetration of bullying obtained higher scores in all the dimensions of stress, while those who had higher scores in cyberaggression only showed higher school stress; (3) students who had higher scores in victimization/cybervictimization manifested internalizing and externalizing EBPs, whereas those who had higher scores in perpetration of bullying/cyberbullying had fewer internalizing problems; and (4) children who obtained higher scores in victimization and perpetration of bullying/cyberbullying had received psychological counseling significantly more frequently in the past year than those who had lower scores in indicators of bullying/cyberbullying. The importance of preventing/intervening in bullying situations to reduce psychopathological problems is emphasized in the discussion


El estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la relación entre victimización y perpetración de acoso escolar presencial y ciberacoso con el estrés infantil autopercibido y con los problemas emocionales y de conducta (PEC) evaluados por los padres. Participaron 1,993 estudiantes, de 9 a 13 años, del País Vasco (España) (49,8% mujeres). Los resultados de los análisis de varianza (MANOVA-ANOVA) y correlacionales mostraron que: (1) los estudiantes que tenían mayores puntuaciones en victimización y perpetración de acoso/ciberacoso escolares tenían significativamente alto nivel de estrés y muchos PEC; (2) los participantes que tenían puntuaciones superiores en victimización/cibervictimización y perpetración de acoso escolar obtuvieron mayores puntuaciones en todas las dimensiones del estrés, mientras que aquellos que tenían altas puntuaciones en ciberagresión únicamente mostraban mayor estrés escolar; (3) los participantes que tuvieron mayor puntuación en victimización/cibervictimización mostraban PEC internalizantes y externalizantes y aquellos con mayor puntuación en agresión/ciberagresion tenían menos problemas internalizantes; (4) los niños que obtuvieron mayores puntuaciones en victimización y perpetración de acoso/ciberacoso escolares habían acudido significativamente más al psicólogo en el último año que aquellos que tuvieron menores puntuaciones en los indicadores de acoso/ciberacoso escolares. El debate destaca la importancia de prevenir/tratar el acoso para disminuir los problemas psicopatológicos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Emoções Manifestas , Estresse Psicológico , Análise de Variância , Bullying/psicologia , Esgotamento Psicológico , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos
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