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1.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(2): 219-224, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588596

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis, the "quiet epidemic", is one of the most serious threats to public health. It is known that estrogen plays a significant role in the regulation of bone turnover, and its loss at menopause causes osteoporosis. Added to this, insufficient calcium intake accelerates bone mass loss, increasing the risk of fractures. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to answer the question whether a fructan-enriched diet could be helpful in preventing from disturbances in bone turnover caused by calcium restriction combined with ovariectomy-induced estrogen deficiency. The differences related to the kind of fructan and 'matrix effect' of fructan action (form of addition) were also evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted using sham-operated (control groups) or ovariectomized (OVX) rats fed a calcium restricted diet. The treatment diets contained one of three fructan sources - Jerusalem artichoke, yacon and Beneo Orafti Synergy1 - added alone or as an ingredient of strawberry sorbet, all in the amount providing 8% fructans. Analyses of biological material included: serum Ca, Mg and P concentrations, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), osteocalcin (OC) and C-telopeptide degradation products from type I collagen (CTX). Densitometric parameters of femora were also assayed. RESULTS: Among markers of bone turnover, the ALP activity depended both on the kind of fructan and the form of addition. The highest value was shown in the OVX group fed a low-calcium diet, whereas administration of diet enriched with Jerusalem artichoke led to an almost 50% decrease in the value of this parameter. Dietary fructans also lowered the OC level. Feeding rats with diet containing sorbet enriched in yacon or Jerusalem artichoke resulted in a decrease of CTX, compared to the diet containing yacon alone or fructan formulation in both forms No significant differences were observed in densitometric parameters between treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained findings suggest that fructan administration with a calcium-restricted diet might exert a positive effect on bone turnover parameters. Regarding the form of their addition, it is possible that other constituents of sorbets contributed to the fructan action. It remains open whether this impact would be significant over a longer period of time.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/deficiência , Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutanos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Ovariectomia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Frutanos/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
2.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232496, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392254

RESUMO

Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae have been marketed as an excellent choice for providing calcium to reptiles without the need of dusting or gut loading. However, previous studies have indicated that they have limited calcium digestibility and are deficient in fat soluble vitamins (A, D3, and E). In this feeding and digestibility trial, 24 adult male leopard geckos were fed one of three diets for 4 months: 1) whole, vitamin A gut loaded larvae; 2) needle pierced, vitamin A gut loaded larvae; or 3) whole, non-gut loaded larvae. Fecal output from the geckos was collected daily and apparent digestibility was calculated for dry matter, protein, fat, and minerals. There were no differences in digestibility coefficients among groups. Most nutrients were well digested by the leopard geckos when compared to previous studies, with the exception of calcium (digestibility co-efficient 43%), as the calcium-rich exoskeleton usually remained intact after passage through the GI tract. Biochemistry profiles revealed possible deficits occurring over time for calcium, sodium, and total protein. In regards to vitamin A digestibility, plasma and liver vitamin A concentrations were significantly higher in the supplemented groups (plasma- gut loaded groups: 33.38 ± 7.11 ng/ml, control group: 25.8 ± 6.72 ng/ml, t = 1.906, p = 0.04; liver- gut loaded groups: 28.67 ± 18.90 µg/g, control group: 14.13 ± 7.41 µg/g, t = 1.951, p = 0.03). While leopard geckos are able to digest most of the nutrients provided by BSF larvae, including those that have been gut loaded, more research needs to be performed to assess whether or not they provide adequate calcium in their non-supplemented form.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Lagartos/fisiologia , Simuliidae , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Cálcio na Dieta/farmacocinética , Dieta , Digestão , Larva/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Simuliidae/química , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Vitamina A/farmacocinética
4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(1): 48-56, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials evaluating the effect of calcium supplementation on bone loss in lactating women have been small, with inconsistent results. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the effect of calcium supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) in lactating women. METHODS: An electronic search of databases was conducted from inception to January 2020. Two authors screened studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias of eligible studies. Percentage change in BMD was pooled using random-effects models and reported as weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% CIs. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. RESULTS: Five randomized controlled trials including 567 lactating women were included. All had a high risk of bias. Mean baseline calcium intake ranged from 562 to 1333 mg/d. Compared with control groups (placebo/no intervention), calcium supplementation (600/1000 mg/d) had no significant effect on BMD at the lumbar spine (WMD: 0.74%; 95% CI: -0.10%, 1.59%; I2 = 47%; 95% CI: 0%, 81%; n = 527 from 5 trials) or the forearm (WMD: 0.53%; 95% CI: -0.35%, 1.42%; I2 = 55%; 95% CI: 0%, 85%; n = 415 from 4 trials). BMD at other sites was assessed in single trials: calcium supplementation had a small to moderate effect on total-hip BMD (WMD: 3.3%; 95% CI: 1.5%, 5.1%) but no effect on total body or femoral neck BMD. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the meta-analysis indicates that calcium supplementation does not provide clinically important benefits for BMD in lactating women. However, there was adequate dietary intake before supplementation in some studies, and others did not measure baseline calcium intake. Advising lactating women to meet the current recommended calcium intakes (with supplementation if dietary intake is low) is warranted unless new high-certainty evidence to the contrary from robust clinical trials becomes available. More research needs to be done in larger samples of women from diverse ethnic and racial groups.This systematic review was registered at www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero as CRD42015022092.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
5.
Life Sci ; 250: 117560, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198054

RESUMO

AIMS: Dietary calcium a common nutrient of our daily diet found to have an anti-obesity effect which may also regulate insulin sensitivity but this effect and the exact mechanism remains unexplored. Therefore, we aimed to study the effect of different types of calcium diet on insulin sensitivity with respect to the changes in the adipokine secretions in high fat diet (HFD) induced obese rats. MAIN METHODS: Healthy male rats were subjected to HFD for 12 weeks to induce obesity and further exposed to a calcium deficient (0.25% Ca) HFD and calcium enriched (1.0% Ca) HFD for another 12 weeks. Thereafter, all rats were sacrificed to collect the blood, liver, adipose tissue and muscle for downstream analysis. KEY FINDINGS: Calcium enriched HFD (1.0% Ca) significantly reduced (p < 0.01) body weight, adiposity index, glucose level, insulin level, HOMA-IR, adipokines (TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, Leptin), hepatic lipid accumulation, hepatic macrophage infiltration, adipocyte hypertrophy and significantly increased (p < 0.01) the adiponectin level, in HFD induced obese rats. The down-regulation of the adipokine secretion significantly increased (p < 0.01) the hepatic and muscle glycogen synthase activity and suppressed the hepatic gluconeogenesis activity via activating the insulin receptor-mediated PI3K/AKT/GLUT insulin signaling pathway thereby improving the insulin sensitivity. On the other hand calcium deficient HFD (0.25% Ca) accelerated the risk of insulin resistance (IR) due to its inability to improve insulin sensitivity by activating the associated pathways. SIGNIFICANCE: Calcium enriched HFD (1.0% Ca) reduced the risk of IR by improving the hepatic and muscle insulin sensitivity by restoring adipokine secretion.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Resistência à Insulina , Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adipocinas/sangue , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais
6.
J Anim Sci ; 98(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150262

RESUMO

The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the concentration of Ca in diets fed to late gestating sows affects the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and retention of Ca and P, serum concentrations of Ca and P, hormones, and blood biomarkers for bone formation and resorption. Thirty-six sows (average parity = 2.8) were housed in metabolism crates from day 91 to day 104 of gestation and fed 1 of 4 experimental diets containing 25, 50, 75, or 100% of the requirement for Ca. All diets met the requirement for P. The initial 5 d of each period were the adaptation period, which was followed by 4 d of quantitative collection of feces and urine. At the end of the collection period, a blood sample was collected from all sows. Results indicated that feed intake, weights of dried fecal and urine samples, and the ATTD of DM were not affected by dietary Ca, but ATTD of Ca increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) as Ca in diets increased. Urine Ca output was not affected by dietary Ca, but Ca retention increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) as Ca intake increased. Fecal P output increased (linear, P < 0.001) as dietary Ca increased, which resulted in a linear decrease (P < 0.001) in the ATTD of P. Urine P output also decreased (linear, P < 0.001) as dietary Ca increased, but P retention increased (linear, P < 0.05). Regressing the apparent total tract digestible Ca against dietary Ca intake resulted in a regression line with a slope of 0.33, indicating that true total tract digestibility of Ca in calcium carbonate was 33%. Serum concentrations of Ca and P and estrogen, calcitonin, and parathyroid hormone were not affected by dietary Ca. Serum concentration of carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I) decreased (linear, P < 0.05) as dietary Ca increased, which is a result of reduced bone resorption as dietary Ca increased. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase tended to decrease (linear, P < 0.10) as Ca in diets increased, but the concentration of osteocalcin (OC) in serum was not affected by dietary Ca. The ratio between OC and CTX-I tended to increase (P < 0.10) as dietary Ca increased, which indicated that there was more bone formation than resorption in sows as dietary Ca increased. In conclusion, P digestibility in late gestating sows decreased, but retention of P increased, as dietary Ca increased from inadequate to adequate levels and blood biomarkers for bone resorption changed as Ca and P retention increased.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Fezes , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gravidez
7.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 199: 105616, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027935

RESUMO

To evaluate the measured free 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels in patients with hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and healthy controls. Eighty patients with PHPT(n = 40) and age and BMI matched controls (n = 40) were examined. Serum levels of total or free 25(OH)D, vitamin D binding protein (DBP), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and calcium were measured. There was no significant difference in age (61.2 ± 11.9 vs 60.2 ± 7.0 years) and BMI (30.0 ± 6.1 vs 30.0 ± 2.2 kg/m2) between PHPT patients and healthy subjects. Levels of total 25(OH)D were about 20 % lower in PHPT patients (26.4 ± 7.7 ng/mL) compared to controls (31.0 ± 7.8 ng/mL, P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in calculated or measured free 25(OH)D levels between PHPT patients (4.9 ± 1.8 or 4.9 ± 1.6 pg/mL, respectively) and control subjects (5.1 ± 1.2 or 5.3 ± 1.6 pg/mL, respectively). Levels of free 25(OH)D were positively associated with levels of total 25(OH)D (r = 0.28, P < 0.05) but negatively correlated with iPTH and calcium levels (r=-0.22 and -0.23 respectively, P < 0.05). Serum total 25(OH)D levels were lower but the calculated or measured free 25(OH)D levels in patients with PHPT did not differ from healthy subjects. We suggest that total 25(OH)D levels may not reflect true vitamin D nutritional status in patients with PHPT.


Assuntos
Calcifediol/administração & dosagem , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/genética , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cálcio/sangue , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/genética , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Vitamina D/sangue
9.
J Nutr ; 150(4): 833-841, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In light of the publications (2008-2014) linking calcium intake, mainly from supplements, to the elevated risk of cardiovascular events, there is a need to determine if there have been any changes in usual intakes of calcium among Canadians. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine changes in dietary and total usual intake of calcium among Canadians aged ≥1 y over the period 2004-2015. METHODS: We used nutrition data from 2 nationally representative surveys conducted in 2004 and 2015 (CCHS 2004 Cycle 2.2 and CCHS-Nutrition 2015). This study included all the Canadians across 10 provinces, and the analyses were performed across different age/sex groups. We used the National Cancer Institute (NCI) method to estimate the usual intake of calcium and the prevalence of calcium inadequacy. Multiple logistic regression was performed to assess the relation between supplement uses and sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: From 2004 to 2015, the usual intake of calcium from food sources significantly decreased in calcium supplement nonusers (from 872 ± 18.2 mg/d to 754 ± 18.0 mg/d), but not in calcium supplement users. The contribution of calcium from the Milk and alternatives food group significantly decreased by 7.5% and 6.1% in calcium supplement users and nonusers, respectively. The prevalence of calcium supplement use significantly decreased from 2004 to 2015 in the Canadian population, from 27.5% to 22.0%. During this time, the percentage contribution of calcium from supplemental sources significantly decreased among Canadians, especially women. The prevalence of calcium inadequacy increased from 58.0% to 68.0% in supplement nonusers; however, among users of calcium supplements, the prevalence of calcium inadequacy remained at ∼31%. CONCLUSIONS: Calcium intake from both food and supplemental sources decreased in the Canadian population over an 11-y period, which must be addressed by policy-makers in their efforts to decrease the high prevalence of calcium inadequacy.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Análise de Alimentos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(2): 396-405, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The randomized placebo-controlled Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial suggested a possible benefit of vitamin D on cancer incidence among black individuals. However, data are limited regarding the impact of vitamin D on breast cancer subtypes among African-American/black women, who tend to develop more aggressive forms of breast cancer. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesize that more vitamin D exposure (through diet, supplements, and sunlight) and higher intake of calcium are associated with decreased risk of estrogen receptor (ER)+ and ER- breast cancer, and of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) among black women. METHODS: This study was conducted among 1724 black cases and 1233 controls in the Women's Circle of Health Study (WCHS) and WCHS2. Polytomous logistic regressions were used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs of ER+ and ER- breast cancer; logistic regressions were used for TNBC. The ORs from each study were pooled using an inverse-variance-weighted random-effects model. RESULTS: Dietary vitamin D and calcium intake were not associated with risk of breast cancer subtypes in the pooled analysis. For supplemental vitamin D, we observed possible inverse associations between intake of ≤800 IU/d (compared with nonuse) and risk of several subtypes, with effects that appeared strongest for TNBC (OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.94); no association was found for >800 IU/d. More daylight hours spent outdoors in a year was associated with lower risk of ER+, ER-, and TNBC (e.g., highest compared with lowest quartile: TNBC OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.91; P-trend = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate supplemental vitamin D intake was associated with decreased risk of TNBC, and increased sun exposure was associated with reduced risk of ER+, ER-, and TNBC among black women.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Luz Solar , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/classificação , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
11.
Theriogenology ; 142: 338-347, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711709

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of prepartum negative dietary cation-anion difference diet (DCAD) fed at two dietary Ca inclusion rates on postpartum uterine health and ovulation dynamics of multiparous Holstein cows (n = 76). Treatments began at 28 days before expected calving until parturition and were: CON: DCAD = +6 mEq/100g of DM with low dietary Ca (46.2 ± 15.2 g Ca/d; 0.4% DM; n = 26); ND: DCAD = -24 mEq/100g of DM with low dietary Ca (44.1 ±â€¯16.1 Ca/d; 0.4% DM; n = 24); NDCA: DCAD = -24 mEq/100g of DM with high dietary Ca (226.6 ±â€¯96.0 g Ca/d; 2.0% DM; n = 26). Vaginal discharge was evaluated through the fresh period via Metricheck (MC) for presence of purulent material. Polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell concentration in the uterus was evaluated at 15 and 30 days relative to calving (DRC). Endometrial tissue was harvested at 30 DRC for glandular morphology, presence of tight-junctions and adheren-junctions proteins, as well as assessment of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity. Blood plasma and serum samples were harvested in the prepartum and postpartum phase and were assessed for concentrations of lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and haptoglobin (HP). Ovarian dynamics were assessed through the fresh period until first timed artificial insemination (TAI). Cows fed CON had a lower MC score (P = 0.06) than the average of cows fed ND and cows fed NDCA. Cows fed ND had a higher MC score than cows fed NDCA. Cows fed NDCA had greater uterine gland epithelial height (P = 0.02) than cows fed ND. Cows fed NDCA also had a greater number of epithelial cells per gland (P = 0.05) than cows fed ND. Cows fed NDCA had greater intensity of occludin expression (P = 0.15) than cows fed ND. Cows fed NDCA had increased activity of SOD (P = 0.05) and decreased activity of GPX (P < 0.001) than cows fed ND. Cows fed ND had higher plasma HP concentrations than cows fed NDCA in the prepartum (P = 0.01) and post-partum (P = 0.03) periods. Cows fed ND and NDCA had lower (P = 0.01) postpartum plasma HP concentration than cows fed CON. In conclusion, cows fed NDCA had an improved uterine environment most likely due to alleviation of oxidative stress, an enhanced immune response to parturition and uterine discharge comparable to cows fed CON.


Assuntos
Ácidos/administração & dosagem , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Endometrite/prevenção & controle , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Transtornos Puerperais/prevenção & controle , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta/farmacologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Dieta/veterinária , Endometrite/veterinária , Feminino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactação/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite , Período Pós-Parto/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Transtornos Puerperais/veterinária , Útero/fisiologia
12.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878077

RESUMO

Preterm infants are at increased risk of micronutrient deficiencies as a result of low body stores, maternal deficiencies, and inadequate supplementations. The aim of this survey was to investigate current vitamin and mineral supplementation practices and compare these with published recommendations and available evidence on dosages and long-term outcomes of supplementations in preterm infants. In 2018, a two-part electronic survey was emailed to 50 Australasian Neonatal Dietitians Network (ANDiN) member and nonmember dietitians working in neonatal units in Australia and New Zealand. For inpatients, all units prescribed between 400 and 500 IU/day vitamin D, compared to a recommended intake range of 400-1000 IU/day. Two units prescribed 900-1000 IU/day at discharge. For iron, 83% of respondents prescribed within the recommended intake range of 2-3 mg/kg/day for inpatients. Up to 10% of units prescribed 6 mg/kg/day for inpatients and at discharge. More than one-third of units reported routine supplementations of other micronutrients, including calcium, phosphate, vitamin E, and folic acid. There was significant variation between neonatal units in vitamin and mineral supplementation practices, which may contribute to certain micronutrient intakes above or below recommended ranges for gestational ages or birth weights. The variations in practice are in part due to differences in recommended vitamin and mineral intakes between expert groups and a lack of evidence supporting the recommendations for supplementations.


Assuntos
Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/métodos , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Austrália , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ferro na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Nova Zelândia , Nutricionistas , Recomendações Nutricionais , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem
13.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0218979, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774817

RESUMO

This study investigated the consequences of a low supply of dietary Ca with or without a low dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) during early lactation on bone mobilization and reconstitution during lactation and on the dynamics of milk Ca content. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows were distributed among 3 treatments 5 weeks before their expected calving date. These treatments differed based on the provision of diets through the first 10 weeks of lactation. During this period, the control treatment (NCa) consisted of a diet providing 100% of the Ca requirement, with a DCAD of 200 mEq/kg dry matter (DM). The LCa (low Ca) and LCaLD (low Ca, low DCAD) treatments consisted of diets providing 70% of the Ca requirement, with a DCAD of 200 and 0 mEq/kg DM, respectively. After 10 weeks, all cows received the same total mixed ration, which was formulated to meet 100% of the Ca requirement. LCa and LCaLD tended to decrease the body retention of Ca at 3 weeks of lactation compared with NCa but affected neither the dynamics of the blood biomarkers of bone formation and resorption during lactation nor the body retention of Ca at 17 weeks of lactation. Cows almost entirely compensated for the decrease in Ca supply caused by LCa and LCaLD by increasing their apparent digestive absorption of Ca at 3 weeks of lactation, whereas their apparent digestive absorption was unaffected by the treatments at 17 weeks of lactation. Milk production tended to be lower throughout lactation with LCa and LCaLD compared with NCa, with a mean difference of 2 kg/d. The results of this study also indicated that measuring the dynamics of milk Ca content during lactation cannot be considered effective for indirectly estimating the dynamics of bone mobilization in cows. The results also suggested that limited Ca intake at the beginning of lactation may have deleterious effects on milk production.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea/fisiologia , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Bovinos/fisiologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cálcio na Dieta/farmacocinética , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Absorção Intestinal , Leite/metabolismo , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Gravidez
14.
Vopr Pitan ; 88(5): 53-62, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710788

RESUMO

Vitamin D and calcium play a key role not only in maintaining skeletal integrity, but are also important in the functioning of other systems of the human body. The aim of the study is to evaluate the dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D in the children with different somatic pathologies (gastroenterological and endocrine) and its impact on somatic health indicators. Material and methods. 114 children, aged 4-17 years old, were involved in the study. They underwent inpatient treatment for somatic pathology. The patients were divided into 4 groups: 36 children with chronic gastroduodenitis (the 1st group); 25 children with functional disorders of biliary tract (the 2nd group); 30 children with hypothalamic pubertal syndrome (the 3rd group); 23 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (the 4th group). Dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D was evaluated using a questionnaire. The sources of vitamin D and calcium intake were determined and the amount of these sources in the weekly diet of a child was evaluated. Then the total of vitamin D and calcium in the diet of each child and the average daily consumption of these nutrients with each food source were evaluated as well. All children underwent physical examination; a special attention was paid to the health of their teeth, nails, hair, skeletal system, as well as the presence of allergic reactions. Serum calcium concentration was determined by the colorimetric method with o-cresolphthalein in an alkaline medium and inorganic phosphorus by the phosphomolybdate method with aluminum molybdate in an acidic medium. Results and discussion. It was established that the diet of the most children comprised baked goods (94.7%), meat (92.9%), dairy products (up to 90.4%), and eggs (90.4%). The children received most of their dietary vitamin D with fish (335.63±472.82 IU), butter (124.64±114.31 IU) and eggs (101.15±96.77 IU) per week. The dairy products, i.e. milk, yogurt, cheese, and cottage cheese, were the largest source of calcium. Calcium intake varied in different patient groups due to their food preferences and dietary recommendations related to their health. It was also proved that the average daily diet vitamin D intake at 123.98±53.52 IU was insufficient. The average daily intake of calcium with food was 524.53±248.38 mg. The insufficient intake of vitamin D and calcium with food correlated with clinical manifestations. Posture disorders were evidenced in 48.2% of children, tooth decay - in 40.4%, and hair illnesses - in 32.4%. These disorders were more significant in the children of the 1st group, who were proved to have the lowest vitamin D intake. The serum calcium level was lower than the reference values in 79.8% of children, the phosphorus level was lower than the reference values in 41.2% children. Conclusion. The dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D in the children with different somatic pathologies (gastroenterological and endocrine) was insufficient, despite differences in children's diets under various pathologies, which led to the appearance of clinical signs of mineral metabolism disorders, among which posture disorders and tooth decay were most often observed.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Duodenite , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino , Feminino , Gastrite , Doenças do Cabelo , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623382

RESUMO

Consumption of dairy products in the usual diet may be important for improving the overall quality of dietary intake. This study aimed to assess the difference in nutrient intake adequacy according to the intake of dairy products based on a 1-day weighed dietary record of Japanese adults from the 2016 National Health and Nutrition Survey. Nutritional adequacy was determined based on the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese 2015, with 2 goals: Tentative dietary goals (DG) for preventing lifestyle-related diseases, and the estimated average requirement (EAR). According to the dairy products consumption, participants were categorized into three groups (milk, other dairy product, or non-dairy), and the total number of those not meeting DG and EAR was compared. Non-dairy consumers were less likely to meet both DG and EAR compared to dairy consumers. Dairy consumers were more likely to exceed the DG for saturated fat than non-dairy consumers. Japanese adult dairy consumers were more likely to have adequate nutritional intake than non-dairy consumers, especially for calcium. We also observed a higher saturated fat intake in dairy consumers, which might be due to a certain dietary pattern in this group. Further investigation is needed to determine dairy intake and its influence on dietary quality among the Japanese population.


Assuntos
Laticínios , Dieta , Leite , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Necessidades Nutricionais , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política Nutricional , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores Sexuais
16.
Epilepsia ; 60(11): 2306-2313, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580495

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adults aged 50 years and older with epilepsy face an increased risk of fracture associated both with age and with the use of antiepileptic drugs. Lifestyle behaviors, such as physical activity and calcium and vitamin D intake, have been found to be beneficial to bone health. The aim of this study is to investigate these osteoprotective behaviors in people aged 50 years and older with and without epilepsy. METHODS: In 2010, the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), a cross-sectional survey that collects health-related data nationwide, included a subset of questions related to epilepsy along with the standard items on physical activity, nutrition, and sun exposure. Data on osteoprotective behaviors were extracted and analyzed for adults aged 50 years and older. RESULTS: There were no significant findings related to calcium and vitamin D intake as measured by food choices and sun exposure survey items. People with epilepsy participated in physical activity significantly less often and for significantly shorter duration than people without epilepsy. Significantly fewer people with epilepsy reported intending to increase exercise in the next 12 months as compared to those without epilepsy. SIGNIFICANCE: Although adults aged 50 years and older with epilepsy face an increased risk of fracture as compared to those without epilepsy, they do not engage in a higher level of osteoprotective behaviors. In fact, adults with epilepsy are less physically active and report less intention to exercise than adults without epilepsy.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Luz Solar , Idoso , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia/terapia , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem
17.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590442

RESUMO

Milk is considered to be one of the main food sources of calcium for promoting growth and bone health in children and adolescents. This study investigated whether or not participation in a school milk program affected milk consumption and nutrient intake by middle school students in South Korea. In total, 692 middle school students aged 13-16 years old were enrolled in two groups: the school milk program participant group (n = 346) and the non-participant group (n = 346). The survey examined normal milk consumption status in both groups. The diet record method was applied to analyze the amount of nutrient intake levels. Milk/dairy product consumption was significantly higher in the school milk program participant group for both boys and girls (p < 0.001). The school milk program participant group also generally showed higher energy and dietary nutrient intake levels as compared to the non-participant group for both genders (p < 0.05). No differences were observed in milk consumption at home or outside school, and calcium intake from animal-derived foods was higher in the school milk program participant group (p < 0.001). Therefore, it can be assumed that participating in the school milk program directly resulted in higher calcium intake. Hence, we can report that participating in the school milk program contributes to increased milk consumption and improved the overall nutrient intake.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Alimentar , Serviços de Alimentação , Leite , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , República da Coreia
18.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581575

RESUMO

Young adulthood is an important stage in the accrual of bone mass. Young women are often unaware of the need, and how to optimize modifiable risk factors, particularly intake of nutrients associated with good bone health. In this study, an accessible way to estimate osteoporosis risk, quantitative ultrasound (QUS), is compared to the gold-standard technique dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a group of 54 healthy young women (18-26 years) from Manawatu, New Zealand, and the relationship with nutrient intake is investigated. Broadband ultrasound attenuation and speed of sound (BUA, SOS) were assessed by QUS calcaneal scans and bone mineral concentration/density (BMC/BMD) were determined by DXA scans of the lumbar spine and hip (total and femoral neck). Dietary intake of energy, protein, and calcium was estimated using three-day food diaries and questionnaires. DXA mean Z-scores (>-2.0) for the hip (0.19) and spine (0.2) and QUS mean Z-scores (>-1.0) (0.41) were within the expected ranges. DXA (BMD) and QUS (BUA, SOS) measurements were strongly correlated. Median intakes of protein and calcium were 83.7 g/day and 784 mg/day, respectively. Protein intake was adequate and, whilst median calcium intake was higher than national average, it was below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR). No significant relationship was found between dietary intake of calcium or protein and BMD or BMC. To conclude, QUS may provide a reasonable indicator of osteoporosis risk in young women but may not be an appropriate diagnostic tool. Increased calcium intake is recommended for this group, regardless of BMD.


Assuntos
Absorciometria de Fóton , Densidade Óssea , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Colo do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Estado Nutricional , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Recomendações Nutricionais , Ultrassonografia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/etiologia , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 37, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477133

RESUMO

The timing of macronutrient ingestion in relation to exercise is a purported strategy to augment muscle accretion, muscle and athletic performance, and recovery. To date, the majority of macronutrient nutrient timing research has focused on carbohydrate and protein intake. However, emerging research suggests that the strategic ingestion of various ergogenic aids and micronutrients may also have beneficial effects. Therefore, the purpose of this narrative review is to critically evaluate and summarize the available literature examining the timing of ergogenic aids (caffeine, creatine, nitrates, sodium bicarbonate, beta-alanine) and micronutrients (iron, calcium) on muscle adaptations and exercise performance. In summary, preliminary data is available to indicate the timing of caffeine, nitrates, and creatine monohydrate may impact outcomes such as exercise performance, strength gains and other exercise training adaptations. Furthermore, data is available to suggest that timing the administration of beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate may help to minimize known untoward adverse events while maintaining potential ergogenic outcomes. Finally, limited data indicates that timed ingestion of calcium and iron may help with the uptake and metabolism of these nutrients. While encouraging, much more research is needed to better understand how timed administration of these nutrients and others may impact performance, health, or other exercise training outcomes.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Exercício Físico , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Creatina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Nitratos/administração & dosagem , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo , beta-Alanina/administração & dosagem
20.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(9): 2825-2830, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554383

RESUMO

Background: Vitamin D and Calcium have a possible protective impact versus rectal neoplasm. Vitamin D, an important nutrient, is vital to regulate the absorption of calcium and bone mineralization; nevertheless, in a case-control study in Iran, we investigated the relationship among the dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium with the hazard of rectal neoplasm. Methods: 363 subjects (162 cases and 201 controls) participated in the case- control Study from March 2017 to November 2018. Dietary intake of Calcium and Vitamin D was calculated using a 148-items food-frequency questionnaire. Results: Since altering the strong confounding agents, the multivariate risk proportion within the dietary vitamin D intake was OR=0.2, 95%CI 0.1-0.5, P-value <0.001 among cases. There was no association in case of calcium and rectal cancer. Conclusions: Taken together, a possible reduction in the hazard of rectal neoplasm with dietary intake of Vitamin D within Iranian patients was observed.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
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