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1.
Life Sci ; 244: 117324, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958420

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible antioxidant role of oleic acid (OA) against Cd-induced injuries in the heart and liver tissues of male Wistar rats. MAIN METHODS: Rats were treated with either vehicle (control), or OA (10 mg/kg b.w., fed orally), or Cd (0.44 mg/kg b.w., s.c.), or both (OA + Cd) for 15 days. Following completion of the treatment period, biomarkers of organ damage and oxidative stress including ROS, activities of antioxidant enzymes and their level, activities of Krebs cycle enzymes and respiratory chain enzymes were measured. Levels of interleukins (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) were estimated to evaluate the state of inflammation. In addition, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and status of cytochrome c (Cyt c) were also studied. KEY FINDINGS: Pre-treatment of rats with OA significantly protected against Cd-induced detrimental changes possibly by decreasing endogenous ROS through regulation of antioxidant defense system, inflammatory responses and activities of metabolic enzymes. Moreover, OA was also found to restore mitochondrial membrane potential possibly by regulating Cyt c leakage thereby increasing mitochondrial viability. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results for the first time demonstrated systematically that OA provided protection against Cd-induced oxidative stress mediated injuries in rat heart and liver tissues through its antioxidant mechanism. The results raise the possibility of using OA singly or in combination with other antioxidants or diet in the treatment of situations arising due to oxidative stress and may have future therapeutic relevance.


Assuntos
Ácido Oleico/metabolismo , Ácido Oleico/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismos Cardíacos/prevenção & controle , Inflamação/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
2.
Int J Cancer ; 146(2): 341-351, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851122

RESUMO

Cadmium, due to its estrogen-like activity, has been suspected to increase the risk of breast cancer; however, epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent findings. We conducted a case-control study (4,059 cases and 4,059 matched controls) nested within the E3N French cohort study to estimate the risk of breast cancer associated with long-term exposure to airborne cadmium pollution, and its effect according to molecular subtype of breast cancer (estrogen receptor negative/positive [ER-/ER+] and progesterone receptor negative/positive [PR-/PR+]). Atmospheric exposure to cadmium was assessed using a Geographic Information System-based metric, which included subject's residence-to-cadmium source distance, wind direction, exposure duration and stack height. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Overall, there was no significant association between cumulative dose of airborne cadmium exposure and the risk of overall, premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer. However, by ER and PR status, inverse associations were observed for ER- (ORQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.41-0.95, ptrend = 0.043) and for ER-/PR- breast tumors (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.40-0.95, ORQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.42-1.07, ptrend = 0.088). Our study provides no evidence of an association between exposure to cadmium and risk of breast cancer overall but suggests that cadmium might be related to a decreased risk of ER- and ER-/PR- breast tumors. These observations and other possible effects linked to hormone receptor status warrant further investigations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Pré-Menopausa , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(24)2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847310

RESUMO

Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains an important clinical issue; the 5-year survival rate of patients with metastasis is approximately 12%, while it is 93% in those with localized disease. There is evidence that blood cadmium and lead levels are elevated in RCC. The current studies were designed to assess the impact of cadmium and lead on the progression of RCC. The disruption of homotypic cell-cell adhesion is an essential step in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and tumor metastasis. Therefore, we examined the impact of cadmium and lead on the cadherin/catenin complex in Renca cells-a mouse RCC cell line. Lead, but not cadmium, induced a concentration-dependent loss of E-cadherin, while cadmium, but not lead, increased p120-catenin expression, specifically isoform 1 expression. Lead also induced a substantial increase in matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels. Both cadmium and lead significantly decreased the number of Renca cell aggregates, consistent with the disruption of the cadherin/catenin complex. Both metals enhanced wound healing in a scratch assay, and increased cell migration and invasion. These data suggest that cadmium and lead promote RCC progression.


Assuntos
Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Agregação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Chumbo/efeitos adversos , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Animais , Caderinas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Cateninas/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 570, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oilseed rape is an excellent candidate for phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd) contaminated soils given its advantages of high biomass, fast growth, moderate metal accumulation, ease of harvesting, and metal tolerance, but the cadmium response pathways in this species (Brassica napus) have yet to be fully elucidated. A combined analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression to infer Cd-induced regulation has not been reported in B. napus. RESULTS: We characterized concurrent changes in miRNA and mRNA profiles in the roots and shoots of B. napus seedlings after 10 days of 10 mg/L Cd2+ treatment. Cd treatment significantly affected the expression of 22 miRNAs belonging to 11 families in the root and 29 miRNAs belonging to 14 miRNA families in the shoot. Five miRNA families (MIR395, MIR397, MIR398, MIR408 and MIR858) and three novel miRNAs were differentially expressed in both tissues. A total of 399 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the root and 389 DEGs in the shoot were identified, with very little overlap between tissue types. Eight anti-regulation miRNA-mRNA interaction pairs in the root and eight in the shoot were identified in response to Cd and were involved in key plant stress response pathways: for example, four genes targeted by miR398 were involved in a pathway for detoxification of superoxide radicals. Cd stress significantly impacted the photosynthetic pathway. Transcription factor activation, antioxidant response pathways and secondary metabolic processes such as glutathione (GSH) and phenylpropanoid metabolism were identified as major components for Cd-induced response in both roots and shoots. CONCLUSIONS: Combined miRNA and mRNA profiling revealed miRNAs, genes and pathways involved in Cd response which are potentially critical for adaptation to Cd stress in B. napus. Close crosstalk between several Cd-induced miRNAs and mRNAs was identified, shedding light on possible mechanisms for response to Cd stress in underground and aboveground tissues in B. napus. The pathways, genes, and miRNAs identified here will be valuable targets for future improvement of cadmium tolerance in B. napus.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Brassica napus/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Transcriptoma
5.
Plant Sci ; 289: 110256, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623792

RESUMO

The plant-specific NAC transcription factors play diverse roles in various stress signaling. Alternative splicing is particularly prevalent in plants under stress. However, the investigation of cadmium (Cd) on the differential expression of the splice variants of NACs is in its infancy. Here, we identified three Cd-induced intron retention splice NAC variants which only contained the canonical NAC domain, designated as nacDomains, derived from three Cd-upregulated maize NACs. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that both nacDomain and its full-length NAC counterpart co-localized in the nucleus as manifested in the BiFC assay, thus implied that nacDomains and their corresponding NACs form heterodimers through the identical NAC domain. Further chimeric reporter/effector transient expression assay and Cd-tolerance assay in tobacco leaves collectively indicated that nacDomain-NAC heterodimers were involved in the regulation of NAC function. The results obtained here were in accordance with the model of dominant negative, which suggested that nacDomain act as the dominant negative to antagonize the regulation of NAC on its target gene expression and the Cd-tolerance function performance of NAC transcription factor. These findings proposed a novel insight into understanding the molecular mechanisms of Cd response in plants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma , Zea mays/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/metabolismo
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 186: 109747, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634660

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) contamination has generated an environmental problem worldwide, leading to harmful effects on human health and damages to plant metabolism. Selenium (Se) is non essential for plants, however it can improve plant growth and reduce the adverse effects of abiotic stress. In addition, ethylene may interplay the positive effects of Se in plants. In order to investigate the role of ethylene in Se-modulation of antioxidant defence system in response to Cd-stress, we tested the hormonal mutant Epinastic (epi) with a subset of constitutive activation of the ethylene response and Micro-Tom (MT) plants. For this purpose, Se mineral uptake, Cd and Se concentrations, pigments, malondialdeyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contents, ethylene production, glutathione (GSH) compound, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were analysed in MT and epi plants submitted to 0.5 mM CdCl2 and 1 µM of selenate or selenite. MT plants treated with both Se forms increased growth in the presence or not of 0.5 mM CdCl2, but not change epi growth. Both Se forms reduced Cd uptake in MT plants and cause reverse effect in epi plants. P, Mg, S, K and Zn uptake increased in epi plants with Se application, irrespective to Cd exposure. Chlorophylls and carotenoids contents decreased in both genotypes under Cd exposure, in contrast to what was observed in epi leaves in the presence of Se. When antioxidant enzymes activities were concerned, Se application increased Mn-SOD, Fe-SOD and APX activities. In the presence of Cd, MT and epi plants exhibited decreased SOD activity and increased CAT, APX and GR activities. MT and epi plants with Se supply exhibited increased APX and GR activities in the presence of Cd. Overall, these results suggest that ethylene may be involved in Se induced-defence responses, that triggers a positive response of the antioxidant system and improve growth under Cd stress. These results showed integrative roles of ethylene and Se in regulating the cell responses to stressful-conditions and, the cross-tolerance to stress could be used to manipulate ethylene regulated gene expression to induce heavy metal tolerance.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Etilenos/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Selênio/farmacologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Mutação , Oxirredução , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Ácido Selênico/farmacologia , Ácido Selenioso/farmacologia , Selênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 186: 109744, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627093

RESUMO

Biological strategy of utilization of plants-microbe's interactions to remediate cadmium (Cd) contaminated soils is effective and practical. However, limited evidence at transcriptome level is available about how microbes work with host plants to alleviate Cd stress. In the present study, comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed between maize seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and non-AM fungi inoculation under distinct concentrations of CdCl2 (0, 25, and 50 mg per kg soil). Significantly higher levels of Cd were found in root tissues of maize colonized by AM fungi, whereas, Cd content was reduced as much as 50% in leaf tissues when compared to non-AM seedlings, indicating that symbiosis between AM fungi and maize seedlings can significantly block translocation of Cd from roots to leaf tissues. Moreover, a total of 5827 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were determined and approximately 68.54% DEGs were downregulated when roots were exposed to high Cd stress. In contrast, 67.16% (595) DEGs were significantly up-regulated when seedlings were colonized by AM fungi under 0 mg CdCl2. Based on hierarchical clustering analysis, global expression profiles were split into eight distinct clusters. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that hundreds of genes functioning in plant hormone signal transduction, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and glutathione metabolism were enriched. Furthermore, MapMan pathway analysis indicated a more comprehensive overview response, including hormone metabolism, especially in JA, glutathione metabolism, transcription factors and secondary metabolites, to Cd stress in mycorrhizal maize seedlings. These results provide an overview, at the transcriptome level, of how inoculation of maize seedlings by AM fungi could facilitate the relief of Cd stress.


Assuntos
Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Glomeromycota/fisiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Simbiose , Transcriptoma , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Zea mays/microbiologia
8.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 56: 100-106, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442947

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Exposure to the heavy metal cadmium has been associated with many adverse health effects, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer, possibly melanoma. In non-occupationally exposed individuals, food intake is a major source of cadmium exposure, after smoking. We aimed to assess the risk of melanoma in relation to dietary cadmium intake. METHODS: Using a population-based case-control study design, we recruited 380 incident cases of newly-diagnosed cutaneous melanoma and 719 matched controls in the Emilia-Romagna Region, Northern Italy in the years 2005-2006. We evaluated dietary intake using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. We used conditional logistic regression to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for melanoma according to quintiles of dietary cadmium intake, adjusting for several potential confounders, and we modeled the association non-parametrically, using restricted cubic splines. RESULTS: Median energy-adjusted intake of cadmium was 6.11 µg/day (interquartile range 5.38-6.91) among cases and 5.97 µg/day (5.15-6.79) among controls. For each 1 µg/day-increase in cadmium intake, the OR for melanoma was 1.11 (95% CI 1.00-1.24). Melanoma risk generally increased with increasing quintile of cadmium exposure, with ORs of 1.55 (95% CI 0.99-2.42), 1.54 (95% CI 0.99-2-40), 1.75 (95% CI 1.12-2.75), and 1.65 (95% CI 1.05-2.61) for the second through fifth quintiles, compared with the lowest quintile. Sex-stratified analysis showed ORs per 1 µg/day-increase in cadmium intake of 1.10 (95% CI 0.93-1-29) among men and 1.15 (95% CI 0.99-1.33) among women. Using spline regression analysis, we observed a generally linear increase in melanoma risk up to 6 µg/day of cadmium intake, after which the risk appeared to plateau. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a positive non-linear association between dietary cadmium intake and risk of cutaneous melanoma in a Northern Italy population. However, further studies are needed to elucidate this association, due to concerns about exposure misclassification, unmeasured confounding, and the limited and conflicting evidence from epidemiological findings.


Assuntos
Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Dieta , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Melanoma/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco
9.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(7)2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295875

RESUMO

Curcumin is a hydrophobic polyphenol compound extracted from the rhizome of turmeric. The protective effect of curcumin on kidney damage in multiple experimental models has been widely described. Its protective effect is mainly associated with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as with mitochondrial function maintenance. On the other hand, occupational or environmental exposure to heavy metals is a serious public health problem. For a long time, heavy metals-induced nephrotoxicity was mainly associated with reactive oxygen species overproduction and loss of endogenous antioxidant activity. However, recent studies have shown that in addition to oxidative stress, heavy metals also suppress the autophagy flux, enhancing cell damage. Thus, natural compounds with the ability to modulate and restore autophagy flux represent a promising new therapeutic strategy. Furthermore, it has been reported in other renal damage models that curcumin's nephroprotective effects are related to its ability to regulate autophagic flow. The data indicate that curcumin modulates autophagy by classic signaling pathways (suppression of protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and/or by stimulation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and extracellular signal-dependent kinase (ERK) pathways). Moreover, it allows lysosomal function preservation, which is crucial for the later stage of autophagy. However, future studies of autophagy modulation by curcumin in heavy metals-induced autophagy flux impairment are still needed.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Proteção , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Cromo/efeitos adversos , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Rim/química , Rim/patologia , Chumbo/efeitos adversos , Mercúrio/efeitos adversos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283422

RESUMO

Approximately 3000 food samples from the Slovenian market and 2500 drinking (tap) water samples in the period 2011 - 2016 were evaluated for the presence of toxic elements lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and the overall chronic dietary exposure was assessed for each element. The highest mean concentrations were found for Pb in products for special nutritional use - dietary supplements (0.383 mg/kg) and for Cd in fish and seafood (0.117 mg/kg). The consumption data were obtained from the national study of the household budget and from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) summary statistics. Chronic dietary exposure was estimated deterministically. The average Pb and Cd intakes from food and drinking (tap) water ranged for children from 0.90 to 1.021 µg/kg bw/day and 4.65 to 5.65 µg/kg bw/week, respectively, and for adults, including adolescents, from 0.40 to 0.53 µg/kg bw/day and 1.98 to 2.82 µg/kg bw/week, respectively. The high consumption of cereal-based foods and vegetables contributed most to overall Pb and Cd intake in the majority of the age groups. The exposure to Pb was generally lower and that to Cd was higher compared to the average EU values. The most exposed were children, as the health-based guidance values were exceeded for both elements, which indicates a health concern. An important contribution to Cd exposure can be attributed to grains and potatoes grown in Slovenia, where the soil contains more Cd than that in other EU countries. Further efforts to reduce Pb and Cd intake are required to minimize potential health risks.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Água Potável/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Análise de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Chumbo/análise , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Água Potável/efeitos adversos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Chumbo/efeitos adversos , Eslovênia
11.
Ecotoxicology ; 28(7): 790-800, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313051

RESUMO

In soil ecosystems, it is very challenging to predict mixture hormesis effects. In the present study, soil alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was selected to investigate and predict its potential hormetic responses under Cd and Pb stresses. Typical reverse U-shaped dose-response relationships between ALP activities and the single and combined Cd and Pb were observed, showing a hormetic response of soil itself. The maximum stimulatory magnitudes ranged in 8.0 - 8.6% under 0.004 - 0.2 mg/kg Cd and 80 - 400 mg/kg Pb, respectively. An enhanced stimulation of 15.7% occurred under the binary mixtures of 0.6 mg/kg Cd and 200 mg/kg Pb. In addition, a dosage-independent binary linear regression model was proposed based on an assumption of a linear relationship between the single and combined hormetic responses under Cd and Pb. Our model can well predict ALP's responses in the presence of the two metals' mixtures (p < 0.1). Our findings provided new understandings to hormesis in soil.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina/análise , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Hormese , Chumbo/efeitos adversos , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Solo/química , China , Ecossistema , Modelos Teóricos , Áreas Alagadas
12.
J Plant Physiol ; 240: 153005, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271976

RESUMO

Many areas exhibiting increased concentrations of soluble salts are simultaneously polluted with heavy metals (HM), and halophytes with extended tolerance to heavy metal toxicity seem to represent a promising tool for their phytoremediation. In this study, the response of the soil-grown C3-CAM (Crassulacean acid metabolism) intermediate halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (common ice plant) to increased concentrations of Cd (0.01-1 mM) was investigated. None of the tested Cd treatments affected growth parameters or tissue water content of either C3 or CAM-performing plants. Chlorophyll a fluorescence confirmed high tolerance of the photosynthetic apparatus of both metabolic states towards Cd. Plants performing both photosynthesis types accumulated significant Cd amounts only under the highest (1 mM) treatment, and the metal was primarily deposited in the roots, which are features typical of an excluding strategy. Upon the application of 1 mM Cd solution CAM-performing plants, due to the NaCl pre-treatment applied for CAM induction, were exposed to significantly higher amounts of bioavailable Cd in comparison with those of C3-performing plants. As a result, roots of CAM plants accumulated over 4-fold higher Cd amounts when compared with C3 plants. In our opinion, enhanced Cd-accumulating potential observed in CAM-performing plants was the effect of osmotic stress episode and resulting modifications e.g. in the detoxifying capacity of the antioxidative system. Increased antioxidative potential of NaCl pre-treated plants was pronounced with significantly higher activity of CuZnSOD (copper-zinc superoxide dismutase), not achievable in C3 plants subjected to high Cd concentrations. Moreover, the applied Cd doses induced SOD activity in a compartment-dependent manner only in C3 plants. We confirmed that none of the applied Cd concentrations initiated the metabolic shift from C3 to CAM.


Assuntos
Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Mesembryanthemum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Mesembryanthemum/enzimologia , Mesembryanthemum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mesembryanthemum/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/enzimologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/enzimologia , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/enzimologia , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(12)2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234310

RESUMO

As the majority of experimental studies suggest cadmium being metalloestrogen, we examined cadmium/breast cancer (BC) association by histological and tumor receptor subtype in 509 invasive BC patients and 1170 controls. Urinary cadmium was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, and categorized using tertiles of its distribution in the controls: <0.18, 0.18-0.33, >0.33 kg × 10-9/kg × 10-3 creatinine. Relative to the lowest category of urinary cadmium adjusted odds ratio (OR) of ductal BC was 1.18 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.89-1.58) in the intermediate and 1.53 (95% CI: 1.15-2.04) in the highest category. There was a significant association for hormone receptor-positive ductal BC: ORs per category increase were 1.34 (95% CI: 1.14-1.59) for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), 1.33 (95% CI: 1.09-1.61) for progesterone receptor-positive (PR+) and 1.35 (95% CI: 1.11-1.65) for ER+/PR+ BC. We found a significant association between cadmium and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) ductal BC. The strongest association with cadmium was for ER+/PR+/HER2- ductal BC. The associations between cadmium and lobular BC with hormone receptor-positive and HER2- were positive but insignificant. There was no evidence that the associations with cadmium differed for cancers with different tumor histology (p-heterogeneity > 0.05). This study provides evidence that urinary cadmium is associated with the risk of hormone receptor-positive and HER2- breast cancer independent of tumor histology.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/urina , Cádmio/urina , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Receptor ErbB-2/análise , Receptores Estrogênicos/análise , Receptores de Progesterona/análise , Fatores de Risco
14.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5424-5431, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222344

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) and high dietary intake of molybdenum (Mo) can lead to adverse reactions on animals, but the combined impacts of Mo and Cd on testicle are not clear. To investigate the co-induced toxic effects of Mo and Cd in duck testicles on the mRNA levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs), inflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis. A total of sixty 11-day-old male Shaoxing ducks (Anas platyrhyncha) were randomly divided into 6 groups and testicles were collected on day 120. The mRNA levels of HSPs (HSP60, HSP70, HSP90), inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, NF-κB, COX-2), and apoptosis genes (Bcl-2, Bak-1, Caspase-3) were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), meanwhile the changes of ultrastructural were evaluated. The results showed HSPs mRNA levels were increased in high Mo and Cd groups, however, they were decreased in high dose Mo and Cd co-treated group. In all treatment groups, the mRNA levels of Bak-1 and Caspase-3 were upregulated, and Bcl-2 mRNA level was downregulated, especially in combination groups. The TNF-α, NF-κB, and COX-2 expression in co-exposure groups were higher than those in single groups. Furthermore, the ultrastructural changes showed nuclear deformation, mitochondria hyperplasia and cristaes rupture, and vacuolation in combination groups. Changes of all above factors indicated a possible synergistic relationship between the two elements, and the high expression of HSPs and inflammatory cytokines may play a role in the resistance of testicles toxicity induced by Mo or Cd or both.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Patos/fisiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Molibdênio/efeitos adversos , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252543

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential and harmful element to humans. Cadmium contamination is a serious issue for human health, especially in densely populated agroecology areas. In this study, the investigation of an agroecology area was conducted to gain insight into the relationship between Cd in wheat and soil and then evaluate the Cd total risk for human health. The soil samples and their matching wheat samples, underground water samples, and atmospheric deposition (air) samples were collected from a wheat-growing area in an agroecology plain. The cadmium concentration in the four types of media, in order, was air > soil > wheat > water. The mean concentration of the geoaccumulation index (Igeo) showed that the total Cd in soil (Cd-T) and Cdair reached a mild and moderate pollution level. The results of the correlation and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the majority of Cdwheat originated from Cd-2 (exchangeable), Cd-4 (humic acid-bound), and Cd-7 (residual). Furthermore, the results of the stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) showed that three fractions were primarily controlled by Cd-T: clay, cation exchange capacity (CeC), and total organic carbon (TOC). In addition, the total cancer risk (CR) of Cd in multiple media was, in the order wheat > water > soil > air. It is noteworthy that the Cd content in underground water and wheat by the ingestion pathway posed cancer risks to the local residents and provided a comprehensive insight into multiple media environment management. Furthermore, it provides a very significant basic study for detailed research into the mobility and transformation for factions.


Assuntos
Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Substâncias Húmicas/efeitos adversos , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Triticum/química , Agricultura , Cádmio/análise , China , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Densidade Demográfica , Poluentes do Solo/análise
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 280, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The xylem sap of vascular plants primarily transports water and mineral nutrients from the roots to the shoots and also transports heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd). Proteomic changes in xylem sap is an important mechanism for detoxifying Cd by plants. However, it is unclear how proteins in xylem sap respond to Cd. Here, we investigated the effects of Cd stress on the xylem sap proteome of Brassica napus using a label-free shotgun proteomic approach to elucidate plant response mechanisms to Cd toxicity. RESULTS: We identified and quantified 672 proteins; 67% were predicted to be secretory, and 11% (73 proteins) were unique to Cd-treated samples. Cd stress caused statistically significant and biologically relevant abundance changes in 28 xylem sap proteins. Among these proteins, the metabolic pathways that were most affected were related to cell wall modifications, stress/oxidoreductases, and lipid and protein metabolism. We functionally validated a plant defensin-like protein, BnPDFL, which belongs to the stress/oxidoreductase category, that was unique to the Cd-treated samples and played a positive role in Cd tolerance. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that BnPDFL is cell wall-localized. In vitro Cd-binding assays revealed that BnPDFL has Cd-chelating activity. BnPDFL heterologous overexpression significantly enhanced Cd tolerance in E. coli and Arabidopsis. Functional disruption of Arabidopsis plant defensin genes AtPDF2.3 and AtPDF2.2, which are mainly expressed in root vascular bundles, significantly decreased Cd tolerance. CONCLUSIONS: Several xylem sap proteins in Brassica napus are differentially induced in response to Cd treatment, and plant defensin plays a positive role in Cd tolerance.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Proteoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Xilema/fisiologia , Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/metabolismo , Xilema/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 678: 761-767, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085492

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that accumulates in living systems. Exposure can occur occupationally or environmentally. Workers within the electroplating, battery production, and pigment industries are at the highest risk for exposure and have been reported to have increased levels of Cd in their blood and urine. Environmental exposure can be the result of anthropogenic activities or smoking. Cd has a long half-life and bio accumulates in plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. The toxic effects following exposure include growth retardation and organ system toxicity, with kidney and liver toxicity most reported with in higher organisms. At the molecular level, Cd leads to the production of reactive oxygen species, DNA damage, and inhibition of DNA repair. This article gives a brief overview of the correlations between exposure to cadmium occupationally and environmentally and levels measured in blood and urine. It also examines the bioaccumulation of cadmium in aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates indicating that accumulation varies not only by location but also within and between various species.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Mamíferos , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
18.
Microb Ecol ; 78(4): 961-973, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953089

RESUMO

Hormetic dose-response that involved Cd in soils is increasingly paid attentions for risk assessment of Cd toxicity, but insufficient studies were conducted to define the temporary modification of soil enzyme and the potential microbial responses. The present study chooses soil alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as endpoint to uncover the time-dependent hormetic responses to low doses of Cd and its association with bacterial community composition. The results showed that addition of 0.01-3.0 mg kg-1 Cd significantly increased ALP's activities with maximum stimulatory magnitude of 11.4-27.2%, indicating a typical hormesis. The response started at 12 h after Cd addition and maintained about 24 h. This demonstrated that the hormetic response is time-dependent and transient. Changes of soil bacterial community composition showed that, at 6 h, relative abundances (RAs) of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes at phylum and Pontibacter, Bacillaceae-Bacillus, Bacillaceae1-Bacillus, and Paenisporosarcina at genus significantly correlated with ALP's activities at 12-36 h (P < 0.05). This suggests that soil bacteria likely showed an earlier response to Cd and potentially contributes to the subsequent soil enzyme's hormesis. In addition, it was found that Gram-negative bacteria other than Gram-positive bacteria are prone to exhibiting a hormetic response under Cd stress. Our findings provide much insight into ecotoxicological risk assessment for soil Cd pollution.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina/análise , Bactérias/classificação , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Hormese , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo/química
19.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991710

RESUMO

Estimation of the skeleton-protective effects of Ca in Cd-induced bone damage is helpful in the assessment of Cd health risk. The aim of this study was to identify whether Ca supplementation during exposure to different population-relevant doses of Cd can prevent Cd-induced bone damage under the tolerable upper intake level of Ca supplementation. Young female Sprague-Dawley rats were given different population-relevant doses of Cd (1, 5, and 50 mg Cd/kg diet) and Ca supplementation (0.4% Ca supplementation) intervention. Ca supplementation significantly decreased Cd-induced bone microstructure damage, increased bone biomechanics (p < 0.05), serum bone formation marker level (p < 0.05) and expression of osteogenic gene markers exposure to the 5 and 50 mg Cd/kg diets. However, it had no impact on these indicators under the 1 mg Cd/kg diets, with the exception of expression of osteogenic marker genes. Ca supplementation significantly decreased serum Klotho level (p < 0.05), and fibroblast growth factor 23/Klotho-associated gene expression in the kidney and bone showed significant changes. In conclusion, Ca supplementation has a positive effect on bone formation and bone quality against the damaging impact of Cd, especially with exposure to the 5 mg and 50 mg Cd/kg diet, which may be related to its impact on the fibroblast growth factor 23/Klotho axis.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Ósseas/metabolismo , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Cálcio/farmacologia , Dieta , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Glucuronidase/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
20.
Semin Nephrol ; 39(2): 132-140, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827336

RESUMO

The kidneys are a frequent target organ for toxicity from exposures to various environmental chemicals and agents. To understand the risk to human health from such exposures, it is important to consider both the underlying chemical and pathologic mechanisms and factors that may modify susceptibility to injury. Choices of exemplary environmental agents to review are based on those with selective effects on the kidneys and for which significant amounts of mechanistic and human data are available. These include the heavy metals cadmium and arsenic, fluoride, the organic solvents trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene, drinking water disinfection by-products haloacids, food and herbal drug contaminants aristolochic acid and melamine, and heat stress. Some common mechanistic features of all these diverse exposures are highlighted, and include oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage. Two major genetic factors that are discussed include genetic polymorphisms in plasma membrane transporters that catalyze uptake and accumulation or efflux and elimination of environmental chemicals, and genetic polymorphisms in bioactivation enzymes that generate toxic and reactive metabolites. Identification of methods to prevent environmental toxicant-associated kidney damage and understanding the genetic factors that influence kidney function and the kidney's response to exposures can be applied to refine risk assessments.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Solventes/efeitos adversos , Ativação Metabólica/genética , Lesão Renal Aguda/genética , Ácidos Aristolóquicos/efeitos adversos , Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Fluoretos/efeitos adversos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Necrose do Córtex Renal , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Estresse Oxidativo , Preparações de Plantas , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Tetracloroetileno/efeitos adversos , Triazinas/efeitos adversos , Tricloroetileno/efeitos adversos
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