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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204292

RESUMO

Skin injury is quite common, and the wound healing is a complex process involving many types of cells, the extracellular matrix, and soluble mediators. Cell differentiation, migration, and proliferation are essential in restoring the integrity of the injured tissue. Despite the advances in science and technology, we have yet to find the ideal dressing that can support the healing of cutaneous wounds effectively, particularly for difficult-to-heal chronic wounds such as diabetic foot ulcers, bed sores, and venous ulcers. Hence, there is a need to identify and incorporate new ideas and methods to design a more effective dressing that not only can expedite wound healing but also can reduce scarring. Calcium has been identified to influence the wound healing process. This review explores the functions and roles of calcium in skin regeneration and reconstruction during would healing. Furthermore, this review also investigates the possibility of incorporating calcium into scaffolds and examines how it modulates cutaneous wound healing. In summary, the preliminary findings are promising. However, some challenges remain to be addressed before calcium can be used for cutaneous wound healing in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Animais , Bandagens , Cálcio/farmacologia , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Regeneração , Pele/lesões , Pele/metabolismo , Nanomedicina Teranóstica , Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920532

RESUMO

Osteoporosis affects women twice as often as men. Additionally, it is estimated that 0.3 million and 1.7 million people have hip fractures in the USA and Europe, respectively. Having a proper peak bone mass and keeping it as long as possible is especially important for osteoporosis prevention. One of the most important calcium sources is milk and dairy products. Breast milk is the best infant food, but milk should not be avoided later in life to prevent losing bone mass. On the other hand, more and more people limit their milk consumption and consume other dairy or non-dairy products. For example, they are usually replaced with plant beverages, which should be consumed carefully in several age groups. Additionally, an important element of milk and dairy products, as well as plant beverages, are probiotics and prebiotics, which may modulate bone turnover. Dietary recommendations focused on milk, and dairy products are an important element for the prevention of osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Laticínios , Dieta/normas , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Recomendações Nutricionais , Animais , Densidade Óssea , Remodelação Óssea , Dieta/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Leite
3.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673568

RESUMO

In this 2 × 2 factorial, outcome-assessor blinded, feasibility randomised trial we explored the effect of a non-pharmaceutical multi-component intervention on periodontal health and metabolic and inflammatory profiles among pregnant women with periodontitis receiving prenatal care in a Brazilian public health centre. 69 pregnant women (gestational age ≤20 weeks, T0) were randomly allocated into four groups: (1) fortified sachet (vitamin D and calcium) and powdered milk plus periodontal therapy during pregnancy (early PT) (n = 17); (2) placebo sachet and powdered milk plus early PT (n = 15); (3) fortified sachet and powdered milk plus late PT (after delivery) (n = 19); (4) placebo sachet and powdered milk plus late PT (n = 18). Third trimester (T1) and 6-8 weeks postpartum (T2) exploratory outcomes included periodontal health (% sites with bleeding on probing (BOP)), glucose, insulin, C-Reactive Protein, serum calcium and vitamin D. The mean BOP was significantly reduced in the early PT groups, while BOP worsened in the late PT groups. No significant effect of fortification on BOP was observed. Changes in glucose levels and variation on birthweight did not differ among groups This feasibility trial provides preliminary evidence for estimating the minimum clinically important differences for selected maternal outcomes. A large-scale trial to evaluate the interventions' clinical benefits and cost-effectiveness is warranted.


Assuntos
Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Leite/química , Saúde Bucal , Periodontite/terapia , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Saúde Materna , Desbridamento Periodontal , Periodontite/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
4.
J Nutr ; 151(3): 548-555, 2021 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation of pregnant Brazilian adolescents with habitually low calcium intake (∼600 mg/d) reduced bone loss during the first 20 wk postpartum. OBJECTIVE: We investigated maternal bone mass changes during the first year postpartum as a follow-up of the clinical trial. METHODS: Pregnant adolescents (14-19 y) received calcium (600 mg/d) plus cholecalciferol (200 IU/d) supplementation (n = 30) or placebo (n = 26) from 26 wk of gestation until parturition. Bone area and bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) at total body, lumbar spine, and hip (total and femoral neck) were assessed by DXA at 3 time points postpartum (5 wk, 20 wk, and 56 wk). Intervention group, time postpartum, and group × time interaction effects were tested by repeated-measures mixed-effects models adjusting for calcium intake, return of menses, breastfeeding practices, and body weight. RESULTS: Time (P < 0.05) but not group affected several absolute bone measurements. There was a group × time interaction for femoral neck BMD (P = 0.045). Mean ± SE values (g/cm2) at 5 wk, 20 wk, and 56 wk were, respectively, 1.025 ± 0.026, 0.980 ± 0.026, and 1.022 ± 0.027 for the placebo group and 1.057 ± 0.025, 1.030 ± 0.024, and 1.055 ± 0.025 for the supplemented group. An interaction also was observed for percentage change in femoral neck BMD relative to 5 wk (P = 0.049), with a more pronounced decrease in the placebo group (-4.58 ± 0.42%) than in the supplemented group (-3.15% ± 0.42%) at 20 wk (P = 0.019), and no difference between groups at 56 wk (-0.44% ± 0.71% in the placebo and -0.76% ± 0.62% in the supplemented group; P = 0.65). CONCLUSIONS: Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation of the adolescent mothers reduces the magnitude of bone loss at the femoral neck from 5 to 20 wk postpartum without an effect on bone changes after 1 y postpartum, indicating that there is no sustained effect of the supplement tested.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio na Dieta/farmacologia , Hormônios e Agentes Reguladores de Cálcio/farmacologia , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Período Pós-Parto , Adolescente , Antropometria , Brasil , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Hormônios e Agentes Reguladores de Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Gravidez
5.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530298

RESUMO

Young Indian women may be at risk of poor bone health due to malnutrition. The aim of this study was to examine the effects on bone metabolism of a nutritional supplement in women aged 25 to 44. The nutritional supplement was a protein-rich beverage powder fortified with multi-micronutrients including calcium (600 mg), vitamin D (400 IU), and vitamin K (55 mcg) per daily serving, while a placebo supplement was low-protein non-fortified isocaloric beverage powder. This 6-month randomised, controlled trial showed favorable changes in bone turnover markers (decreased) and calcium homeostasis; such changes in older adults have been associated with slowing of bone loss and reduced fracture risk. For example, serum CTX decreased by about 30% and PINP by about 20% as a result of the increase in calcium intake. There were also changes in the ratio of carboxylated to undercarboxylated osteocalcin and such changes have been linked to a slowing of bone loss in older subjects. For example, the ratio increased by about 60% after 3 months as a result in the improvement in vitamin K status. Finally, there were improvements in the status of B vitamins, and such changes have been associated with reductions in homocysteine, but it is uncertain whether this would affect fracture risk. The product was generally well tolerated. This study shows the nutritional supplement holds promise for improved bone health among young Indian women.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea , Suplementos Nutricionais , Pré-Menopausa , Adulto , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Homeostase , Humanos , Índia , Osteocalcina/sangue , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Vitamina B 12/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina K/administração & dosagem
6.
Pediatrics ; 147(1)2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D is essential for healthy development of bones, but little is known about the effects of supplementation in young stunted children. Our objective was to assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation on risk of rickets and linear growth among Afghan children. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 3046 children ages 1 to 11 months from inner-city Kabul were randomly assigned to receive oral vitamin D3 (100 000 IU) or placebo every 3 months for 18 months. Rickets Severity Score was calculated by using wrist and knee radiographs for 631 randomly selected infants at 18 months, and rickets was defined as a score >1.5. Weight and length were measured at baseline and 18 months by using standard techniques, and z scores were calculated. RESULTS: Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (seasonally corrected) and dietary calcium intake were insufficient at 37 (35-39) nmol/L and 372 (327-418) mg/day, respectively. Prevalence of rickets was 5.5% (placebo) and 5.3% (vitamin D): odds ratio 0.96 (95% CI: 0.48 to 1.92); P = .9. The mean difference in height-for-age z score was 0.05 (95% CI: -0.05 to 0.15), P = .3, although the effect of vitamin D was greater for those consuming >300 mg/day of dietary calcium (0.14 [95% CI: 0 to 0.29]; P = .05). There were no between-group differences in weight-for-age or weight-for-height z scores. CONCLUSIONS: Except in those with higher calcium intake, vitamin D supplementation had no effect on rickets or growth.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Transtornos do Crescimento/tratamento farmacológico , Raquitismo/prevenção & controle , Afeganistão/epidemiologia , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Prevalência , Raquitismo/epidemiologia , População Urbana , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(1): 795-805, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162078

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of postpartum oral calcium supplementation on milk yield, energy-corrected milk yield, milk fat concentration, milk protein concentration, and somatic cell count linear score across the first 3 monthly tests postpartum, peak milk yield, risk of pregnancy at first service, and hazard of pregnancy by 150 d in milk on 1,129 multiparous Jersey and Jersey × Holstein crossbreed cows from 2 commercial dairies. After calving, cows were systematically assigned to control (no oral calcium supplementation; n = 567) or oral calcium supplementation at 0 and 1 d in milk (oral Ca; 50 to 60 g of calcium as boluses; n = 562). Monthly test milk yield, composition, and somatic cell count information was obtained from the Dairy Herd Improvement Association. Herd records were used for reproductive data. Statistical analysis was conducted using generalized multiple linear, Poisson, and Cox's hazard regressions. Treatment effects were evaluated considering cow-level information available at parturition (parity, breed, previous lactation milk yield, previous lactation length, dry period length, gestation length, body condition, and locomotion score at calving, calving ease, and calf sex). In addition, for a subset of cows serum calcium concentration before treatment administration was evaluated (n = 756). Overall, oral calcium supplementation did not affect the evaluated productive and reproductive variables. However, effects conditional to previous lactation length and calving locomotion score were observed. Milk yield and energy-corrected milk yield across the first 3 monthly tests were 1.8 kg/d higher for supplemented cows with a previous lactation length within the fourth quartile, compared with control cows on the same quartile. Energy-corrected milk yield tended to be 1.1 kg/d lower for supplemented cows with a previous lactation length within the first quartile, compared with control counterparts. Peak milk yield tended to be 1.6 kg higher for supplemented cows with a calving locomotion score ≥2, compared with control cows with the same locomotion score. Treatment effects were not conditional to serum calcium concentration before treatment administration. Our results suggest that postpartum oral calcium supplementation effects are conditional to cow-level factors such as previous lactation length and calving locomotion score in multiparous Jersey and Jersey × Holstein crossbreed cows.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Bovinos/fisiologia , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite/química , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cálcio/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Hibridização Genética , Leite/citologia , Paridade , Período Pós-Parto/fisiologia , Gravidez
8.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(1): 354-360, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Calcium is an essential element for human health, with key roles in the prevention and therapy of multifactorial conditions. Calcium dietary intake is often insufficient in the general population. The aim of this study was to perform a clinical audit for general practitioners (GPs) to understand the efficacy of training intervention on doctors' awareness about dietary calcium and supplements. METHODS AND RESULTS: General practice outpatients were enrolled (Before Clinical Audit, BCA) from the same sanitary district, and calcium dietary intake was evaluated with a validated questionnaire, also collecting information about the consumption of calcium and vitamin D supplements. Then, a training intervention with a frontal lesson and discussion with GPs involved was performed. After one month of this intervention, a second outpatient enrolment was performed (Post Clinical Audit, PCA) in the same general practices to evaluate differences in nutritional suggestions and supplement prescription by GPs. In BCA, the calcium dietary intake was low, with nobody reaching 1000 mg as suggested by the guidelines. Only 6.6% and 24.5% took calcium and vitamin D supplements, respectively; in the PCA, these percentages increased to 28% and 78% for calcium and vitamin D supplements, respectively (p < 0.01 PCA vs BCA). There were no differences in calcium dietary intake between BCA and PCA. CONCLUSION: Training intervention on GPs was successful to sensitize them regarding calcium intake problems; GPs tended to increase the prescription of supplements but not to suggest changes in dietary habits.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Educação Médica Continuada , Clínicos Gerais/educação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Padrões de Prática Médica , Adulto , Idoso , Cálcio/deficiência , Dieta Saudável , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Uso de Medicamentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Auditoria Médica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recomendações Nutricionais
9.
Br J Nutr ; 125(3): 319-328, 2021 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378495

RESUMO

Although dietary Ca, vitamin D and vitamin K are nutritional factors associated with osteoporosis, little is known about their effects on incident osteoporotic fractures in East Asian populations. This study aimed to determine whether intakes of these nutrients predict incident osteoporotic fractures. We adopted a cohort study design with a 5-year follow-up. Subjects were 12 794 community-dwelling individuals (6301 men and 6493 women) aged 40-74 years. Dietary intakes of Ca, vitamin D and vitamin K were assessed with a validated FFQ. Covariates were demographic and lifestyle factors. All incident cases of major osteoporotic limb fractures, including those of the distal forearm, neck of humerus, neck or trochanter of femur and lumbar or thoracic spine were collected. Hazard ratios (HR) for energy-adjusted Ca, vitamin D and vitamin K were calculated with the residual method. Mean age was 58·8 (sd 9·3) years. Lower energy-adjusted intakes of Ca and vitamin K in women were associated with higher adjusted HR of total fractures (Pfor trend = 0·005 and 0·08, respectively). When vertebral fracture was the outcome, Pfor trend values for Ca and vitamin K were 0·03 and 0·006, respectively, and HR of the lowest and highest (reference) intake groups were 2·03 (95 % CI 1·08, 3·82) and 2·26 (95 % CI 1·19, 4·26), respectively. In men, there were null associations between incident fractures and each of the three nutrient intakes. Lower intakes of dietary Ca and vitamin K were independent lifestyle-related risk factors for osteoporotic fracture in women but not men. These associations were robust for vertebral fractures, but not for limb fractures.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina K/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Distribuição por Sexo
10.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(7): 1671-1691, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249854

RESUMO

Traditional herbal formula Gushukang (GSK) was clinically applied to treat primary osteoporosis and showed osteoprotective effect in ovariectomized rodent animals and regulatory action on calcium transporters. This study aimed to determine if GSK could ameliorate aged osteoporosis by modulating serum level of calciotropic hormones and improving calcium balance. 18-month-old male mice were orally administered with either GSK (0.38[Formula: see text]g/kg body weight) or calcitriol (1[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/kg body weight) combined with high calcium diet (HCD, 1.2% Ca) for 60 days. The aged mice fed with normal calcium diet (NCD, 0.6% Ca) were a negative control. Trabecular bone and cortical bone properties as well as calcium balance were determined. Treatment with GSK significantly increased 25(OH)D and 1,25-(OH)2D levels in serum, moreover, it markedly attenuated trabecular bone micro-architectural deteriorations and elevated trabecular bone mass as well as strengthened cortical bone mechanical properties shown by the increase in maximal bending load and elastic modulus. Calcium balance, including urinary Ca excretion, fecal Ca level and net calcium retention, was remarkably improved by GSK, which up-regulated TRPV6 expression in duodenum and TRPV5 expression in kidney and down-regulated claudin-14 expression in duodenum and kidney. Additionally, 1-OHase and 24-OHase expression was significantly decreased (vs. NCD group) and increased (vs. HCD group), respectively, in kidney of GSK- and calcitriol-treated mice. Taken together, this study demonstrated the ameliorative effects of Gushukang on aged osteoporosis by effectively stimulating vitamin D production and improving calcium balance of aged mice with high dietary calcium supplement.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Flavanonas , Flavonoides , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Administração Oral , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Duodeno/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteoporose/metabolismo
11.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092061

RESUMO

Breakfast is an important source of key nutrients in the diet. For this reason, the aim of this review was to investigate the associations between breakfast consumption and daily micronutrients intake in both children and adolescents (aged 2-18 years). A peer-reviewed systematic search was conducted in three datasets (PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane Library) in February 2020 in English and Spanish. Two independent reviewers evaluated 3188 studies considering the AXIS critical appraisal and PRISMA methodologies. Meta-analysis was carried out comparing results according to type of breakfast consumed (Ready to eat cereals (RTEC) breakfast or other types of breakfast) and breakfast skipping. Thirty-three articles were included in the systematic review (SR) and 7 in the meta-analysis. In the SR, we observed that those children and adolescents who usually consume RTEC at breakfast had a higher consumption of B-vitamins than those not consuming RTEC at breakfast. Breakfast consumers had a higher mineral intake (iron, calcium, magnesium, potassium, zinc, and iodine) than breakfast skippers. In the Meta-Analysis, RTEC consumers had significantly higher vitamin C intake than breakfast skippers (SMD, -4.12; 95% confidence intervals (CI): -5.09, -3.16). Furthermore, those children who usually consume breakfast had significantly higher daily intake of calcium than breakfast skippers (SMD, -7.03; 95%CI: -9.02, -5.04). Our review proposes that breakfast consumption seems to be associated with higher daily micronutrients intake than breakfast skippers.


Assuntos
Desjejum/fisiologia , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Minerais , Necessidades Nutricionais , Valor Nutritivo , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem
12.
Maturitas ; 141: 63-70, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036705

RESUMO

During the last decade, a cascade of evidence has questioned the anti-fracture efficacy of vitamin D supplementation. In general, vitamin D status, reflected by serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations, seems to predict fracture risk and bone mineral density (BMD). Despite the well-documented detrimental effect of vitamin D deficiency on bones, vitamin D monotherapy does not seem to reduce the risk of fractures. On the other hand, high vitamin D doses, either at monthly (60,000-100,000 IU) or daily intervals (>4000 IU), appear to be harmful with regard to falls, fracture risk and BMD, especially for people without vitamin D deficiency and at low fracture risk. Therefore, a U-shaped effect of vitamin D on the musculoskeletal system may be supported by the current evidence. Vitamin D supplementation could be of value, at daily doses of at least 800 IU, co-supplemented with calcium (1000-1200  mg/day), in elderly populations, especially those with severe vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D <25-30  nmol/L (<10-12  ng/mL)], although its anti-fracture and anti-fall efficacy is modest. Good compliance and at least 3-5 years of therapy are required.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Acidentes por Quedas , Idoso , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Humanos , Vitamina D/efeitos adversos , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121142

RESUMO

Osteocytic osteolysis/perilacunar remodeling is thought to contribute to the maintenance of mineral homeostasis. Here, we utilized a reversible, adult-onset model of secondary hyperparathyroidism to study femoral bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) and osteocyte lacunae sections (OLS) based on quantitative backscattered electron imaging. Male mice with a non-functioning vitamin D receptor (VDRΔ/Δ) or wild-type mice were exposed to a rescue diet (RD) (baseline) and subsequently to a low calcium challenge diet (CD). Thereafter, VDRΔ/Δ mice received either the CD, a normal diet (ND), or the RD. At baseline, BMDD and OLS characteristics were similar in VDRΔ/Δ and wild-type mice. The CD induced large cortical pores, osteomalacia, and a reduced epiphyseal average degree of mineralization in the VDRΔ/Δ mice relative to the baseline (-9.5%, p < 0.05 after two months and -10.3%, p < 0.01 after five months of the CD). Switching VDRΔ/Δ mice on the CD back to the RD fully restored BMDD to baseline values. However, OLS remained unchanged in all groups of mice, independent of diet. We conclude that adult VDRΔ/Δ animals on an RD lack any skeletal abnormalities, suggesting that VDR signaling is dispensable for normal bone mineralization as long as mineral homeostasis is normal. Our findings also indicate that VDRΔ/Δ mice attempt to correct a calcium challenge by enhanced osteoclastic resorption rather than by osteocytic osteolysis.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/tratamento farmacológico , Osteócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteólise/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Calcitriol/deficiência , Animais , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio na Dieta/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Homeostase , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/diagnóstico por imagem , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Osteólise/diagnóstico por imagem , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Poult Sci ; 99(10): 4978-4989, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988534

RESUMO

The hypothesis was tested that an increased digestion of coarse compared with fine limestone can alleviate the negative effects of a low dietary Ca/P ratio on the growth performance and characteristics of tibia strength (CTS) in broilers. A total of 1,152 Ross 308 broiler chickens received a standard commercial starter feed from day 0 to 13. From day 14 onward, birds received 1 of 12 diets containing 1 of 6 Ca/P ratios (0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, and 1.75) and 1 of 2 limestone particle sizes (<500 [fine] and 500 to 2,000 [coarse] µm) in a study with a 6 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Total P content was fixed at 5.5 g/kg for all treatment diets. Each treatment was replicated 6 times with 16 birds per replicate pen. On day 20 and 21, twelve birds per pen were randomly selected from 4 of the 6 replicate pens for tibia analysis and digesta collection from different gut segments. The apparent Ca digestibility was higher for fine than coarse limestone in the jejunum (P = 0.043). However, this difference in Ca digestibility disappeared for the low, whereas it remained for the high Ca/P ratios in the proximal (Pinteraction = 0.067) and distal (Pinteraction = 0.052) ileum. In addition, coarse limestone improved apparent P digestibility in the proximal and distal ileum (P < 0.001) but not in the jejunum (P = 0.305). Regardless of limestone particle size, reducing dietary Ca/P ratio linearly improved apparent Ca and P digestibility in the proximal and distal ileum (P < 0.001). Moreover, decreasing dietary Ca/P ratio linearly (P < 0.001) and quadratically (P < 0.046) reduced the CTS. Reducing dietary Ca/P ratio linearly (P < 0.003) and quadratically (P ≤ 0.006) decreased body weight gain and increased feed conversion ratio. For both fine and coarse limestone, the optimal Ca/P ratio was 1.00 to 1.25 to optimize apparent Ca and P digestibility while maintaining growth performance and CTS. Reducing Ca/P ratio from 1.75 to 1.00 improved distal ileal Ca and P apparent digestibility from 36.6 to 53.7% and 48.0 to 58.3%, respectively. In conclusion, coarse limestone is equally digestible with fine limestone at a low Ca/P ratio but is less digestible at a high Ca/P ratio, and the optimal Ca/P ratio in the diet is 1.00 to 1.25 for both fine and coarse limestone.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Carbonato de Cálcio , Cálcio na Dieta , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Tíbia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Carbonato de Cálcio/farmacologia , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos , Tíbia/fisiologia
15.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961901

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal change in muscle mass over 10 years according to serum calcium levels and calcium intake. A total of 1497 men and 1845 women aged 50 years and older were included. Significant muscle loss (SML) was defined as a 5% or greater loss from baseline, while time-dependent development of SML was assessed according to quartiles for corrected calcium level and daily calcium intake using Cox regression models. The incidence of SML was 6.7 and 7.7 per 100-person-years among men and women, respectively. Groups with the lowest corrected calcium levels had more prominent SML than those with higher calcium levels, regardless of sex. The relationship between SML and calcium intake was significant only among women. The hazard ratio for SML per 1 mmol/L increase in corrected calcium level was 0.236 and 0.237 for men and women, respectively. In conclusion, low serum calcium levels may predict SML among adults aged ≥ 50 years, while low calcium intake may be a predictor for muscle loss among women. Therefore, encouraging dietary calcium intake among middle-aged and older adults for preservation of muscle mass should be considered.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Cálcio/sangue , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Sarcopenia/genética , Adulto , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Genoma , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(n.extr.2): 63-66, sept. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-200706

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: la osteoporosis, aunque se manifiesta en etapas avanzadas de la vida, se debe prevenir y frenar desde la edad pediátrica, actuando sobre los factores modificables, especialmente la alimentación y el estilo de vida. El objetivo del presente trabajo es revisar las últimas evidencias sobre las mejoras nutricionales que pueden ayudar en la prevención y el control de la enfermedad. MÉTODOS: búsqueda bibliográfica en relación con el tema. RESULTADOS: conviene evitar las restricciones energéticas, especialmente en mujeres posmenopáusicas, sobre todo si tienen osteopenia/osteoporosis dado que, en relación con estas patologías, puede ser preferible un exceso de peso frente a un peso insuficiente. Una ingesta proteica superior a la recomendada es beneficiosa para el hueso siempre que la ingesta de calcio sea adecuada. Se debe evitar una ingesta excesiva de azúcar y de grasa saturada, pero se deben intentar alcanzar los objetivos nutricionales marcados para los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados ω-3 y la fibra. Es importante vigilar la situación en vitamina D y la ingesta de calcio, que es inadecuada en elevados porcentajes de individuos. También conviene mejorar el aporte de vitaminas K, C y del grupo B, así como de magnesio, potasio, hierro, zinc, cobre, flúor, manganeso, silicio y boro, y evitar el aporte excesivo de fósforo y sodio. CONCLUSIONES: la osteoporosis es una patología infradiagnosticada y de prevalencia creciente. Por su elevada morbilidad y mortalidad es importante la prevención y desde el punto de vista nutricional conviene aproximar la dieta al ideal teórico. En general, el incremento en el consumo de lácteos, pescado, verduras, hortalizas y frutas, así como la reducción del consumo de sal, durante la infancia y a lo largo de la vida parecen convenientes para la mejora ósea de la mayor parte de la población


OBJECTIVE: although osteoporosis develops in advanced stages of life, it must be prevented and stopped from the pediatric age, acting on modifiable factors, especially diet and lifestyle. The objective of this work is to review the latest evidence on nutritional improvements that can help in the prevention and control of the disease. METHODS: bibliographic search related to the topic. RESULTS: it is advisable to avoid energy restrictions, especially in postmenopausal women and particularly if they have osteopenia/osteoporosis since, in relation to these pathologies, excess weight may be preferable, rather than underweight. Protein intake higher than the recommended one is beneficial for the bone, provided that the calcium intake is adequate. Excessive intake of sugar and saturated fat should be avoided, but attempts should be made to achieve the nutritional goals set for ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and fiber. It is important to monitor vitamin D status and calcium intake, which is inadequate in high percentages of individuals, as well as improving the contribution of vitamins K, C and group B, and also magnesium, potassium, iron, zinc, copper, fluorine, manganese, silicon and boron, and avoiding the excessive contribution of phosphorus and sodium. CONCLUSIONS: osteoporosis is an underdiagnosed pathology and of increasing prevalence. Due to its high morbidity and mortality, prevention is important and, from a nutritional point of view, it is convenient to bring the diet closer to the theoretical ideal. In general, increasing the consumption of dairy products, fish, vegetables and fruits, as well as reducing the consumption of salt, during childhood and throughout life, seems convenient for the bone improvement of most of the population


Assuntos
Humanos , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Densidade Óssea , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Vitamina K/administração & dosagem , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem , Minerais na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
17.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785188

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to provide updated data on breakfast consumption, associated factors and its contribution to daily intakes among Latin American populations. A total of 9218 subjects, 15 to 65 years old, were evaluated in the ELANS study, a multicenter cross-sectional study conducted in eight Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela). Dietary data were obtained by two 24 h dietary recalls. Overall, 78.6% of the population were regular breakfast consumer, 15.9% occasional and 5.5% skippers. Adolescents were found to be the most frequent occasional consumers (19.2%) and skippers (6.8%). Among breakfast consumers (n = 8714), breakfast contributed to 444 ± 257 kcal, i.e., 23% of the total daily EI (16-27%). Breakfast consumers were more likely to be older adults than adolescents (OR = 1.49, 95% CI:1.06-2.10) and physically active than insufficiently active (OR = 1.29, 95% CI:1.07-1.55), and were less likely to be underweight than normal weight (OR = 0.63, 95% CI:0.41-0.98). In most countries, breakfast was rich in carbohydrates, added sugars, saturated fat and calcium relative to the entire day, and the energy contribution of protein and fats was lower at breakfast than for the entire day. These findings will contribute to the development of data-driven nutrient recommendations for breakfast in Latin America.


Assuntos
Desjejum/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/fisiologia , Recomendações Nutricionais , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Peso Corporal , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825254

RESUMO

Considering the symptoms of (chemo) radiotherapy and the reduction in food intake in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients, this study aimed to investigate the association between treatment time points and oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) on dietary intake to estimate the frequency of energy and nutrient inadequacy, and also to evaluate body weight changes (BWC). Dietary intake data of 65 patients were obtained from 24-h dietary recalls and prevalence of inadequacy was calculated before or at the beginning (T0), in the middle (T1), and at the end of treatment (T2). BWC were calculated as the weight difference considering the previous weight reported and/or measured. Energy and macronutrient intake decreased in T1 and then improved in T2 (p < 0.001 for both). Micronutrient intake increased during treatment due to ONS use, but still presented a high probability of inadequate intake. In particular, calcium, magnesium, and vitamin B6 showed almost 100% of probability of inadequacy for those who did not use ONS. Finally, overweight patients suffered a higher weight accumulated deficit with a delta of -15 kg compared to other BMI (body mass index) categories. Therefore, we strongly recommend initiating nutritional counseling in conjunction with prophylactic ONS prescription from diagnosis to adjust nutrient intake and minimize weight loss.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/fisiologia , Necessidades Nutricionais , Idoso , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Humanos , Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Vitamina B 6/administração & dosagem , Perda de Peso
19.
J Sports Sci ; 38(24): 2811-2818, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755445

RESUMO

We aimed to assess if the relationship between VPA and bone health is simultaneously mediated by PF and fat mass in adolescents. Bone health was assessed by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in 412 participants (221 girls) aged 10-18 years. VPA was assessed by accelerometry and PF was measured using specific protocols from FITescola®. Fat mass (%) was assessed using two skinfolds (triceps and calf). Parallel mediation analysis was performed by Hayes' PROCESS (V.3.3-model 4) for SPSS. We observed that in boys, handgrip mediated the associations of VPA with speed of sound on the third distal radius (R-SoS). While, speed at 20 m and handgrip mediated the relationship of VPA with speed of sound on the tibial midshaft (T-SoS). Body fat (%) only acted as a mediator when handgrip integrates the mediation model. For girls, the only mediating variable for the relationship between VPA and R-SoS or T-SoS was the PACER test. Handgrip, speed and fat mass (%) in boys, and cardiorespiratory fitness in girls mediates the relationships between VPA and bone health assessed by QUS. Promoting muscular fitness and cardiorespiratory fitness and decrease of fat mass through VPA in adolescents may be an important strategy to improve bone health.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Acelerometria/métodos , Adolescente , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Rádio (Anatomia)/diagnóstico por imagem , Rádio (Anatomia)/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Pregas Cutâneas , Esportes , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tíbia/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
20.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 424, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Determining the appropriate preconception care to reduce the occurrence of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) remains a challenge in modern obstetrics. This study aimed to examine the association between pre-pregnancy calcium (Ca) intake and HDP in normotensive primiparas. METHODS: We used data from the Japan Environment Children's study (JECS), which is the largest birth cohort study. A total of 33,894 normotensive Japanese primiparas were recruited for JECS between January 2011 and March 2014. Participants were categorized into five groups according to pre-pregnancy Ca intake quintiles (Q1 and Q5 were the lowest and highest Ca intake groups, respectively) to compare their basic background and obstetrics outcome. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to identify the effect of pre-pregnancy Ca intake on HDP, early onset HDP, and late-onset HDP, using Ca intake thresholds of 500, 550, 650, 700, 1000, 1500, and 1500 mg. RESULTS: We found significant differences in maternal background among the Ca intake groups; in particular, there were more participants with low socioeconomic status, indicated by low education level and low household income, and smokers in the lowest Ca intake group. Multiple logistic regression did not show any significant difference with regard to HDP, early onset HDP, and late-onset HDP in each Ca intake threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Despite considerable recommendations concerning Ca intake for women of reproductive age, the present study indicates that pre-pregnancy Ca intake was not associated with an increased risk of new-onset hypertension among primiparas during pregnancy. Further studies examining the effect of other pre-pregnancy dietary factors on obstetric outcomes should be considered in the formulation of earlier preventive strategies for primiparas.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Cálcio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Número de Gestações , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Gravidez
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