Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.391
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1494, 2021 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686061

RESUMO

Transmission-blocking vaccines that interrupt malaria transmission from humans to mosquitoes are being tested in early clinical trials. The activity of such a vaccine is commonly evaluated using membrane-feeding assays. Understanding the field efficacy of such a vaccine requires knowledge of how heavily infected wild, naturally blood-fed mosquitoes are, as this indicates how difficult it will be to block transmission. Here we use data on naturally infected mosquitoes collected in Burkina Faso to translate the laboratory-estimated activity into an estimated activity in the field. A transmission dynamics model is then utilised to predict a transmission-blocking vaccine's public health impact alongside existing interventions. The model suggests that school-aged children are an attractive population to target for vaccination. Benefits of vaccination are distributed across the population, averting the greatest number of cases in younger children. Utilising a transmission-blocking vaccine alongside existing interventions could have a substantial impact against malaria.


Assuntos
Vacinas Antimaláricas/imunologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária/transmissão , Saúde Pública , Adolescente , Adulto , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(3): e1008776, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661890

RESUMO

In an epidemic, individuals can widely differ in the way they spread the infection depending on their age or on the number of days they have been infected for. In the absence of pharmaceutical interventions such as a vaccine or treatment, non-pharmaceutical interventions (e.g. physical or social distancing) are essential to mitigate the pandemic. We develop an original approach to identify the optimal age-stratified control strategy to implement as a function of the time since the onset of the epidemic. This is based on a model with a double continuous structure in terms of host age and time since infection. By applying optimal control theory to this model, we identify a solution that minimizes deaths and costs associated with the implementation of the control strategy itself. We also implement this strategy for three countries with contrasted age distributions (Burkina-Faso, France, and Vietnam). Overall, the optimal strategy varies throughout the epidemic, with a more intense control early on, and depending on host age, with a stronger control for the older population, except in the scenario where the cost associated with the control is low. In the latter scenario, we find strong differences across countries because the control extends to the younger population for France and Vietnam 2 to 3 months after the onset of the epidemic, but not for Burkina Faso. Finally, we show that the optimal control strategy strongly outperforms a constant uniform control exerted over the whole population or over its younger fraction. This improved understanding of the effect of age-based control interventions opens new perspectives for the field, especially for age-based contact tracing.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Número Básico de Reprodução/estatística & dados numéricos , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Biologia Computacional , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Busca de Comunicante/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Conceitos Matemáticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Rev Mal Respir ; 38(3): 240-248, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589360

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The development of acute respiratory distress syndrome indicates a serious form of COVID-19. Although there have been several studies on the prognostic factors of its severe form, no such study has been conducted in Burkina Faso. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted from March 9 to June 9, 2020 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso which involved 456 patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: Nearly a quarter of the patients (23.2%) had presented with acute respiratory distress and 44.3% of them died. Being over 65 years old (HR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.5-5.1) and having hypertension (HR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1-3.5) were independently associated with the risk of mortality. However, after adjustment, only age over 65 years (HR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.2-4.3) was a risk factor for death. The survival rate for patients over 65 was 38.5% at 7 days and 30.3% at 15 days. CONCLUSIONS: Acute respiratory distress leading to death is mainly found in older people with COVID-19. Close monitoring of these high-risk patients may reduce the risk of death.


Assuntos
/complicações , /etiologia , /mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , /epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Prognóstico , /epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(3): 133, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594524

RESUMO

In this study, the influence of source area weathering and provenance on the stream sediment geochemistry as well as the environmental impacts of selected potentially toxic trace elements (PTE) were evaluated. Four components derived from the R-mode factor analysis of additive logratio-transformed data pointed to the combined influence of weathering of granitoids, sedimentary rocks and greenstone belts and gold mineralisation on the stream geochemistry. Although 13 PTE were enriched in the majority of the samples, only five elements (As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni) were likely to have adverse biological effects. Based on the geochemical maps, the areas susceptible to produce adverse biological effects due to As enrichments are solely drained by the greenstone belts, whereas enrichment of Pb was pronounced in areas of high population densities. The linear regression between enrichment factor (EF) and adverse effect indices (AEI) indicated that in order for Pb to pose threats to the benthic organisms, EF should be 4.5, whereas EF for sediment toxicity are 1 for Cu, Cr and Ni and 2 for As. Consequently, Cu, Cr, Ni, As and, to a lesser degree, Pb pose serious environmental threats to benthic organisms in southwestern Burkina Faso. The stream sediment geochemical data of this study constitute a baseline for assessing future environmental risks.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Burkina Faso , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 3, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407558

RESUMO

In this commentary, we present a follow-up of two articles published in 2017 and 2018 about road traffic crashes, which is an important public health issue in Africa and Burkina Faso. The first article reported on a research project, conducted in partnership with local actors involved in road safety, carried out in Ouagadougou in 2015. Its aim was to test the effectiveness, acceptability, and capacity of a surveillance system to assess the number of road traffic crashes and their consequences on the health of crash victims. Several knowledge translation activities were carried out to maximize its impact and were reported in the 2018 article published in HRPS: monthly reports presenting the research data, large-format printed maps distributed to the city's police stations, and a deliberative workshop held at the end of the research project. The present commentary presents our efforts to deepen our understanding of the impacts of the knowledge translation strategy, based on follow-up interviews, 18 months after the workshop, with the heads of the road traffic crash units in Ouagadougou police stations (n = 5). Several benefits were reported by respondents. Their involvement in the process prompted them to broaden their knowledge of other ways of dealing with the issue of road crashes. This led them, sometimes with their colleagues, to intervene differently: more rapid response at collision sites, increased surveillance of dangerous intersections, user awareness-raising on the importance of the highway code, etc. However, sustaining these actions over the longer term has proven difficult. Several lessons were derived from this experience, regarding the importance of producing useful and locally applicable research data, of ensuring the acceptability of the technologies used for data collection, of using collaborative approaches in research and knowledge translation, of ensuring the visibility of actions undertaken by actors in the field, and of involving decision-makers in the research process to maximize its impacts.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Polícia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Burkina Faso , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
7.
PLoS Med ; 17(12): e1003442, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) and corn-soy blends (CSBs) with varying soy and milk content are used in treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). We assessed the impact of these supplements on child development. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a randomised 2 × 2 × 3 factorial trial to assess the effectiveness of 12 weeks' supplementation with LNS or CSB, with either soy isolate or dehulled soy, and either 0%, 20%, or 50% of protein from milk, on child development among 6-23-month-old children with MAM. Recruitment took place at 5 health centres in Province du Passoré, Burkina Faso between September 2013 and August 2014. The study was fully blinded with respect to soy quality and milk content, while study participants were not blinded with respect to matrix. This analysis presents secondary trial outcomes: Gross motor, fine motor, and language development were assessed using the Malawi Development Assessment Tool (MDAT). Of 1,609 children enrolled, 54.7% were girls, and median age was 11.3 months (interquartile range [IQR] 8.2-16.0). Twelve weeks follow-up was completed by 1,548 (96.2%), and 24 weeks follow-up was completed by 1,503 (93.4%); follow-up was similar between randomised groups. During the study, 4 children died, and 102 children developed severe acute malnutrition (SAM). There was no difference in adverse events between randomised groups. At 12 weeks, the mean MDAT z-scores in the whole cohort had increased by 0.33 (95% CI: 0.28, 0.37), p < 0.001 for gross motor; 0.26 (0.20, 0.31), p < 0.001 for fine motor; and 0.14 (0.09, 0.20), p < 0.001 for language development. Children had larger improvement in language z-scores if receiving supplements with milk (20%: 0.09 [-0.01, 0.19], p = 0.08 and 50%: 0.11 [0.01, 0.21], p = 0.02), although the difference only reached statistical significance for 50% milk. Post hoc analyses suggested that this effect was specific to boys (interaction p = 0.02). The fine motor z-scores were also improved in children receiving milk, but only when 20% milk was added to CSB (0.18 [0.03, 0.33], p = 0.02). Soy isolate over dehulled soy increased language z-scores by 0.07 (-0.01, 0.15), p = 0.10, although not statistically significant. Post hoc analyses suggested that LNS benefited gross motor development among boys more than did CSB (interaction p = 0.04). Differences between supplement groups did not persist at 24 weeks, but MDAT z-scores continued to increase post-supplementation. The lack of an unsupplemented control group limits us from determining the overall effects of nutritional supplementation for children with MAM. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that child development improved during and after supplementation for treatment of MAM. Milk protein was beneficial for language and fine motor development, while suggested benefits related to soy quality and supplement matrix merit further investigation. Supplement-specific effects were not found post-intervention, but z-scores continued to improve, suggesting a sustained overall effect of supplementation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN42569496.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/dietoterapia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Proteínas do Leite/administração & dosagem , Estado Nutricional , Proteínas de Soja/administração & dosagem , Doença Aguda , Fatores Etários , Burkina Faso , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Linguagem Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Destreza Motora , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5093, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037226

RESUMO

The mechanisms behind the ability of Plasmodium falciparum to evade host immune system are poorly understood and are a major roadblock in achieving malaria elimination. Here, we use integrative genomic profiling and a longitudinal pediatric cohort in Burkina Faso to demonstrate the role of post-transcriptional regulation in host immune response in malaria. We report a strong signature of miRNA expression differentiation associated with P. falciparum infection (127 out of 320 miRNAs, B-H FDR 5%) and parasitemia (72 miRNAs, B-H FDR 5%). Integrative miRNA-mRNA analysis implicates several infection-responsive miRNAs (e.g., miR-16-5p, miR-15a-5p and miR-181c-5p) promoting lymphocyte cell death. miRNA cis-eQTL analysis using whole-genome sequencing data identified 1,376 genetic variants associated with the expression of 34 miRNAs (B-H FDR 5%). We report a protective effect of rs114136945 minor allele on parasitemia mediated through miR-598-3p expression. These results highlight the impact of post-transcriptional regulation, immune cell death processes and host genetic regulatory control in malaria.


Assuntos
Evasão da Resposta Imune/genética , Malária Falciparum/genética , Malária Falciparum/imunologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/patogenicidade , Burkina Faso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Parasitemia/genética , Parasitemia/imunologia , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
9.
Sante Publique ; 32(2): 263-272, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989956

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Central East region of Burkina Faso has vaccine coverage which is among the lowest in the country with an epidemiological profile marked by the occurrence of measles or meningitis outbreaks. This study was conducted with the aim of carrying out an equity analysis of the organization of immunization services in this region in order to identify factors that cause potential inequities in vaccination offer. MATERIALS AND METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study covered the seven districts in the Central East region. Data collection was done in two weeks combined with observation method, individual interviews and document review. Part of the data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The data analysis was performed with the Epi info 7 software using a plan designed for this purpose. RESULTS: A total of 144 health centers in the region (93.0% coverage) were surveyed. The average distance between villages and health facilities was 5.2 km with 16.2% of villages that were located more than 10 km from a health facility. Health centers had an average of four health workers, however the urban health centers had more workers than those in rural areas. About 16% of the villages did not benefit from an on-site vaccination trip due to the unavailability of transport logistics. More than half of the health centers (53.9%) had experienced vaccine shortages in the last six months before the study. More than 5,000 safety boxes containing used syringes were stored in the districts of the region. CONCLUSION: This study identified factors potentially responsible for an inequity in providing vaccination services in the Central East region. These factors include, but are not limited to, the geographical distribution of the health centers, the availability of transport logistics, and the shortage in vaccines and deficiencies in the waste disposal system. Concerted actions should be developed, involving all stakeholders in the health system in order to address these issues.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Vacinação , Burkina Faso , Estudos Transversais , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos
11.
Sante Publique ; 32(2): 263-272, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985843

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Central East region of Burkina Faso has vaccine coverage which is among the lowest in the country with an epidemiological profile marked by the occurrence of measles or meningitis outbreaks. This study was conducted with the aim of carrying out an equity analysis of the organization of immunization services in this region in order to identify factors that cause potential inequities in vaccination offer. MATERIALS AND METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study covered the seven districts in the Central East region. Data collection was done in two weeks combined with observation method, individual interviews and document review. Part of the data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The data analysis was performed with the Epi info 7 software using a plan designed for this purpose. RESULTS: A total of 144 health centers in the region (93.0% coverage) were surveyed. The average distance between villages and health facilities was 5.2 km with 16.2% of villages that were located more than 10 km from a health facility. Health centers had an average of four health workers, however the urban health centers had more workers than those in rural areas. About 16% of the villages did not benefit from an on-site vaccination trip due to the unavailability of transport logistics. More than half of the health centers (53.9%) had experienced vaccine shortages in the last six months before the study. More than 5,000 safety boxes containing used syringes were stored in the districts of the region. CONCLUSION: This study identified factors potentially responsible for an inequity in providing vaccination services in the Central East region. These factors include, but are not limited to, the geographical distribution of the health centers, the availability of transport logistics, and the shortage in vaccines and deficiencies in the waste disposal system. Concerted actions should be developed, involving all stakeholders in the health system in order to address these issues.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Imunização , Burkina Faso , Estudos Transversais , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238431, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886677

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dengue fever is a re-emerging pathology in Burkina Faso. It affects everyone and pregnant women are not left out. The objective of this study was to estimate the burden of dengue fever and to assess its effects on pregnancy outcomes in hospitalized pregnant women during the 2017 outbreak in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. METHOD: This was a retrospective cohort study including febrile pregnant women from five health facilities in Ouagadougou. The study was carried out from July 1st to December 31st, 2017. A logistic stepwise regression was performed to identify the pregnancy adverse outcomes risk factors. RESULTS: Our study included 424 pregnant women at a mean age of 27.1 years old (Standard deviation: 6.23 years). Overall 28.54% (121/424) were infected with dengue virus. During follow-up, 29.01% (123/424) presented an adverse pregnancy outcome. Adjusted for gestational age and clinical symptoms, the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome was twice as high among dengue infected women as compared to uninfected women with an adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 2.09 (1.08-4.05). The risk of the adverse pregnancy outcome was higher in the third trimester of pregnancy with aOR = 1.66 (1.02-2.72) in dengue fever infected women. CONCLUSION: Dengue fever is a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes, especially in the third trimester in Burkina Faso. The implementation of effective anti-vectorial control interventions and better management of dengue fever during pregnancy are needed to improve pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Dengue/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/patogenicidade , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003214, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is now widely deployed in the Sahel, including several countries that are major contributors to the global burden of malaria. Consequently, it is important to understand whether SMC continues to provide a high level of protection and how SMC might be improved. SMC was evaluated using data from a large, household-randomised trial in Houndé, Burkina Faso and Bougouni, Mali. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The parent trial evaluated monthly SMC plus either azithromycin (AZ) or placebo, administered as directly observed therapy 4 times per year between August and November (2014-2016). In July 2014, 19,578 children aged 3-59 months were randomised by household to study group. Children who remained within the age range 3-59 months in August each year, plus children born into study households or who moved into the study area, received study drugs in 2015 and 2016. These analyses focus on the approximately 10,000 children (5,000 per country) under observation each year in the SMC plus placebo group. Despite high coverage and high adherence to SMC, the incidence of hospitalisations or deaths due to malaria and uncomplicated clinical malaria remained high in the study areas (overall incidence rates 12.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): 11.2, 14.1] and 871.1 [95% CI: 852.3, 890.6] cases per 1,000 person-years, respectively) and peaked in July each year, before SMC delivery began in August. The incidence rate ratio comparing SMC within the past 28 days with SMC more than 35 days ago-adjusted for age, country, and household clustering-was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.20), P < 0.001 for malaria hospitalisations and deaths from malaria and 0.21 (95% CI 0.20, 0.23), P < 0.001 for uncomplicated malaria, indicating protective efficacy of 87.4% (95% CI: 79.6%, 92.2%) and 78.3% (95% CI: 76.8%, 79.6%), respectively. The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia at weekly surveys during the rainy season and at the end of the transmission season was several times higher in children who missed the SMC course preceding the survey contact, and the smallest prevalence ratio observed was 2.98 (95% CI: 1.95, 4.54), P < 0.001. The frequency of molecular markers of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ) resistance did not increase markedly over the study period either amongst study children or amongst school-age children resident in the study areas. After 3 years of SMC deployment, the day 28 PCR-unadjusted adequate clinical and parasitological response rate of the SP + AQ regimen in children with asymptomatic malaria was 98.3% (95% CI: 88.6%, 99.8%) in Burkina Faso and 96.1% (95% CI: 91.5%, 98.2%) in Mali. Key limitations of this study are the potential overdiagnosis of uncomplicated malaria by rapid diagnostic tests and the potential for residual confounding from factors related to adherence to the monthly SMC schedule. CONCLUSION: Despite strong evidence that SMC is providing a high level of protection, the burden of malaria remains substantial in the 2 study areas. These results emphasise the need for continuing support of SMC programmes. A fifth monthly SMC course is needed to adequately cover the whole transmission season in the study areas and in settings with similar epidemiology. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The AZ-SMC trial in which these data were collected was registered at clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02211729.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Características da Família , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Estações do Ano , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/sangue , Masculino , Mali/epidemiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Twenty-seven villages were selected in southwest Burkina Faso to implement new vector control strategies in addition to long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) through a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT). We conducted entomological surveys in the villages during the dry cold season (January 2017), dry hot season (March 2017) and rainy season (June 2017) to describe malaria vectors bionomics, insecticide resistance and transmission prior to this trial. METHODS: We carried out hourly catches (from 17:00 to 09:00) inside and outside 4 houses in each village using the Human Landing Catch technique. Mosquitoes were identified using morphological taxonomic keys. Specimens belonging to the Anopheles gambiae complex and Anopheles funestus group were identified using molecular techniques as well as detection of Plasmodium falciparum infection and insecticide resistance target-site mutations. RESULTS: Eight Anopheles species were detected in the area. Anopheles funestus s.s was the main vector during the dry cold season. It was replaced by Anopheles coluzzii during the dry hot season whereas An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s. were the dominant species during the rainy season. Species composition of the Anopheles population varied significantly among seasons. All insecticide resistance mechanisms (kdr-w, kdr-e and ace-1 target site mutations) investigated were found in each members of the An. gambiae complex but at different frequencies. We observed early and late biting phenotypes in the main malaria vector species. Entomological inoculation rates were 2.61, 2.67 and 11.25 infected bites per human per month during dry cold season, dry hot season and rainy season, respectively. CONCLUSION: The entomological indicators of malaria transmission were high despite the universal coverage with LLINs. We detected early and late biting phenotypes in the main malaria vector species as well as physiological insecticide resistance mechanisms. These data will be used to evaluate the impact of complementary tools to LLINs in an upcoming RCT.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Malária Falciparum/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Animais , Anopheles/classificação , Anopheles/genética , Anopheles/parasitologia , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Culex/classificação , Culex/genética , Culex/parasitologia , Culicidae/classificação , Culicidae/genética , Culicidae/parasitologia , Ecologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Controle de Mosquitos/organização & administração , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236248, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760147

RESUMO

Migration has long been used as a strategy for livelihood diversification in rural, subsistence communities. Yet in order for migration to effectively serve as a livelihood diversification strategy, it should meet certain conditions: migration should ease financial burdens, should confer access to economically valuable resources and information, and should broaden social networks. Using qualitative data gathered in 25 interviews with rural migrants to Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, we examine how mobile phone technology has impacted migration as a livelihood diversification strategy. Our results show that while mobile phones facilitate migration, the advantages conferred may benefit migrants at the expense of the home communities. Mobile phones alleviate financial constraints, enable access to broader networks, and facilitate informational and resource support among migrants. Our results show limited evidence of migrants using mobile phone technology to provide resources or information to the home community. Our results highlight the need to reconsider the ways in which migration can be used as a livelihood diversification strategy in light of changing communication technologies to promote the economic success of both migrants and their home communities.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Tomada de Decisões , Comportamento Exploratório , Migração Humana , População Rural , Adulto , Burkina Faso , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1700-1710, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840202

RESUMO

Coverage evaluation surveys (CESs) are an important complement to routinely reported drug coverage estimates following mass drug administration for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Although the WHO recommends the routine use of CESs, they are rarely implemented. Reasons for this low uptake are multifaceted; one is uncertainty on the best sampling method. We conducted a multicountry study to compare the statistical characteristics, cost, time, and complexity of three commonly used CES sampling methods: the Expanded Program on Immunization's (EPI's) 30 × 7 cluster survey, a stratified design with systematic sampling within strata to enable lot quality assurance sampling (S-LQAS) decision rules, and probability sampling with segmentation (PSS). The three CES methods were used in Burkina Faso, Honduras, Malawi, and Uganda, and results were compared across the country sites. All three CES methods were found to be feasible. The S-LQAS approach took the least amount of time to complete and, consequently, was the least expensive; however, all three methods cost less than $5,000 per district. The PSS design resulted in an unbiased, equal-probability sample of the target populations. By contrast, the EPI approach had inherent bias related to the selection of households. Because of modifications needed to maintain feasibility, the S-LQAS method also resulted in a non-probability sample with less precision than the other two methods. Given the comparable cost and time of the three sampling methods and the statistical advantages of the PSS method, the PSS method was deemed to be the best for CESs in NTD programs.


Assuntos
Doenças Negligenciadas , Projetos de Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Medicina Tropical , Burkina Faso , Custos e Análise de Custo , Honduras , Humanos , Amostragem para Garantia da Qualidade de Lotes , Malaui , Amostragem , Uganda
17.
Sante Publique ; Vol. 32(1): 123-140, 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706222

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In Burkina Faso, despite actions to improve women’s health, the percentage of those with unmet needs in terms of family planning remains high (35.6% in 2015 to 20.2% in 2018 according to projections from the Performance Monitoring and Accountability project [PMA2014-15/Burkina]). METHODS: The study used data from demographic and public health investigations as well as multiple indicator cluster surveys for Burkina Faso in 2010. Two analysis techniques were used: a Multiple Correspondence Analysis, then an Ascending Hierarchical Classification (AHC). A multi-level logistic regression model was used to estimate the net effects of individual and environmental factors associated with these unmet needs. RESULTS: The analysis of the random effects shows that the propensity of having unmet needs in terms of family planning varies considerable from one household to another and from one enumeration zone to another. The net effects also show that women between the ages of 35 and 49 are 6.94 times at risk of having unmet needs in terms of limiting births than for those aged 20 to 34. For the unmet need of spacing births, this risk is estimated at 69% less high for women between 35 to 49 years of age than for those aged 15 to 19. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to strengthen local awareness programs geared towards women and their spouses about the benefits and the importance of family planning, while taking into account their sociodemographic characteristics (age, parity, ethnic background, living environment).


Assuntos
Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Burkina Faso , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sociológicos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 272: 159-162, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604625

RESUMO

The successful introduction of ICTs into medical practice is a key factor in improving the performance of any health system for both patients and healthcare professionals. In Burkina Faso, many hospital information systems (HIS) have been developed and are already widely used in large health centers with proven efficiency. To improve the quality of patient care, these hospital information systems should exchange information. Interoperability is one of the privileged ways to improve the integration of different systems because nowadays a HIS is no longer just a single monolithic software system, which is run on a single machine. This paper presents a semantic interoperability architecture, which is based on a mediation approach. The mediator implements local domain ontologies for each HIS, a knowledge base, and a referential ontology which is used as a semantic repository and web services.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação Hospitalar , Burkina Faso , Humanos , Bases de Conhecimento , Semântica , Software
19.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 251-254, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592548

RESUMO

Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso, was recognized as a focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniosis in April 2000. Leishmania major was the only strain isolated in this focus. We conducted a prospective study to detect L. major in rodents, animals which are described as reservoir of the parasite. Rodents were caught in five city areas from November 2005 to October 2006. Giemsa stained smears were realized from the cutaneous lesions when present after macroscopic examination of external lesions. The spleen of each rodent was sterilely removed and split into 3 parts for microscopic examination of smears, culture on NNN media and PCR, respectively. A total of 101 rodents belonging to 9 genera were trapped. All the direct examinations and cultures were negative. By using PCR of lesions and spleen samples, three animals were found infected by L. major: one out of 24 (4.2%) Mastomys natalensis; one out of 8 (12.5%) Taterillus sp. and one out of three Cricetomys gambianus. This is the first detection of L. major in rodent species in Burkina Faso. Further studies are needed to confirm their role as reservoirs of L. major.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças , Leishmania major , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Doenças dos Roedores , Roedores , Animais , Burkina Faso , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Leishmania major/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Roedores/parasitologia , Baço/parasitologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492901

RESUMO

One of the major contributors of malaria-related deaths in Sub-Saharan African countries is the limited accessibility to quality care. In these countries, malaria control activities are implemented at the health-district level (operational entity of the national health system), while malaria readiness indicators are regionally representative. This study provides an approach for estimating health district-level malaria readiness indicators from survey data designed to provide regionally representative estimates. A binomial-hierarchical Bayesian spatial prediction method was applied to Burkina Faso Service Availability and Readiness Assessment (SARA) survey data to provide estimates of essential equipment availability and readiness for malaria care. Predicted values of each indicator were adjusted by the type of health facility, location, and population density. Then, a health district composite readiness profile was built via hierarchical ascendant classification. All surveyed health-facilities were mandated by the Ministry of Health to manage malaria cases. The spatial distribution of essential equipment and malaria readiness was heterogeneous. Around 62.9% of health districts had a high level of readiness to provide malaria care and prevention during pregnancy. Low-performance scores for managing malaria cases were found in big cities. Health districts with low coverage for both first-line antimalarial drugs and rapid diagnostic tests were Baskuy, Bogodogo, Boulmiougou, Nongr-Massoum, Sig-Nonghin, Dafra, and Do. We provide health district estimates and reveal gaps in basic equipment and malaria management resources in some districts that need to be filled. By providing local-scale estimates, this approach could be replicated for other types of indicators to inform decision makers and health program managers and to identify priority areas.


Assuntos
Malária , Antimaláricos , Teorema de Bayes , Burkina Faso , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...