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1.
Malar J ; 21(1): 143, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2014, the Burkina Faso government launched the Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) programme. Expected benefit was a 75% reduction of all malaria episodes and a 75% drop of severe malaria episodes. This study assessed SMC efficiency on malaria morbidity in the country after 2 years of implementation. METHODS: Quasi-experimental design comparing changes in outcomes during the high transmission period (August-November) between SMC and non-SMC health districts before (2013-2014) and after intervention (two rounds in 2015 and 2016). Health indicators (number of uncomplicated malaria cases (UM) and severe malaria cases (SM)) from 19 health districts (8 in intervention and 11 in comparison group) were extracted from the District Health Information System (DHIS2)-based platform including health facilities data. Effect on incidence was assessed by fitting difference-in difference mixed-effects negative binomial regression model at a log scale. RESULTS: The two rounds of SMC were associated with a reduction of UM incidence (ratio of incidence rate ratio (IRR) 69% (95% CI 55-86%); p = 0.001) and SM incidence (ratio of IRR = 73% (55-95%), p = 0.018) among under five children. CONCLUSION: The two rounds of SMC had a significant effect on the reduction of malaria cases in under five children. This additional evidence on the effectiveness of SMC, using routine data, support the need to sustain its implementation and consider expansion to eligible areas not yet covered.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Malária , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Quimioprevenção , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Estações do Ano
2.
Parasite ; 29: 25, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543528

RESUMO

The World Health Organisation has targeted the elimination of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) as zero transmission by 2030. Continued surveillance needs to be in place for early detection of re-emergent cases. In this context, the performance of diagnostic tests and testing algorithms for detection of the re-emergence of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense HAT remains to be assessed. We carried out a door-to-door active medical survey for HAT in the historical focus of Batié, South-West Burkina Faso. Screening was done using three rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Two laboratory tests (ELISA/T. b. gambiense and immune trypanolysis) and parasitological examination were performed on RDT positives only. In total, 5883 participants were screened, among which 842 (14%) tested positive in at least one RDT. Blood from 519 RDT positives was examined microscopically but no trypanosomes were observed. The HAT Sero-K-Set test showed the lowest specificity of 89%, while the specificities of SD Bioline HAT and rHAT Sero-Strip were 92% and 99%, respectively. The specificity of ELISA/T. b. gambiense and trypanolysis was 99% (98-99%) and 100% (99-100%), respectively. Our results suggest that T. b. gambiense is no longer circulating in the study area and that zero transmission has probably been attained. While a least cost analysis is still required, our study showed that RDT preselection followed by trypanolysis may be a useful strategy for post-elimination surveillance in Burkina Faso.


Title: Suivi de l'élimination de la Trypanosomiase Humaine Africaine dans le foyer historique de Batié au sud-ouest du Burkina Faso. Abstract: L'Organisation mondiale de la santé a ciblé l'élimination de la trypanosomiase humaine africaine (THA) comme transmission zéro d'ici 2030. Une surveillance continue doit être mise en place pour la détection précoce des cas réémergents. Dans ce contexte, la performance des tests de diagnostic et des algorithmes de test pour la détection de la réémergence de la THA de Trypanosoma brucei gambiense reste à évaluer. Nous avons réalisé une enquête médicale en porte-à-porte pour la THA dans le foyer historique de Batié, au sud-ouest du Burkina Faso. Le dépistage a été effectué à l'aide de trois tests de diagnostic rapide (TDR). Deux tests de laboratoire (ELISA/T. b. gambiense et trypanolyse immunitaire) et un examen parasitologique ont été effectués uniquement sur les TDR positifs. Au total, 5883 participants ont été dépistés, parmi lesquels 842 (14 %) ont été testés positifs dans au moins un TDR. Le sang de 519 TDR positifs a été examiné au microscope mais aucun trypanosome n'a été observé. Le test HAT Sero-K-Set a montré la spécificité la plus faible de 89 %, tandis que les spécificités de SD Bioline HAT et rHAT Sero-Strip étaient de 92 % et 99 %, respectivement. La spécificité d'ELISA/T. b. gambiense et de la trypanolyse étaient respectivement de 99 % (98­99 %) et 100 % (99­100 %). Nos résultats suggèrent que T. b. gambiense ne circule plus dans la zone d'étude et que la transmission zéro a probablement été atteinte. Bien qu'une analyse de moindre coût soit toujours nécessaire, notre étude a montré qu'une présélection par TDR suivie d'une trypanolyse peut être une stratégie utile pour la surveillance post-élimination au Burkina Faso.


Assuntos
Tripanossomíase Africana , Algoritmos , Animais , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Trypanosoma brucei gambiense , Tripanossomíase Africana/diagnóstico , Tripanossomíase Africana/epidemiologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/prevenção & controle
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e059138, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims: (1) to identify and describe similarities and differences in both adult and child COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, and (2) to examine sociodemographic, perception-related and behavioural factors influencing vaccine hesitancy across five West African countries. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey carried out between 5 May and 5 June 2021. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: 4198 individuals from urban and rural settings in Burkina Faso, Guinea, Mali, Senegal and Sierra Leone participated in the survey. STUDY REGISTRATION: The general protocol is registered on clinicaltrial.gov. RESULTS: Findings show that in West Africa at the time only 53% of all study participants reported to be aware of COVID-19 vaccines, and television (60%, n=1345), radio (56%; n=1258), social media (34%; n=764) and family/friends/neighbours (28%; n=634) being the most important sources of information about COVID-19 vaccines. Adult COVID-19 vaccine acceptance ranges from 60% in Guinea and 50% in Sierra Leone to 11% in Senegal. This is largely congruent with acceptance levels of COVID-19 vaccinations for children. Multivariable regression analysis shows that perceived effectiveness and safety of COVID-19 vaccines increased the willingness to get vaccinated. However, sociodemographic factors, such as sex, rural/urban residence, educational attainment and household composition (living with children and/or elderly), and the other perception parameters were not associated with the willingness to get vaccinated in the multivariable regression model. CONCLUSIONS: Primary sources of information about COVID-19 vaccines include television, radio and social media. Communication strategies addressed at the adult population using mass and social media, which emphasise COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness and safety, could encourage greater acceptance also of COVID-19 child vaccinations in sub-Saharan countries. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04912284.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Adulto , Idoso , Burkina Faso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
4.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 118, 2022 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35488211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most common bacterial species implicated in various types of infections including septicemia, gastroenteritis, urinary tract infections, meningitis and others pathologies. These involve several bacterial clones with multidrug resistance making them difficult to treat. The aims of this study was to perform molecular typing of E. coli strains using universal primer (GTG)5. In this study, 53 E. coli strains were collected from inpatients and outpatients. The test of antimicrobial sensibility was realized using CA-SFM /EUCAST method and strains were identified by conventional microbiological tests. The carbapenemase-producing strains were demonstrated by phenotypic method. Bacterial DNA was extracted by boiling method. (GTG)5-PCR was used for strain subtyping. The DendroUPGMA software was used for grouping of strains from the genetic fingerprints obtained by (GTG)5-PCR. RESULTS: Antibiotic susceptibility test revealed that all strains were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Its strains showed resistance to at least three different families of antibiotics. Of this MDR strains, only one was a metallo-ß-lactamase producer. The dendrogram obtained using genetic fingerprinting allowed the E. coli strains to be grouped into 22 clusters (G1 to G22). CONCLUSION: The (GTG) 5-PCR assay enabled rapid molecular typing of E. coli strains. The strains of E. coli typed in this study would belong to different clones.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias , Burkina Faso , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 536, 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, access to abortion is legally restricted, which partly contributes to high incidence of unsafe abortion. This may result in unsafe abortion-related complications that demand long hospital stays, treatment and attendance by skilled health providers. There is however, limited knowledge on the capacity of public health facilities to deliver post-abortion care (PAC), and the spread of PAC services in these settings. We describe and discuss the preparedness and capacity of public health facilities to deliver complete and quality PAC services in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Nigeria. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of primary, secondary and tertiary-level public health facilities was conducted between November 2018 and February 2019 in the three countries. Data on signal functions (including information on essential equipment and supplies, staffing and training among others) for measuring the ability of health facilities to provide post-abortion services were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Across the three countries, fewer primary health facilities (ranging from 6.3-12.1% in Kenya and Burkina Faso) had the capacity to deliver on all components of basic PAC services. Approximately one-third (26-43%) of referral facilities across Burkina Faso, Kenya and Nigeria could provide comprehensive PAC services. Lack of trained staff, absence of necessary equipment and lack of PAC commodities and supplies were a main reason for inability to deliver specific PAC services (such as surgical procedures for abortion complications, blood transfusion and post-PAC contraceptive counselling). Further, the lack of capacity to refer acute PAC cases to higher-level facilities was identified as a key weakness in provision of post-abortion care services. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal considerable gaps and weaknesses in the delivery of basic and comprehensive PAC within the three countries, linked to both the legal and policy contexts for abortion as well as broad health system challenges in the countries. There is a need for increased investments by governments to strengthen the capacity of primary, secondary and tertiary public health facilities to deliver quality PAC services, in order to increase access to PAC and avert preventable maternal mortalities.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Assistência ao Convalescente , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Nigéria , Gravidez
6.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0258435, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421088

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to assess the microbial quality of five ready-to-eat food such as bread, pasta, rice with sauce, beans and milk sold in five localities of Burkina Faso namely, Ouagadougou, Bobo-Dioulasso, Dakola, Cinkansé and Niangoloko. One hundred and one samples were collected and microbial quality were assessed by evaluating the food hygiene indicators such as total aerobic mesophilic flora, total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, yeast and mould. Food safety indicators such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, coagulase-positive staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus were also tested for contamination. Samples were tested according to ISO guidelines for all parameters. The results showed that 74 (73.27%) of samples were satisfactory while 15 (14.85%) were acceptable and 12 (11.88%) were not satisfactory according to international standards. Among the food safety indicators sought, Escherichia coli was detected in two samples and Bacillus cereus in four samples. Most of the analyzed food exhibited good hygiene behavior within the acceptable limits and the highest of not satisfactory rate was observed in milk powder and rice with sauce. Ouagadougou samples recorded the highest number of not satisfactory samples. Despite the general quality was satisfactory, the presence of specific microorganisms such as coliforms is indicative of the poor hygiene surrounded these foods. It is therefore necessary to train and follow up the vendors in the handling of equipment, hand-washing practices and selling environment hygiene for better improvement of the quality of the street foods.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Salmonella , Animais , Bacillus cereus , Burkina Faso , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Escherichia coli , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Leite
7.
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(4): 256-267, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35386558

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the implementation of a screening strategy for the partners and children of pregnant women with hepatitis B virus (HBV) attending antenatal care. Methods: We identified pregnant women positive for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) at antenatal consultation in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. At post-test counselling, women were advised to disclose their HBV status to partners and to encourage their partner and children to be screened for HBsAg. We used multivariable logistic regression to explore factors associated with uptake of screening and HBsAg positivity among family members. Findings: Of 1000 HBsAg-positive women, 436/1000 partners and 215/1281 children were screened. HBsAg was detected in 55 (12.6%) partners and 24 (11.2%) children. After adjusting for confounders, uptake of screening was higher in partners who were married, who attended the woman's first post-test consultation and to whom the woman had disclosed her HBV status. In children, HBsAg positivity was associated with being born before the introduction of infant hepatitis B vaccination in Burkina Faso (not significant in the multivariable analysis), having a mother positive for HBV e-antigen (adjusted OR: 8.57; 95% CI: 2.49-29.48) or having a mother with HBV DNA level ≥ 200 000 IU/mL (OR: 6.83; 95% CI: 1.61-29.00). Conclusion: In low-income countries, the antenatal consultation provides a cost-effective opportunity to identify HBV-infected household contacts and link them to care. Children born before the introduction of infant hepatitis B vaccination and whose mother has higher viral load or infectivity should be a priority for testing and linkage to care.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Antígenos de Superfície , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle
8.
World J Surg Oncol ; 20(1): 113, 2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35392926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In developing countries, the long delays in consultation lead to a delay in diagnosis and management of the skin tumors. The lesions are often large and bring the problem of skin coverage after their resections. Several reconstruction techniques allow skin coverage. The objective of this study is to describe the place of O-to-Z technique in the surgical treatment of skin cancers in Ouagadougou. We hypothesized that O-to-Z technique reduces healing times and the number of dressings compared with directed wound healing. PATIENTS AND METHODS: It was a two-center, retrospective, descriptive study on O-to-Z technique in skin cancers. It included patients who underwent surgery between January 1st, 2013 and March 30th, 2021 in Ouagadougou. Scar quality and healing time in Z-plasty were compared with those of secondary healing. We used the Student's t test. RESULTS: In 8 years and 3 months, 171 skin cancers were identified. The mean time to consultation was 13.6 months. The average size of the tumors was 9 cm. An O-to-Z technique was performed in 42 cases, being 58.3% of the patients operated on. The average healing time was 15 days. It was four and a half times shorter in O-to-Z technique than in secondary healing. Ischemic necrosis of the Z-corner was noted in 7 cases. The recurrence rate in O-to-Z technique and secondary healing was 7.1% and 9.1% respectively. Hypertrophic or keloidal scars were noticed in 7 cases and hypochromia in 2 cases. CONCLUSION: O-to-Z technique is a technique of choice for skin coverage after large resections in surgical oncology. It reduces the healing time and the cost of postoperative care without increasing the risk of tumor recurrence.


Assuntos
Cicatriz , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Burkina Faso , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Cicatrização
9.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 10(2)2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35487557

RESUMO

Global health partnerships (GHPs) involve complex relationships between individuals and organizations, often joining partners from high-income and low- or middle-income countries around work that is carried out in the latter. Therefore, GHPs are situated in the context of global inequities and their underlying sociopolitical and historical causes, such as colonization. Equity is a core principle that should guide GHPs from start to end. How equity is embedded and nurtured throughout a partnership has remained a constant challenge. We have developed a user-friendly tool for valuing a GHP throughout its lifespan using an equity lens. The development of the EQT was informed by 5 distinct elements: a scoping review of scientific published peer-reviewed literature; an online survey and follow-up telephone interviews; workshops in Canada, Burkina Faso, and Vietnam; a critical interpretive synthesis; and a content validation exercise. Findings suggest GHPs generate experiences of equity or inequity yet provide little guidance on how to identify and respond to these experiences. The EQT can guide people involved in partnering to consider the equity implications of all their actions, from inception, through implementation and completion of a partnership. When used to guide reflective dialogue with a clear intention to advance equity in and through partnering, this tool offers a new approach to valuing global health partnerships. Global health practitioners, among others, can apply the EQT in their partnerships to learning together about how to cultivate equity in their unique contexts within what is becoming an increasingly diverse, vibrant, and responsive global health community.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Organizações , Burkina Faso , Humanos , Vietnã
10.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0264377, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Promoting the coverage and ownership of health insurance constitutes a key strategy to achieving universal healthcare, thereby meeting the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 3.8) of safeguarding the vulnerable population from financial risk resulting from catastrophic health expenditures. In sub-Saharan Africa, accessing medical services is particularly challenging among women due to inadequate opportunities for socio-economic empowerment and meeting their unique healthcare needs. The present study aimed to explore the sociodemographic factors associated with health insurance ownership among women in selected countries in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We extracted cross-sectional data on health insurance ownership and conceptually relevant sociodemographic variables on women aged 15-49 years from Demographic and Health Surveys on five selected countries in sub-Saharan Africa (n = 55,438), including Burkina Faso, DR Congo, Cameroon, Gabon and Kenya. Data were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate regression analysis, and the associations were reported in terms of average marginal effects. RESULTS: Data revealed considerable cross-country variation in health insurance ownership: Gabon (57.9%), Kenya (6.1%), DR Congo (2.8%), Cameroon (1.1%), Burkina Faso (0.4%). In the multivariate regression analysis, women's age, marital status, place of residency, educational level, household wealth status, employment, and media access were significant predictors of insurance ownership. The associations were generally similar across the five countries, with higher age, better educational level and wealth status showing a consistently positive relationship with insurance ownership. CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed striking inequality in health insurance ownership among the studied countries, which should be given due attention to achieving universal healthcare-related goals. There also exist considerable sociodemographic disparities in health insurance ownership among women that should be addressed using context-specific programmatic interventions. Our findings revealed striking inequality in health insurance ownership among the studied countries, which should be given due attention to achieving universal healthcare-related goals. There also exist considerable sociodemographic disparities in health insurance ownership among women that should be addressed using context-specific programmatic interventions.


Assuntos
Seguro Saúde , Propriedade , Burkina Faso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 59, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In low- and middle-income countries, the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is increasing. To control AMR, WHO recommends monitoring antibiotic use, in particular Watch antibiotics. These are critically important antibiotics, with restricted use because at risk of becoming ineffective due to increasing AMR. We investigated pre-hospital antibiotic use in rural Burkina Faso. METHODS: During 2016-2017, we collected data from patients aged > 3 months presenting with severe acute fever to the rural hospital of Nanoro Health District, Burkina Faso, including antibiotic use in the two weeks prior to consultation or hospitalization. We analysed reported antibiotic use by applying the WHO Access, Watch, Reserve classification. RESULTS: Of 920 febrile participants (63.0% ≤ 14 years), pre-hospital antibiotic use was reported by 363 (39.5%). Among these 363, microbiological diagnoses were available for 275 (75.8%) patients, of whom 162 (58.9%) were non-bacterial infections. Use of more than one antibiotic was reported by 58/363 (16.0%) participants. Of 491 self-referred patients who did not previously visit a primary health care center, 131 (26.7%) reported antibiotic use. Of 424 antibiotics reported, 265 (62.5%) were Access and 159 (37.5%) Watch antibiotics. Watch antibiotic use was more frequent among patients > 14 year olds (51.1%) compared to those 0-14 year old (30.7%, p < 0.001) and among referrals from the primary health care centers (42.2%) compared to self-referred patients (28.1%, p = 0.004). Most frequently reported Watch antibiotics were ceftriaxone (114, 71.7%) and ciprofloxacin (32, 20.1%). CONCLUSION: The reported frequent use of Watch group antibiotics among febrile patients prior to presentation to the hospital in rural Burkina Faso highlights the need to develop targeted interventions to improve antibiotic use in community settings as part of strengthening antibiotic stewardship in low- and middle-income countries. This should include facilitating referral, access to qualified prescribers and diagnostic tools in rural primary health care centers. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02669823. Registration date was February 1, 2016.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Instalações de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido
12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 743248, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35252079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To limit the spread of COVID-19 due to imported cases, Burkina Faso has set up quarantine measures for arriving passengers. We aimed to determine the incidence and predictors of imported cases of COVID-19 in Burkina Faso. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed using data from passengers arriving at the airport from April 9 to August 31, 2020. The data was extracted from the District Health Information Software 2 (DHIS2) platform. Cox regression was used to identify predictors of imported cases of COVID-19. RESULTS: Among 6,332 travelers who arrived in the study period, 173 imported cases (2.7%) were recorded. The incidence rate was 1.9 cases per 1,000 traveler-days (95%CI: 1.6-2.2 per 1,000). Passengers arriving in April (Adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 3.56; 95%CI: 1.62-7.81) and May (aHR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.18-3.12) were more at risk of being tested positive compared to those arriving in August, as well as, passengers presenting with one symptom (aHR = 3.71; 95% CI: 1.63-8.43) and at least two symptoms (aHR = 10.82; 95% CI: 5.24-22,30) compared to asymptomatic travelers. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of imported cases was relatively low in Burkina Faso between April and August 2020. The period of travel and the presence of symptoms at arrival predicted the risk of being tested positive to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This is essential in the context of the high circulation of virus variants worldwide and the low local capacity to perform genotyping tests to strengthen the surveillance and screening capacities at the points of entry into the country.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Cerebrovasc Dis Extra ; 12(1): 36-46, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35235929

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Stroke is a major public health concern. It is a frequent pathology, 80% of which is of ischemic origin. Approximately 86% of all stroke deaths worldwide occur in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this study was to investigate prognostic factors for in hospital lethality of stroke cases admitted in a public university hospital in Burkina Faso. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study with a descriptive and analytical aim on adults admitted for a stroke confirmed by a brain scan at the Sourô Sanou University Teaching Hospital (CHUSS) of Bobo-Dioulasso over the period from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2013. RESULTS: The proportion of cases confirmed by the brain CT scan was 32% of all patients admitted for stroke in the CHUSS. The overall case fatality was 27.6%. This lethality was more pronounced in patients with hemorrhagic stroke (35.8%) compared to patients with ischemic stroke (22.4%). Median survival was higher in patients with ischemic stroke than those with hemorrhagic one (36 and 25 days, respectively) with a statistically significant difference (p value = 0.001). In multivariate analysis and hemorrhagic stroke (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.25; CI 95%: 1.41-3.61), an altered state of consciousness (HR: 1.90; CI 95%: 1.20-2.99) and the presence of central facial paralysis (HR: 1.67; CI 95%: 1.04-2.67) are factors that increased significantly the lethality. CONCLUSION: The study has identified three prognostic factors of lethality that are the hemorrhagic stroke type, the altered state of consciousness, and the central facial paralysis. Given the high case fatality, it is important to develop and implement effective prevention and management strategies adapted to the resources for the optimal control of stroke in Africa.


Assuntos
Paralisia Facial , AVC Hemorrágico , AVC Isquêmico , Adulto , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4460, 2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35292709

RESUMO

Diet based on cereal, vegetables, oleaginous and dried fish are providing essential metallic elements. It can be also a source of exposure to toxic metallic elements. The aims of this study were to evaluate the contents on nine metallic trace elements (Fe, Zn, Mn, Co, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr) in some major raw foodstuffs including rice, maize, peanut, tomato and dried fish in Burkina Faso and assess the health risk of these elements. Two hundred twenty-two samples were collected and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The health risk assessment was based on the United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) model. Iron and Zinc were the elements with the highest concentrations in the investigated foodstuffs. The iron highest median value (68.80 mg/kg) was observed in dried fish followed by maize (43.09 mg/kg) and peanuts (28.92 mg/kg). Rates of 77.95%, 66.66% and 32.5% obtained respectively fro tomato, maize and rice samples were above the maximum limit of lead set by Codex Alimentarius while 47.6%, 71.16% and 0% of maize, tomato and rice samples respectively have shown concentration above the maximum limit of cadmium. Chromium had shown higher contribution rate to the maximum daily intake of 167.11%, 34%, 2% and 8.53% for rice, maize and peanut respectively. A non-cancer risk situation has been observed on rice, maize and peanut consumption. None of the index risk values was above the threshold set by USEPA.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oryza , Oligoelementos , Animais , Burkina Faso , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ferro/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Oryza/química , Medição de Risco , Oligoelementos/análise
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 285, 2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35337289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Azithromycin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that has moderate antimalarial activity and has been shown to reduce all-cause mortality when biannually administered to children under five in high mortality settings in sub-Saharan Africa. One potential mechanism for this observed reduction in mortality is via a reduction in malaria transmission. METHODS: We evaluated whether a single oral dose of azithromycin reduces malaria positivity by rapid diagnostic test (RDT). We conducted an individually randomized placebo-controlled trial in Burkina Faso during the high malaria transmission season in August 2020. Children aged 8 days to 59 months old were randomized to a single oral dose of azithromycin (20 mg/kg) or matching placebo. At baseline and 14 days following treatment, we administered a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) to detect Plasmodium falciparum and measured tympanic temperature for all children. Caregiver-reported adverse events and clinic visits were recorded at the day 14 visit. RESULTS: We enrolled 449 children with 221 randomized to azithromycin and 228 to placebo. The median age was 32 months and 48% were female. A total of 8% of children had a positive RDT for malaria at baseline and 11% had a fever (tympanic temperature ≥ 37.5 °C). In the azithromycin arm, 8% of children had a positive RDT for malaria at 14 days compared to 7% in the placebo arm (P = 0.65). Fifteen percent of children in the azithromycin arm had a fever ≥ 37.5 °C compared to 21% in the placebo arm (P = 0.12). Caregivers of children in the azithromycin group had lower odds of reporting fever as an adverse event compared to children in the placebo group (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.18-0.96, P = 0.04). Caregiver-reported clinic visits were uncommon, and there were no observed differences between arms (P = 0.32). CONCLUSIONS: We did not find evidence that a single oral dose of azithromycin reduced malaria positivity during the high transmission season. Caregiver-reported fever occurred less often in children receiving azithromycin compared to placebo, indicating that azithromycin may have some effect on non-malarial infections. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04315272, registered 19/03/2020.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Malária , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Burkina Faso , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino
16.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 248, 2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35331181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy can result in placental infection with fetal implications. This study aimed at assessing placental malaria (PM) prevalence and its associated factors in a cohort of pregnant women with peripheral malaria and their offspring. METHOD: The data were collected in the framework of a clinical trial on treatments for malaria in pregnant women . Placental malaria (PM) was diagnosed by histopathological detection of parasites and/or malaria pigment on placenta biopsies taken at delivery. Factors associated with PM were assessed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Out of 745 biopsies examined, PM was diagnosed in 86.8 % of women. Acute, chronic and past PM were retrieved in 11 (1.5 %), 170 (22.8 %), and 466 (62.6 %) women, respectively. A modifying effect was observed in the association of gravidity or anemia at the study start with pooled PM (presence of parasites and/or malaria pigment). In women under 30, gravidity ≤ 2 was associated with an increased prevalence of pooled PM but in women aged 30 years or more, gravidity was no more associated with pooled PM (OR 6.81, 95 % CI 3.18 - 14.60; and OR 0.52, 95 % CI 0.10 - 2.76, respectively). Anemia was associated with pooled PM in women under 30 (OR 1.96, 95 % CI 1.03 - 3.72) but not in women aged 30 years or more (OR 0.68, 95 % CI 0.31 - 1.49). Similarly, the association of gravidity with past-chronic PM depended also on age. A higher prevalence of active PM was observed in women under 30 presenting with symptomatic malaria (OR 3.79, 95 % CI 1.55 - 9.27), while there was no significant increase in the prevalence of active PM (presence of parasites only) in women with symptomatic malaria when aged 30 years or more (OR 0.42, 95 % CI 0.10 - 1.75). In women with chronic PM, the prevalence of low birth weight or prematurity was the highest (31.2 %) as compared with past PM or no PM. CONCLUSION: Despite the rapid diagnosis and efficacious treatment of peripheral infection, the prevalence of placental malaria remained high in women with P. falciparum peripheral infection in Nanoro, especially in younger women This underlines the importance of preventive measures in this specific group.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum , Malária , Adulto , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Feminino , Número de Gestações , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Placenta/parasitologia , Gravidez
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 118: 224-229, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35227869

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to assess the statistical relationship between the use of chloroquine phosphate or hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin (CQ/HCQ + AZ) and virological recovery, disease worsening, and death among out- and inpatients with COVID-19 in Burkina Faso. METHODS AND DESIGNS: This was a retrospective observational study that compared outcomes in terms of time to recovery, worsening, and death in patients who received CQ/HCQ + AZ and those who did not using a multivariable Cox or Poisson model before and after propensity matching. RESULTS: Of the 863 patients included in the study, about 50% (432/863) were home-based follow-up patients and 50% were inpatients. Of these, 83.3% (746/863) received at least 1 dose of CQ/HCQ + AZ and 13.7% (118/863) did not. There were no significant differences in associated time to recovery for patients receiving any CQ/HCQ + AZ (adjusted HR 1.44; 95% CI 0.76-2.71). Similarly, there was no significant association between CQ/HCQ + AZ use and worsening (adjusted IRR 0.80; 95% CI 0.50-1.50). However, compared with the untreated group, the treated group had a lower risk of death (adjusted HR 0.20; 95% CI 0.10-0.44). CONCLUSIONS: The study provided valuable additional information on the use of CQ/HCQ in patients with COVID-19 and did not show any harmful outcomes of CQ/HCQ + AZ treatment.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hidroxicloroquina , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/efeitos adversos , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Cloroquina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Pacientes Internados , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , SARS-CoV-2
18.
PLoS Med ; 19(3): e1003943, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35263343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) the level of serum cobalamin (SC) and effect of food supplements are unknown. We aimed to assess prevalence and correlates of low SC in children with MAM, associations with hemoglobin and development, and effects of food supplements on SC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A randomized 2 × 2 × 3 factorial trial was conducted in Burkina Faso. Children aged 6 to 23 months with MAM received 500 kcal/d as lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) or corn-soy blend (CSB), containing dehulled soy (DS) or soy isolate (SI) and 0%, 20%, or 50% of total protein from milk for 3 months. Randomization resulted in baseline equivalence between intervention groups. Data on hemoglobin and development were available at baseline. SC was available at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. SC was available from 1,192 (74.1%) of 1,609 children at baseline. The mean (±SD) age was 12.6 (±5.0) months, and 54% were females. Low mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC; <125 mm) was found in 80.4% (958) of the children and low weight-for-length z-score (WLZ; <-2) in 70.6% (841). Stunting was seen in 38.2% (456). Only 5.9% were not breastfed. Median (IQR) SC was 188 (137; 259) pmol/L. Two-thirds had SC ≤222 pmol/L, which was associated with lower hemoglobin. After age and sex adjustments, very low SC (<112 pmol/L) was associated with 0.21 (95% CI: 0.01; 0.41, p = 0.04) and 0.24 (95% CI: 0.06; 0.42, p = 0.01) z-score lower fine and gross motor development, respectively. SC data were available from 1,330 (85.9%) of 1,548 children followed up after 3 months and 398 (26.5%) of the 1,503 children after 6 months. Based on tobit regression, accounting for left censored data, and adjustments for correlates of missing data, the mean (95% CI) increments in SC from baseline to the 3- and 6-month follow-up were 72 (65; 79, p < 0.001) and 26 (16; 37, p < 0.001) pmol/L, respectively. The changes were similar among the 310 children with SC data at all 3 time points. Yet, the increase was 39 (20; 57, p < 0.001) pmol/L larger in children given LNS compared to CSB if based on SI (interaction, p < 0.001). No effect of milk was found. Four children died, and no child developed an allergic reaction to supplements. The main limitation of this study was that only SC was available as a marker of status and was missing from a quarter of the children. CONCLUSIONS: Low SC is prevalent among children with MAM and may contribute to impaired erythropoiesis and child development. The SC increase during supplementation was inadequate. The bioavailability and adequacy of cobalamin in food supplements should be reconsidered. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN42569496.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Criança , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Vitamina B 12 , Zea mays
19.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1501, 2022 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35314683

RESUMO

The malaria parasite, which is transmitted by several Anopheles mosquito species, requires more time to reach its human-transmissible stage than the average lifespan of mosquito vectors. Monitoring the species-specific age structure of mosquito populations is critical to evaluating the impact of vector control interventions on malaria risk. We present a rapid, cost-effective surveillance method based on deep learning of mid-infrared spectra of mosquito cuticle that simultaneously identifies the species and age class of three main malaria vectors in natural populations. Using spectra from over 40, 000 ecologically and genetically diverse An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, and An. coluzzii females, we develop a deep transfer learning model that learns and predicts the age of new wild populations in Tanzania and Burkina Faso with minimal sampling effort. Additionally, the model is able to detect the impact of simulated control interventions on mosquito populations, measured as a shift in their age structures. In the future, we anticipate our method can be applied to other arthropod vector-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Longevidade , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia
20.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 442, 2022 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35247990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) involves administering antimalarial drugs at monthly intervals during the high malaria transmission period to children aged 3 to 59 months as recommended by the World Health Organization. Typically, a full SMC course is administered over four monthly cycles from July to October, coinciding with the rainy season. However, an analysis of rainfall patterns suggest that the malaria transmission season is longer and starting as early as June in the south of Burkina Faso, leading to a rise in cases prior to the first cycle. This study assessed the acceptability and feasibility of extending SMC from four to five cycles to coincide with the earlier rainy season in Mangodara health district. METHODS: The mixed-methods study was conducted between July and November 2019. Quantitative data were collected through end-of-cycle and end-of-round household surveys to determine the effect of the additional cycle on the coverage of SMC in Mangodara. The data were then compared with 22 other districts where SMC was implemented by Malaria Consortium. Eight focus group discussions were conducted with caregivers and community distributors and 11 key informant interviews with community, programme and national-level stakeholders. These aimed to determine perceptions of the acceptability and feasibility of extending SMC to five cycles. RESULTS: The extension was perceived as acceptable by caregivers, community distributors and stakeholders due to the positive impact on the health of children under five. However, many community distributors expressed concern over the feasibility, mainly due to the clash with farming activities in June. Stakeholders highlighted the need for more evidence on the impact of the additional cycle on parasite resistance prior to scale-up. End-of-cycle survey data showed no difference in coverage between five SMC cycles in Mangodara and four cycles in the 22 comparison districts. CONCLUSIONS: The additional cycle should begin early in the day in order to not coincide with the agricultural activities of community distributors. Continuous sensitisation at community level is critical for the sustainability of SMC and acceptance of an additional cycle, which should actively engage male caregivers. Providing additional support in proportion to the increased workload from a fifth cycle, including timely remuneration, is critical to avoid the demotivation of community distributors. Further studies are required to understand the effectiveness, including cost-effectiveness, of tailoring SMC according to the rainy season. Understanding the impact of an additional cycle on parasite resistance to SPAQ is critical to address key informants' concerns around the deviation from the current four-cycle policy recommendation.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Malária , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Burkina Faso , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Criança , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Estações do Ano
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