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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 224: 112703, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479021

RESUMO

Particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) has adverse biological effects on major living organs in the body, including lungs. The complex composition of PM2.5, including carbon black and heavy metals, cause toxic effects to the lung. Nonetheless, there exists considerable knowledge gaps regarding the impact of carbon black (CB) on environmental health and safety (EHS). Thus far, the synergistic effects of CB have not gained much attention in past decades. Here, we showed that combined exposure of CB and Cadmium (Cd) enhance the cytotoxicity by altering the state of cell membrane. Specially, CB caused cell membrane collapse and increased the permeability of cells, and remarkedly enhanced the metal Cd toxicity. Furthermore, upon pre-treatment sublethal-dose CB, the increased intracellular Cd brought about a significantly amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and high expression of metallothionein-1 (MT-1) in human lung epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) cells, and ultimately resulted an increased cellular toxicity. The lung of mice exposed CBs and Cd presented remarkably inflammation than Cd alone. Mechanistic exploration deciphered that CB pre-treatment triggered cell damage via apoptosis due to Cd exposure. Collectively, our findings reveal a novel path for understanding the impact of CB on EHS with its synergistic effects, through which nanomaterials might exert detrimental effects on organisms.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar , Fuligem , Animais , Apoptose , Cádmio/toxicidade , Carbono , Pulmão , Camundongos , Fuligem/toxicidade
2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 108: 58-69, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465437

RESUMO

Under ultra-high cadmium (Cd) stress, large amounts of glutathione are produced in Auxenochlorella protothecoides UTEX 2341, and the lipid content increases significantly. Glutathione is the best reductant that can effectively remove Cd, but the relationship between lipid accumulation and the cellular response to Cd stress has not been ascertained. Integrating analyses of the transcriptomes and lipidomes, the mechanism of lipid accumulation to Cd tolerance were studied from the perspectives of metabolism, transcriptional regulation and protein glutathionylation. Under Cd stress, basic metabolic pathways, such as purine metabolism, translation and pre-mRNA splicing process, were inhibited, while the lipid accumulation pathway was significantly activated. Further analysis revealed that the transcription factors (TFs) and genes related to lipid accumulation were also activated. Analysis of the TF interaction sites showed that ABI5, MYB_rel and NF-YB could further regulate the expression of diacylglycerol acyltransferase through glutathionylation/deglutathionylation, which led to increase of the triacylglycerol (TAG) content. Lipidomes analysis showed that TAG could help maintain lipid homeostasis by adjusting its saturation/unsaturation levels. This study for the first time indicated that glutathione could activate TAG synthesis in microalga A. protothecoides, leading to TAG accumulation and glutathione accumulation under Cd stress. Therefore, the accumulation of TAG and glutathione can confer resistance to high Cd stress. This study provided insights into a new operation mode of TAG accumulation under heavy metal stress.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Clorófitas , Cádmio/toxicidade , Glutationa , Lipídeos , Triglicerídeos
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445563

RESUMO

Choroid plexus (CP) sequesters cadmium and other metals, protecting the brain from these neurotoxins. These metals can induce cellular stress and modulate homeostatic functions of CP, such as solute transport. We previously showed in primary cultured neonatal rat CP epithelial cells (CPECs) that cadmium induced cellular stress and stimulated choline uptake at the apical membrane, which interfaces with cerebrospinal fluid in situ. Here, in CPECs, we characterized the roles of glutathione (GSH) and Zinx supplementation in the adaptive stress response to cadmium. Cadmium increased GSH and decreased the reduced GSH-to-oxidized GSH (GSSG) ratio. Heat shock protein-70 (Hsp70), heme oxygenase (HO-1), and metallothionein (Mt-1) were induced along with the catalytic and modifier subunits of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH synthesis. Inhibition of GCL by l-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) enhanced stress protein induction and stimulation of choline uptake by cadmium. Zinx alone did not induce Hsp70, HO-1, or GCL subunits, or modulate choline uptake. Zinx supplementation during cadmium exposure attenuated stress protein induction and stimulation of choline uptake; this effect persisted despite inhibition of GSH synthesis. These data indicated up-regulation of GSH synthesis promotes adaptation to cadmium-induced cellular stress in CP, but Zinx may confer cytoprotection independent of GSH.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Colina/metabolismo , Plexo Corióideo/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/administração & dosagem , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Plexo Corióideo/metabolismo , Plexo Corióideo/patologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Epitélio/metabolismo , Epitélio/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
4.
Environ Pollut ; 287: 117663, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435565

RESUMO

Miscanthus has good tolerance to heavy metals (HMs) and has received increasing attention in studies of HM-contaminated soil remediation. In this study, four Miscanthus cultivars (M. lutarioriparius Xiangnadi NO4, M. sinensis Xiangmang NO1, M. lutarioriparius × M. sinensis hybrid Xiangzamang NO1, and M. floridulus Wujiemang NO1) that grow in China were studied. Their tolerance and enrichment abilities in soils containing 50 mg kg-1 cadmium (Cd) and the structure and function of their rhizosphere bacterial communities during the remediation process were analyzed. The results exhibiting a tolerance index (TI) higher than 75 in roots and the aboveground parts (TI > 60, indicating highly tolerant plants) indicated that all four Miscanthus cultivars were tolerant to high Cd concentrations. Moreover, Cd was mainly enriched in roots, the translocation ability from roots to aboveground parts was weak, and the four cultivars exhibited phytostabilization ability in Cd-contaminated soils. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) analysis showed that the Miscanthus rhizosphere bacterial community comprised 33 phyla and 446 genera, including plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), such as Bacillus, Sphingomonas, and Mesorhizobium. The addition of Cd affected the Miscanthus rhizosphere bacterial community and reduced community diversity. Phylogenetic molecular ecological networks (pMENs) indicated that Cd addition reduced interactions between Miscanthus rhizosphere bacteria and thereby led to a simpler network structure, increased the number of negative-correlation links, enhanced the competition between rhizosphere bacterial species, reduced the number of key bacteria, and changed the composition of those bacteria. PICRUSt functional predictive analysis indicated that Cd stress reduced soil bacterial functions in the Miscanthus rhizosphere. The results of this study provide a basis for the remediation of Cd-contaminated soils by Miscanthus and provide a reference for the subsequent regulation of Miscanthus remediation efficiency by PGPRs or key bacteria.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Poluentes do Solo , Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Filogenia , Poaceae , Rizosfera , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444081

RESUMO

Although studies have investigated cadmium and prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality, the role of cadmium in PC progression might be more clinically relevant. In this observational study, we assessed the association between air cadmium exposure and PC aggressiveness, with PC stage defined as metastatic or localized and Gleason grade defined as high (Gleason score ≥ 8) or low (Gleason score ≤ 6) among PC patients from the 2010-2014 US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. The 2005 and 2011 National Air Toxics Assessment provided county-level air cadmium concentrations. Results were presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and were calculated using random intercept mixed effects logistic regression, comparing the 80th to 20th percentile of exposure. We adjusted for age, sociodemographic status, smoking prevalence, and overall air quality at the county level, and stratified by race, age, and degree of urbanization. The cohort consisted of 230,540 cases from 493 counties. Strong associations were observed in nonmetropolitan, urban areas: (OR 1.26, CI 1.14-1.39) for metastatic vs. localized and (OR 1.41, CI 1.27-1.57) for high- vs. low-grade PC where 40 million Americans reside. This study may be hypothesis-generating to inform future studies and public health measures.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Neoplasias da Próstata , Cádmio/toxicidade , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Toxicon ; 200: 165-172, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343521

RESUMO

Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a major food-borne mycotoxin commonly found in maize and maize-based products, while cadmium is one of the most common toxic heavy metals found in food, particularly in wheat and rice. Given the possibility of co-exposure to FB1 and cadmium for consumers, we elevated combined toxicity of FB1 and cadmium using both in vitro and in vivo models. Acute toxicity setting was employed in the present study. Mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) and human L02 liver cells were used to determine the in vitro cytotoxicity, while C57BL/6 N mice were used to assess the in vivo toxicity. Results showed that treatment with combination of FB1 (15, 20, 25, 30, 35 µM) and cadmium (3, 4, 5, 6, 7 µM) for 24 h led to synergistic cytotoxicity in vitro, and acute treatment with the combination of FB1/cadmium (1.5 mg/kg/60 mg/kg) for 5 days increased liver damage in vivo. Mechanistically, the combined toxicity was associated with elevated activation of IRE1α-JNK pathway. Glycyrol, a representative coumarin compound isolated from licorice, was able to reduce the combination-induced toxicity both in vitro and in vivo through suppression of IRE1α-JNK axis. The combined toxicity of FB1/cadmium should be taken into consideration for performing human health risk assessment of FB1/cadmium exposure.


Assuntos
Endorribonucleases , Fumonisinas , Animais , Cádmio/toxicidade , Fibroblastos , Flavonoides , Fumonisinas/toxicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases
7.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(9): 4350-4357, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414733

RESUMO

The release of manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) into the environment has raised concerns about combined toxicological risks, as MNMs could significantly alter the environmental behavior and fate of co-existing contaminants. Numerous studies have been published on the combined toxicity of MNMs and co-existing contaminants, but the potential mechanisms controlling the combined toxicity, especially the biological response mechanism, remain unclear. This study investigated the combined toxicity of nano-titanium dioxide (nTiO2), a typical MNM, and the heavy metal cadmium (Cd2+), using Scenedesmus obliquus as the test organism. The molecular mechanism was examined under different concentrations, using an equivalent dose (toxic ratio 1 ∶1) on S. obliquus. The results showed that the 72h-EC50 of nTiO2 and Cd2+ at the equivalent dose was significantly higher than that of single exposure, indicating an antagonistic effect. Further transcriptomics analysis revealed that the photosynthesis, chlorophyll metabolism, and starch and sucrose metabolism pathways involved in the energy metabolism of S. obliquus were significantly up-regulated in the presence of nTiO2. The arginine and proline metabolic pathways related to the anti-stress effect of algae cells also showed positive stimulation. The results of this study provide an important reference and a research basis for in-depth understanding of the environmental effects of MNMs and co-existing contaminants.


Assuntos
Clorofíceas , Nanoestruturas , Scenedesmus , Cádmio/toxicidade
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112593, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358929

RESUMO

The study was done to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the steady maintenance of the green microalga Dunaliella salina GY-H13 in successive subcultures in F/2 medium supplemented with the high cadmium (Cd) concentration (5 mg L-1) for 3 months or 84 days using physiological, metabolomic, and transcriptomic methodologies. Physiological analysis indicated that Cd suppressed growth rate, photosynthetic efficiency, and pigment contents and promoted Cd accumulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation. UPLC-MS/MS-based metabolic analysis identified the top most upregulated and downregulated metabolites, the 5'-dehydroxyadenosine and thiamine acetic acid that were associated with the formation and removal of H2O2. RNA-seq-based transcriptomic analysis showed the overrepresentation of low-CO2-inducible genes in the most downregulated gene set. Metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses further showed that the decreased GSSG/GSH-based redox potential, increased oxidative-phosphorylation gene expression, and reduced activity of TCA cycle in cells after extended exposure to Cd. Taken together, our results imply that cellular defense to Cd in D. salina is achieved by upregulation of ROS-scavenging activities including depletion of thiamine acetic acid. Dynamic redox homeostasis is maintained in cells with extended exposure to Cd by production of both oxidants and antioxidants through multiple pathways.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Transcriptoma , Antioxidantes , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cromatografia Líquida , Homeostase , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e250865, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378681

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the major toxicants, which affects human health through occupational and environmental exposure. In the current study, we evaluated the protective effects of morel mushrooms against Cd-induced reproductive damages in rats. For this purpose, 30 male rats were divided into 6 groups (n=5/group), the first group served as the control group, second group was treated with an intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of 1 mg/kg/day of Cd. Third and fourth groups were co-treated with 1 mg/kg/day of Cd (i.p) and 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of morel mushroom extract (orally) respectively. The final 2 groups received oral gavage of 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of morel mushroom extract alone. After treatment for 17 days, the animals were euthanized, and testes and epididymis were dissected out. One testis and epididymis of each animal were processed for histology, while the other testis and epididymis were used for daily sperm production (DSP) and comet assay. Our results showed that Cd and morel mushrooms have no effect on animal weight, but Cd significantly decreases the DSP count and damages the heritable DNA which is reversed in co-treatment groups. Similarly, the histopathological results of testes and epididymis show that morel mushrooms control the damage to these tissues. Whereas the morel mushroom extract alone could enhance the production of testosterone. These results conclude that morel mushrooms not only control the damage done by Cd, but it could also be used as a protection mechanism for heritable DNA damage.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Cádmio , Animais , Ascomicetos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Masculino , Ratos , Espermatozoides , Testículo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360953

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd), a heavy metal toxic to humans, easily accumulates in rice grains. Rice with unacceptable Cd content has become a serious food safety problem in many rice production regions due to contaminations by industrialization and inappropriate waste management. The development of rice varieties with low grain Cd content is seen as an economic and long-term solution of this problem. The cation/H+ exchanger (CAX) family has been shown to play important roles in Cd uptake, transport and accumulation in plants. Here, we report the characterization of the rice CAX family. The six rice CAX genes all have homologous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Phylogenetic analysis identified two subfamilies with three rice and three Arabidopsis thaliana genes in both of them. All rice CAX genes have trans-member structures. OsCAX1a and OsCAX1c were localized in the vacuolar while OsCAX4 were localized in the plasma membrane in rice cell. The consequences of qRT-PCR analysis showed that all the six genes strongly expressed in the leaves under the different Cd treatments. Their expression in roots increased in a Cd dose-dependent manner. GUS staining assay showed that all the six rice CAX genes strongly expressed in roots, whereas OsCAX1c and OsCAX4 also strongly expressed in rice leaves. The yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells expressing OsCAX1a, OsCAX1c and OsCAX4 grew better than those expressing the vector control on SD-Gal medium containing CdCl2. OsCAX1a and OsCAX1c enhanced while OsCAX4 reduced Cd accumulation in yeast. No auto-inhibition was found for all the rice CAX genes. Therefore, OsCAX1a, OsCAX1c and OsCAX4 are likely to involve in Cd uptake and translocation in rice, which need to be further validated.


Assuntos
Antiporters/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Resistência a Medicamentos , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Antiporters/genética , Cádmio/toxicidade , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Transporte de Íons , Oryza/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
11.
Xenobiotica ; 51(9): 1038-1046, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338604

RESUMO

We evaluated, in vitro, the interactions between cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) during the proliferation and differentiation process using bone MC3T3-E1 cell line.Cells were treated with CdCl2 and/or ZnCl2 for 24 and 48 h and 5 µM CdCl2 was found as low cytotoxic dose and 25 µM ZnCl2 as the best Zn treatment for cell proliferation. Gene expression of some bone markers (Runx2, collagen α1 (Colα1), osteocalcin (Oc), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone sialoprotein (BSP)) was studied at 24, 48 and 72 h.Treatment by CdCl2 depressed Runx2, Colα1, and BSP mRNA levels after 24 h. Oc and ALP gene expression was found to be decreased after 72 h.CdCl2 -exposure decreased ALP activity and Ca deposit in matrix. In concomitant treatment by CdCl2 and ZnCl2, gene expression of osteoblastic markers was found to be up-regulated (p < 0, 05) compared to CdCl2 treated cells, ALP staining and mineralization were increased.Our results show that Zn could prevent Cd-induced toxicity on MC3T3-E1 cells, probably through the restoration of Runx2, col α1, BSP, ALP and Oc and gene expression inhibited by Cd.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Osteoblastos , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação , Cádmio/toxicidade , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Expressão Gênica , Zinco
12.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(16-17): 6477-6488, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424384

RESUMO

Co-existence of toxic metals causes complex toxicity to microorganisms during bioremediation in water and soil. This study investigated the immobilization of Pb2+ and Cd2+ by fungus Aspergillus niger, which has been widely applied to environmental remediation. Five treatments were set, i.e., CK (no toxic metals), Pb2+ only, Cd2+ only, Pb2+/Cd2+ = 1:1(molar ratio), and Pb2+/Cd2+ = 2:1. Cadmium induced strong toxicity to the fungus, and maintained the high toxicity during incubation. However, as Pb/Cd ratio increased from 0 to 2, the removal rates of Cd2+ by A. niger were raised from 30 to 50%. The elevated activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and citrate synthetase (CS) enzymes confirmed that Pb addition could stimulate the growth of A. niger. For instance, citric acid concentrations and CS activities were 463.22 mg/L and 78.37 nmol/min/g, respectively, during 3-day incubation as Pb/Cd = 1. However, these two values were as low as ~ 50 with addition of only Cd. It was hence assumed that appropriate co-existence of Pb2+ enhanced microbial activity by promoting TCA cycle of the fungus. Moreover, the SEM analysis and geochemical modeling demonstrated that Pb2+ cations were more easily adsorbed and mineralized on A. niger with respect to Cd2+. Therefore, instead of intensifying metal toxicity, the addition of appropriate Pb actually weakened Cd toxicity to the fungus. This study sheds a bright future on application of A. niger to the remediation of polluted water with co-existence of Pb and Cd. KEY POINTS: • Cd2+ significantly inhibited P consumption, suggesting its high toxicity to A. niger. • Pb2+ stimulated the growth of A. niger by promoting TCA cycle in the cells. • Cd2+ removal by A. niger were improved with co-existence of Pb2+.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger , Cádmio , Bioacumulação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade
13.
Environ Pollut ; 286: 117146, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438505

RESUMO

The black soldier fly (BSF) Hermetia illucens has a strong tolerance to cadmium stress. This helps to use BSF in entomoremediation of heavy metal pollution. Rich metallothionein (MT) proteins were thought to be important for some insects to endure the toxicity of heavy metal. We identified and characterized three MTs genes in BSF (BSFMTs), including BSFMT1, BSFMT2A, and BSFMT2B. Molecular modeling was used to predict metal binding sites. Phylogenetic analysis was used to identify gene families. Overexpression of the recombinant black soldier fly metallothioneins was found to confer Cd tolerance in Escherichia coli. Finally, functions of BSFMTs in BSF were explored through RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi results of BSFMT2B showed that the larval fresh weight decreased significantly, and the larvae mortality increased significantly. This study suggests that BSFMTs have important properties in Cd detoxification and tolerance in BSF. Further characterization analyses of physiological function about metallothioneins are necessary in BSF and other insects.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Metalotioneína , Animais , Cádmio/toxicidade , Dípteros/genética , Humanos , Larva , Metalotioneína/genética , Filogenia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360038

RESUMO

We evaluated the association between urinary cadmium concentration (uCd, µg/g Cr) and risk of cause-specific mortality according to urinary ß2-microglobulin (MG) concentration. Participants were 1383 male and 1700 female inhabitants of the Cd-polluted Kakehashi River basin. The uCd and ß2-MG were evaluated in a survey in 1981-1982, where those participants were followed-up over 35 years later. Among the participants with a urinary ß2-MG < 1000, the hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence interval) for mortality were significantly higher in those with a uCd of ≥10.0 compared with <5.0 for cardiovascular disease [HR 1.92 (1.08-3.40) for men, 1.71 (1.07-2.71) for women], pneumonia or influenza [2.10 (1.10-4.00) for men, 2.22 (1.17-4.19) for women], and digestive diseases [for men; 3.81 (1.49-9.74)]. The uCd was significantly associated with mortality from heart failure in women and digestive diseases in men, after adjustment for other causes of death using the Fine and Gray competing risk regression model. For participants with a urinary ß2-MG of ≥1000, no significant association was observed between uCd and any major cause of death. In the absence of kidney damage, Cd may increase the risk of death from cardiovascular disease, pneumonia, and digestive diseases.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Exposição Ambiental , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Rim/química , Masculino , Microglobulina beta-2
15.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(16-17): 6451-6462, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357427

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an emerging gas transmitter, has been shown to be involved in multiple intracellular physiological and biochemical processes. In this study, the effects of hydrogen sulfide coupled with calcium on cadmium removal and resistance in Phanerochaete chrysosporium were examined. The results revealed that H2S enhanced the uptake of calcium by P. chrysosporium to resist cadmium stress. The removal and accumulation of cadmium by the mycelium was reduced by H2S and Ca2+ pretreatment. Moreover, oxidative damage and membrane integrity were alleviated by H2S and Ca2+. Corresponding antioxidative enzyme activities and glutathione were also found to positively respond to H2S and Ca2+, which played an important role in the resistance to cadmium-induced oxidative stress. The effects of hydroxylamine (HA; a hydrogen sulfide inhibitor) and ethylene glycol-bis-(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA; a calcium chelator) toward H2S and Ca2+ and their cross-interactions confirmed the positive roles and the potential crosstalk of H2S and Ca2+ in cadmium stress resistance. These findings imply that the protective effects of H2S in P. chrysosporium under cadmium stress may occur through a reduction in the accumulation of cadmium and promotion of the antioxidant system, and the H2S-regulated pathway may be associated with the intracellular calcium signaling system.Key points• Altered monoterpenoid tolerance mainly related to altered activity of efflux pumps.• Increased tolerance to geranic acid surprisingly caused by decreased export activity.• Reduction of export activity can be beneficial for biotechnological conversions.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Phanerochaete , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cálcio
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 796: 148797, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273835

RESUMO

Soil amendments of black bone (BB), biochar (BC), silicon fertilizer (SI), and leaf fertilizer (LF) play vital roles in decreasing cadmium (Cd) availability, thereby supporting healthy plant growth and food security in agroecosystems. However, the effect of their additions on soil microbial community and the resulting soil Cd bioavailability, plant Cd uptake and health growth are still unknown. Therefore, in this study, BB, BC, SI, and LF were selected to evaluate Cd amelioration in wheat grown in Cd-contaminated soils. The results showed that relative to the control, all amendments significantly decreased both soil Cd bioavailability and its uptake in plant tissues, promoting healthy wheat growth and yield. This induced-decrease effect in seeds was the most obvious, wherein the effect was the highest in SI (52.54%), followed by LF (43.31%), and lowest in BC (35.24%) and BB (31.98%). Moreover, the induced decrease in soil Cd bioavailability was the highest in SI (29.56%), followed by BC (28.85%), lowest in LF (17.55%), and BB (15.30%). The significant effect in SI likely resulted from a significant increase in both the soil bioavailable Si and microbial community (Acidobacteria and Thaumarchaeota), which significantly decreased soil Cd bioavailability towards plant roots. In particular, a co-occurrence network analysis indicated that soil microbes played a substantial role in wheat yield under Si amendment. Therefore, supplying Si alters the soil microbial community, positively and significantly interacting with soil bioavailable Si and decreasing Cd bioavailability in soils, thereby sustaining healthy crop development and food quality.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Carvão Vegetal , Promoção da Saúde , Silício , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Triticum
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 796: 149039, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328900

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most harmful heavy metals due to its persistence and bioaccumulation through the food chains, posing health risks to human. Oysters can bioaccumulate and tolerate high concentrations of Cd, providing a great model for studying molecular mechanism of Cd detoxification. In a previous study, we identified two CYP genes, CYP17A1-like and CYP2C50, that were potentially involved in Cd detoxification in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. In this work, we performed further investigations on their physiological roles in Cd detoxification through RNA interference (RNAi). After injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into the adductor muscle of oysters followed by Cd exposure for 7 days, we observed that the expressions of CYP17A1-like and CYP2C50 in interference group were significantly suppressed on day 3 compared with control group injected with PBS. Moreover, the mortality rate and Cd content in the CYP17A1-like dsRNA interference group (dsCYP17A1-like) was significantly higher than those of the control on day 3. Furthermore, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including SOD, CAT, GST, were significantly increased in dsCYP17A1-like group, while were not changed in dsCYP2C50 group. More significant tissue damage was observed in gill and digestive gland of oysters in RNAi group than control group, demonstrating the critical role of CYP17A1-like in Cd detoxification. Dual luciferase reporter assay revealed three core regulatory elements of MTF-1 within promoter region of CYP17A1-like, suggesting the potential transcriptional regulation of CYP17A1-like by MTF-1 in oysters. This work demonstrated a critical role of CYP17A1-like in Cd detoxification in C. gigas and provided a new perspective toward unravelling detoxification mechanisms of bivalves under heavy metal stress.


Assuntos
Crassostrea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Crassostrea/genética , Crassostrea/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Brânquias/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
18.
Andrologia ; 53(9): e14181, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219269

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effects of heavy metals on measures of male fertility. One hundred and two infertile men with occupational exposure and thirty fertile men were included in this study. Blood and urinary levels of lead, cadmium, zinc and copper were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Semen parameters and a motile sperm organelle morphology examination were also performed. Measures of hormonal levels, oxidation-reduction potential, DNA fragmentation index and chromatin condensation were assessed for all participants. Heavy metals levels, oxidative stress and DNA quality were significantly higher in the infertile group compared to controls. FSH and testosterone levels were lower in the infertile group. A urinary cadmium level was positively associated with abnormal sperm morphology (r = .225, p < .05). Normal morphology was inversely correlated with the duration of the exposure (r = -.227, p = .022). The blood lead level was positively related to the level of testosterone (r = .223, p = .031). Cadmium and lead blood levels were positively correlated with the level of chromatin decondensation (r = .528, p < .001; r = .280, p = .017). Our study showed that occupational exposure to heavy metals is very harmful to reproductive health. DNA quality and oxidative stress investigations must be recommended for reprotoxic exposed patients prior to in vitro fertilisation treatment.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina , Chumbo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cobre , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/induzido quimicamente , Chumbo/toxicidade , Masculino , Sêmen , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides , Zinco
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209014

RESUMO

Elevated concentrations of heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) have a negative impact on staple crop production due to their ability to elicit cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on plants. In order to understand the relationship between Cd stress and plants in an effort to improve Cd tolerance, studies have identified genetic mechanisms which could be important for conferring stress tolerance. In recent years epigenetic studies have garnered much attention and hold great potential in both improving the understanding of Cd stress in plants as well as revealing candidate mechanisms for future work. This review describes some of the main epigenetic mechanisms involved in Cd stress responses. We summarize recent literature and data pertaining to chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, histone acetylation and miRNAs in order to understand the role these epigenetic traits play in cadmium tolerance. The review aims to provide the framework for future studies where these epigenetic traits may be used in plant breeding and molecular studies in order to improve Cd tolerance.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resistência a Medicamentos , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Código das Histonas/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA de Plantas/genética
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 222: 112474, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214770

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) contamination in paddy soils poses serious health risks to humans. The accumulation of Cd and As in rice (Oryza sativa L.) depends on their bioavailability, which is affected by soil physicochemical properties and soil microbial activities. However, little is known about the intricate interplay between rice plants and their rhizosphere microbes during the uptake of Cd and As. In this study, different bacterial communities were established by sterilizing paddy soils with γ-radiation. A pot experiment using two paddy soils with different levels of contamination was conducted to explore how the bacterial community composition affects Cd and As accumulation in rice plants. The results showed that the sterilization treatment substantially changed the bacterial composition in the rhizosphere, and significantly increased the grain yield (by 33.5-38.3%). The sterilization treatment resulted in significantly decreased concentrations of Cd (by 18.2-38.7%) and As (by 20.3-36.7%) in the grain, straw, and root of rice plants. The accumulation of Cd and As in rice plants was negatively correlated with the relative abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria and iron-oxidizing bacteria in the rhizosphere. Other specific taxa associated with the accumulation of Cd and As in rice plants were also identified. Our results suggest that regulating the composition of the rhizosphere bacterial community could simultaneously reduce Cd and As accumulation in rice grain and increase the grain yield. These results would be useful for developing strategies to cultivate safe rice crops in areas contaminated with Cd and As.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Bactérias , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Humanos , Rizosfera , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
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