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1.
Food Chem ; 307: 125645, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644983

RESUMO

A simple electrochemical sensor was developed to determine the concentration of Ca2+ in meat. Graphene was treated with oxygen plasma for 10 s and 30 s comparing with the pristine graphene. Through analyzing morphology and chemical composition, the graphene with the lowest defect density was chosen to mix with bovine serum albumin molecule-functionalized gold nanoparticles. It was interesting that only a few gold nanoparticles were trapped in the graphene with 10 s plasma treatment. Then, under the optimal condition measured, the limit of detection was detected as 3.9 × 10-8 M with a linear relationship from 5 × 10-8 to 3 × 10-4 M. Finally, the proposed electrochemical method was applied to detect Ca2+ in the pork sample with stability and reproducibility verified by parallel detections. Thus, the proposed method demonstrates its potential for effectively detecting Ca2+ in meat and prominently reduces time consumption on operations and pretreatments.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Carne/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Ouro/química , Grafite/química , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Troponina C/metabolismo
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 394-400, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study examined the potential for 'Smart Food' with respect to contributing to the Sustainable Development Goal 2 of ending malnutrition by 2030, using a small-scale capacity building case study in Oe Be Village, Myingyan district, Mandalay region, Myanmar. Within the study site, refined white rice is the major staple, followed by vegetables and animal source food in inadequate quantities. The protein intake in this particular dry zone community meets only 50% of the daily requirement and even less for those children aged less than 23 months. Therefore, to determine the acceptance and opportunity for legumes and millets which are produced locally, nutritious formulations were introduced for various age groups. In addition, a sensory evaluation of the recipes was conducted to test the acceptance of the nutritious products. RESULTS: Two weeks of the inclusion of millets and pigeonpea in the diets of children aged 6-23 months had a positive impact on wasting, stunting and underweight (P = 0.002, 0.014 and 0.023, respectively). Moreover, the acceptability of these new food products by the children was found to be high. These results indicate an unexplored opportunity for specific millets rich in iron, zinc and calcium, as well as for pigeonpea rich in protein, if prepared in a culturally acceptable way. CONCLUSION: The impact and acceptability of this small scale and short-term intervention indicate the potential for Smart Food products in filling the nutrition gap arising from the traditional food consumption habits in the dry zones of Myanmar. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Cajanus/metabolismo , Milhetes/metabolismo , Cajanus/química , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro/análise , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Milhetes/química , Mianmar , Estado Nutricional , População Rural
3.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 144(16): 1125-1132, 2019 08.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416104

RESUMO

A finely balanced control system keeps the extracellular calcium concentration within narrow limits. Disorders of calcium metabolism are often based on altered parathormone levels. Symptoms are not always clear, sometimes they are even missing: the more it is important to know possible associated diseases. The author presents basics, current diagnostics and concrete therapy options. Central hormone for the regulation of the calcium balance is the parathyroid hormone. With decreasing calcium, PTH leads to an increase in extracellular free calcium concentration in three ways. The classic symptoms of pHPT (polyuria, polydipsia, "stone, leg, and stomach pain") are rare now, as the condition is diagnosed much earlier. Treatment of choice in all symptomatic patients with pHPT is surgery. FHH and pHPT are both characterized by hypercalcaemia and increased parathyroid hormone. The differential diagnosis of urinary calcium excretion, which is usually lower in FHH but normal or elevated in pHPT, is crucial. In primary hypoparathyroidism, parathyroid failure interferes with calcium homeostasis at a central location. Consequences are hypocalcaemia, hyperphosphatemia and lack of active vitamin D. Due to increased urinary calcium excretion, patients with ADH are at high risk for kidney stones, nephrocalcinosis and the development of renal insufficiency. Recently, rhPTH 1-84 has been available for the treatment of hypoparathyroidism. However, long-term data is still lacking to provide a safe indication, considering potential effects and side effects.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Metabolismo do Cálcio , Cálcio na Dieta , Cálcio , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cálcio/fisiologia , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoparatireoidismo , Vitamina D
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(8): 3099-3106, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389556

RESUMO

Low calcium consumption and high sodium intake among adolescents is a serious public health problem. Thehigh content and bioavailability of calcium in milk makes it the best choice for meeting the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for calcium. Since milk also contributes to sodium intake, programs promoting milk consumption should be preceded by initiatives to reduce its sodium content. Knowing the calcium and sodium content of processed milk is essential for establishing the adequate consumption of milk. The aim of this study was to estimate the calcium and sodium content of different brands of powdered and ultra heat treated (UHT) milk sold in supermarkets in Rio de Janeiro and calculate the amount of these milks that should be consumed by adolescents to meet daily calcium needs and the impact of this consumption on sodium intake. Volumetric analysis was used to measure calcium content and sodium content was determined using flame photometry. The mean calcium and sodium concentrations of powdered (mg/26g) and UHT milk (mg/200ml) were 262.5 ± 5.1 mg and 116.8 ± 3.1 mg and 246.0 ± 10.3 mg and 162.5 ± 16.3 mg, respectively. Milk intake sufficient to meet the DRI for calcium among adolescents would result in a sodium intake of 584 mg (39% of the AI) from the consumption of powdered milk and 812.5 mg (54% of the AI) from the consumption of UHT milk.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Leite/química , Sódio na Dieta/análise , Adolescente , Animais , Brasil , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem
6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(7): 2067-2071, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165433

RESUMO

This research was conducted to determine the effects of phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) content in pasture with body weight and body condition scores in cattle depending entirely on natural grazing. The work was done in 2006 in Mogosane Village of North-West Province, South Africa, and it was conducted from March 2006 to March 2007, with the annual rainfall of 384.38 mm maximum. A total of 25 growing mixed breed cattle aged between 6 months and 2 years old were selected randomly from a herd feeding exclusively on communal grazing. Animals were depending on natural pasture, with no supplements given. Records of body mass (BM) and body condition score (BCS) were recorded from a diverse range of animals in order to include as many different body masses and body condition scores as possible. Mean BM and BCS values are reported but there were no significant (P > 0.05) differences between months. Possible reasons are given in the "Results and Discussion" section. The focus of the research reported here was on the changes in the P, Ca, and Mg concentrations of pasture. Pasture samples were collected once a month for analysis to determine the contents of P, Ca, and Mg. Mineral concentrations in the pasture increased significantly (P < 0.05) with rainfall in January 2007, February 2007, and March 2007, and in January 2007 and February 2007, the mean values of BCS (3.90) and BM (444.05 kg) increased. After the good rains in March 2006 and April 2006, there were significant (P < 0.05) decreases in grass P and Mg in the following dry months along with decreases in BCS and BM. There were subsequent significant (P < 0.05) increases in grass P and Mg following rains in August 2006 through January 2007. Grass Ca followed a much different pattern compared with that of P and Mg with significant (P < 0.05) increases after periods of little or no rainfall. Mineral concentrations (P, Ca, and Mg) of grass in this research were significantly (P < 0.05) influenced by the rainfall making it imperative that mineral supplementation be given to animals in the dry periods.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Cálcio/análise , Magnésio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Poaceae/química , Ciências da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Bovinos , Feminino , Minerais , Fósforo na Dieta/análise , África do Sul/epidemiologia
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 6830-6841, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155267

RESUMO

Natural variations among milk constituents, and their relations to each other as well as to processing parameters, represent possibilities for differentiation of milk to produce high-quality natural products. In this study, we focused on natural variations in milk citrate and its interplay with calcium distribution in milk, in relation to processing properties. Milk samples from individual cows from farms varying in feeding and management practices were collected from April to June 2017 to maximize natural variations in citrate and calcium. Chemical composition, rennet coagulation properties, and ethanol stability were analyzed for all milk samples. We focused particularly on calcium distribution and citrate content and the correlation of these to other milk parameters. No significant change in citrate content was observed during the sampling period, which suggests that mechanisms other than feeding affect citrate levels in milk. Several significant correlations were found, including a positive correlation between complexed serum calcium and citrate, and a negative correlation between urea and ionic calcium. These are both of interest in relation to further processing, as with regard to the stability of UHT milk and in cheese making. Although the correlation between complexed serum calcium and citrate may be explained by their affinity, the underlying driver for the negative relationship between natural milk urea and ionic calcium needs to be clarified by further studies. Furthermore, milk from the different farms varied not only with regard to organic versus conventional farming systems; feeding practices between farms also play an important role in milk composition and functionality. However, none of the differences in milk composition between farms were found to decrease milk functionality and thus would probably not cause any processing problems.


Assuntos
Cálcio/análise , Ácido Cítrico/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Leite/química , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Bovinos , Queijo/análise , Quimosina/metabolismo , Citratos , Fazendas , Feminino , Minerais/análise , Agricultura Orgânica/métodos
8.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5679-5690, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222321

RESUMO

Coccidiosis penalizes calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and fat-soluble vitamin status, as well as bone mineralization in broiler chickens. We hypothesized that dietary vitamin D (VitD) supplementation in the form of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (OHD), compared to cholecalciferol (D3), would improve bone mineralization in broilers receiving marginally deficient Ca/P diets, with more pronounced effects during malabsorptive coccidiosis. In a 2 VitD source × 2 Ca/P levels × 2 levels of infection factorial experiment (n = 6 pens per treatment, 6 birds/pen), Ross 308 broilers were assigned to an Aviagen-specified diet supplemented with 4,000 IU/kg of either OHD or D3 between days 11 and 24 of age. The diet contained adequate (A; 8.7:4.4 g/kg) or marginally deficient (M; 6.1:3.1 g/kg) total Ca and available (av)P levels. At day 12 of age, birds were inoculated with water (C) or 7,000 Eimeria maxima oocysts (I). Pen performance was measured over 12 days post-infection (pi). One bird per pen was assessed for parameters of bone mineralization and intestinal histomorphometric features (day 6 and 12 pi), as well as E. maxima replication and gross lesions of the small intestine (day 6 pi). There was no interaction between infection status and Ca/avP level on bone mineralization. Bone breaking strength (BS), ash weight (AW), and ash percentage (AP) were highest in broilers fed the OHD-supplemented A diets irrespective of infection status. Eimeria maxima infection impaired (P < 0.05) ADG and FCR pi; Ca and P status at day 6 pi; OHD status, BS, AW, and AP at day 12 pi; and intestinal morphology at day 6 and 12 pi. A- compared to M-fed broilers had higher BS, AW, and AP at day 6 pi, and AW at day 12 pi. VitD source affected only OHD status, being higher (P < 0.001) for OHD- than D3-fed broilers at day 6 and 12 pi. In conclusion, offering OHD and adequate levels of Ca and P improved bone mineralization, with no effect on performance. Dietary D3 and OHD supplemented at 4,000 IU/kg had similar effects on coccidiosis-infected and uninfected broilers, which led to the rejection of our hypothesis.


Assuntos
Cálcio/deficiência , Galinhas/fisiologia , Colecalciferol/metabolismo , Fósforo/deficiência , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Calcifediol/administração & dosagem , Calcifediol/metabolismo , Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Eimeria/fisiologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/fisiologia , Fósforo na Dieta/análise , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
9.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226860

RESUMO

It is important to understand the role of beverages in population dietary intake in order to give relevant advice. Population estimates were derived from one-day food recall dietary data from 12,153 participants in the 2011-2012 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Almost all Australians (99.9%) consumed at least one beverage on the day of the survey, accounting for 16.6% of the total energy intake for adults (aged 19 years and over) and 13.0% for children (aged 2-18 years). Similarly, beverages contributed 26-29% to calcium intake, 22-28% to vitamin C intake, and 35-36% to sugar intake. Water was consumed on the day of the survey by 84.1% of Australian adults and 90.5% of children. For adults, the greatest beverage contributors to total energy intake were alcoholic drinks (5.6%), coffee (3.1%), and soft drinks (1.9%), and for children, plain milk (3.1%), flavoured milk (2.8%), and fruit juice (2.6%). Coffee (10.6%) made the greatest contribution to calcium intake for adults; and plain milk (9.9%) and flavoured milk (7.6%) for children. The greatest contributors to vitamin C intake were fruit juice (13.4%) and alcoholic drinks (6.1%) for adults; and fruit juice (23.4%) for children. For total sugar intake, soft drinks (8.0%), coffee (8.4%), and fruit juice (5.9%) made the highest contribution for adults; and fruit juice (9.8%) and soft drinks (8.7%) for children. The type and amount of beverage consumption has considerable relevance to dietary quality for Australians.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Açúcares da Dieta/análise , Preferências Alimentares , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
Animal ; 13(10): 2207-2215, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062683

RESUMO

Optimizing the dietary calcium (Ca) level is essential to maximize the eggshell quality, egg production and bone formation in poultry. This study aimed to establish the Ca requirements of egg-type duck breeders from 23 to 57 weeks of age on egg production, eggshell, incubation, tibial, plasma and ovary-related indices, as well as the expression of matrix protein-related genes. Totally, 450 Longyan duck breeders aged 21 weeks of age were allotted randomly into five treatments, each with six replicates of 15 individually caged birds. The data collection started from 23 weeks of age and continued over the following 35 weeks. The five groups corresponded to five dietary treatments containing either 2.8%, 3.2%, 3.6%, 4.0% or 4.4% Ca. The tested dietary Ca levels increased (linear, P <0.01) egg production and egg mass, and linearly improved (P <0.01) the feed conversion ratio (FCR). Increasing the dietary Ca levels from 2.8% to 4.4% increased (P <0.01) the eggshell thickness and eggshell content. The tested Ca levels showed a quadratic effect on eggshell thickness and ovarian weight (P <0.01); the highest values were obtained with the Ca levels 4.0% and 3.6%, respectively. Dietary Ca levels affected the small yellow follicles (SYF) number and SYF weight/ovarian weight, and the linear response (P <0.01) was significant vis-à-vis SYF number. In addition, dietary Ca levels increased (P <0.05) the tibial dry weight, breaking strength, mineral density and ash content. Plasma and tibial phosphorus concentration exhibited a quadratic (P <0.01) response to dietary Ca levels. Plasma calcitonin concentration linearly (P <0.01) increased as dietary Ca levels increased. The relative expression of carbonic anhydrase 2 in the uterus rose (P <0.01) with the increment of dietary Ca levels, and the highest value was obtained with 3.2% Ca. In conclusion, Longyan duck breeders fed a diet with 4.0% Ca had superior eggshell and tibial quality, while those fed a diet with 3.6% Ca had the heaviest ovarian weights. The regression model indicated that the dietary Ca levels 3.86%, 3.48% and 4.00% are optimal levels to obtain maximum eggshell thickness, ovarian weight and tibial mineral density, respectively.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Patos/fisiologia , Reprodução , Animais , Cruzamento , Dieta/veterinária , Patos/genética , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Casca de Ovo/fisiologia , Feminino , Ovário/fisiologia , Óvulo/fisiologia , Fósforo/análise , Análise de Regressão , Tíbia/fisiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217490, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125379

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing doses of bacterial phytase (RONOZYME HiPhos) on performance and carcass characteristics of growing and finishing pigs. The study included 120 castrated males with initial weight of 23.21 ± 1.91 kg and 68 days of age, distributed in a randomized block design with five treatments and eight replicates with three animals each. The pigs were fed five corn-soybean meal-based diets: positive control (PC), supplemented with inorganic phosphorus and calcium; negative control (NC), with 0.13% reduction in available phosphorus and 0.11% in calcium; and three NC diets supplemented with 1,000, 2,000, and 3,000 phytase units (FYT)/kg in the feed. Compared with the NC diets without phytase, diets with 1,000, 2,000, and 3,000 FYT/kg inclusion increased the daily weight gain by +12% (quadratic, p<0.05) during the growing I period; +2.9, +2.9, and +10.5% (linear, p<0.01), respectively, during the growing II period; and +4.1, +5.1, and +8.2% (linear, p<0.001), respectively, over the entire experimental period. The daily feed intake increased by 0, +2.8, and +4.3% (linear, p<0.05), respectively, considering the entire experimental period; and the final live weight increased by +3.2, +4.2, and +6.1% (linear, p<0.001), respectively. The phytase treatments did not influence feed conversion ratio, carcass weight and yield, backfat thickness, loin depth and carcass lean meat. According to the European Carcass Classification (SEUROP), however, the animals fed the PC diet and the three phytase levels had more carcasses classified as E (between 55-60% lean meat) when compared to carcasses of pigs fed the NC. Supplementing increasing levels of phytase to a corn- and soybean meal-based diet with inorganic P and Ca reduction improved daily weight gain and feed intake of growing pigs, and such effects were maintained until slaughter age.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Citrobacter/enzimologia , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , 6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Dieta , Masculino , Carne/análise , Fósforo na Dieta/análise , Suínos/fisiologia
12.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832289

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease that attacks the central nervous system. Evidence-based dietary guidelines do not exist for MS; the default advice is to follow the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). A modified Paleolithic Wahls Elimination (WahlsElim) diet promoted for MS excludes grains and dairy and encourages 9+ cups fruits and vegetables (F/V) and saturated fat for cooking. This study evaluated the nutritional adequacy of seven-day menus and modeled them with varying amounts of F/V for comparison with the DGA Healthy US-Style Eating Pattern (HEP) for ages 31⁻50 years. WahlsElim menus had low added sugar and glycemic index. Nutritional adequacy of the menus and modeled versions were similar to HEP for 17 vitamins and minerals (mean adequacy ratio ≥92%). Nutrient shortfalls for the modeled diet with 60% F/V were identical to HEP for vitamin D, iron (females), magnesium (marginally males), choline and potassium; this modeled diet was also low in dietary fiber and calcium but met vitamin E requirements while HEP did not. WahlsElim-prescribed supplements corrected vitamin D and magnesium shortfalls; careful selection of foods are needed to meet requirements of other shortfall nutrients and reduce saturated fat and sodium. Doctors should monitor nutritional status, supplement doses, and possible contraindications to high vitamin K intake in individuals following the WahlsElim diet.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Paleolítica , Esclerose Múltipla/dietoterapia , Nutrientes/análise , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adulto , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minerais/análise , Política Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Verduras , Vitaminas/análise
13.
Rev. lab. clín ; 12(1): 13-19, ene.-mar. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-176970

RESUMO

Introducción: La 25-hidroxivitamina D [25(OH)D] se considera un marcador del estado general de salud y su deficiencia es un problema a nivel mundial. En la actualidad no existe un consenso para definir sus niveles óptimos, siendo necesario establecerlos para cada población de acuerdo con sus características étnicas y factores ambientales a los que está expuesta. Objetivo: Determinar los intervalos de referencia para 25(OH)D en población autóctona y aparentemente sana de Yucatán. Métodos: Se estudiaron 71 voluntarios aparentemente sanos, de uno u otro sexo, de uno a 65 años, originarios y residentes en Yucatán. Se determinaron los niveles séricos de 25(OH)D, así como los de calcio, fósforo y paratohormona por su relación con el metabolismo de la vitamina D. Los intervalos de referencia se calcularon con los métodos paramétrico y consistente. Se registró el fototipo de piel y se aplicó el test de Garabédian para determinar el consumo diario de calcio y vitamina D. Resultados: El valor medio de 25(OH)D fue de 23,49±5,60ng/mL. Los límites de referencia para 25(OH)D total y por sexos fueron más estrechos y significativamente diferentes a los propuestos por el fabricante. Se encontró correlación directa entre los niveles de 25(OH)D y el calcio sérico (r=0,36; p=0,003) e inversa con la paratohormona intacta (r=−0,44; p<0,001). Una dieta rica en calcio y vitamina D no es suficiente para mantener los requerimientos normales de 25(OH)D en esta población. Conclusiones: Los intervalos de referencia propuestos están adecuados a las peculiaridades de la población de Yucatán, y pudieran mejorar la exactitud de la medición del estado de salud con base en los niveles séricos de vitamina D


Introduction: 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is considered a marker of general health and its deficiency is a problem worldwide. There is still no consensus to define their optimal levels, with it being necessary to establish them for each population according to their ethnic characteristics and environmental factors to which they are exposed. Objective: To determine the reference intervals for 25(OH)D in the native and apparently healthy population of Yucatan. Methods:The study included 71 apparently healthy volunteers, female and male, between one and 65 years old, and originally from Yucatan. Serum levels of 25(OH)D were measured along with the determination of calcium, phosphorus, and parathormone levels due to their relationship with vitamin D metabolism. Reference intervals were calculated using parametric and robust methods. The skin phototype was recorded and the Garabedian test was applied to determine the daily intake of calcium and vitamin D. Results: The mean value of 25(OH)D was 23.49±5.60ng/mL. The reference limits for total and gender-related 25(OH)D, and by gender were narrower and significantly different from those proposed by the manufacturer. A direct correlation was found between 25(OH)D levels and serum calcium (r=0.36; P=.003) and an inverse one with intact parathormone (r=−0.44; P<.001). A diet rich in calcium and vitamin D is not sufficient to maintain the normal requirements of 25(OH)D in this population. Conclusions: The proposed reference intervals are adequate to the peculiarities of the population of Yucatan and could improve the accuracy of health status measurement based on serum levels of vitamin D


Assuntos
Humanos , Hidroxicolecalciferóis/análise , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico , Vitamina D/análise , Deficiência de Vitaminas/etnologia , México/epidemiologia , Valores de Referência , Voluntários Saudáveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Vitaminas na Dieta/análise , Cálcio na Dieta/análise
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30699949

RESUMO

Dietary supplement use is increasing globally, especially among children. However, few studies have been conducted to examine dietary supplement use among Chinese children. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of dietary supplement use and the associated factors in primary school students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four primary schools in Hunan province, China. A total of 706 Chinese parents/caregivers of school children aged 6⁻12 years old were enrolled. Self-administrated questionnaires were used to collect information about the children's dietary supplement use, and their socio-demographic characteristics. The prevalence of dietary supplement use in primary school students was 20.4%. Calcium (16.7%), vitamin C (9.2%), and vitamin D (8.5%) were the most commonly used types of dietary supplement. The main reasons for parents/caregivers to purchase dietary supplements for their children were immunity improvement (43.6%), and for growth promotion (36.5%). Some caregivers (26.4%) purchased dietary supplements online, including from dubious or unknown sellers. However, 37.5% of caregivers did not receive formal guidance on supplementation even if they purchased their supplements through formal channels. Parents/caregivers were unclear about the appropriate choices for children's dietary supplement use. Guidelines and counseling regarding dietary supplements for children may be helpful in public health work.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Cuidadores/psicologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Vitamina D/análise , Vitaminas/análise , Criança , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(7): 3628-3634, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phosphorus (P) supply is essential for bone mineralisation. Reduced P may result in osteopenia, whereas excessive P may result in environmental impacts. The objective was to study the long-term effect of three dietary P levels on net bone mineralisation in growing-finishing pigs. Eighteen female pigs were fed low P (LP (4.1)), medium P (MP (6.2)) or high P (HP (8.9 g P kg-1 DM)) from 39.7 until 110 kg. Trabecular, cortical and overall bone mineral density (BMD), ash, calcium (Ca) and P were determined after slaughter. RESULTS: The LP diet generally reduced the BMD, ash, Ca and P in all bones, though all measures were markedly lowered in femur compared with humerus. The trabecular BMD in LP pigs was only different in the distal section compared to the MP-fed pigs (P < 0.05). In addition, ash, Ca and P were lower in the proximal and distal sections. No significant effect of HP was seen. Conclusively, LP caused lower net bone mineralisation, mainly of femur. The trabecular tissue of the distal bones seems to be most metabolically active. CONCLUSIONS: The MP level was sufficient for net bone mineralisation. Femur is recommended for studying bone fragility whereas humerus seems useful to study increased P retention. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Suínos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Densidade Óssea , Desenvolvimento Ósseo , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Fósforo na Dieta/análise , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 59(13): 1987-2010, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29393659

RESUMO

Beyond nutrient composition matrix plays an important role on food health potential, notably acting on the kinetics of nutrient release, and finally on their bioavailability. This is particularly true for dairy products that present both solid (cheeses), semi-solid (yogurts) and liquid (milks) matrices. The main objective of this narrative review has been to synthesize available data in relation with the impact of physical structure of main dairy matrices on nutrient bio-accessibility, bioavailability and metabolic effects, in vitro, in animals and in humans. Focus has been made on dairy nutrients the most studied, i.e., proteins, lipids and calcium. Data collected show different kinetics of bioavailability of amino acids, fatty acids and calcium according to the physicochemical parameters of these matrices, including compactness, hardness, elasticity, protein/lipid ratio, P/Ca ratio, effect of ferments, size of fat globules, and possibly other qualitative parameters yet to be discovered. This could be of great interest for the development of innovative dairy products for older populations, sometimes in protein denutrition or with poor dentition, involving the development of dairy matrices with optimized metabolic effects by playing on gastric retention time and thus on the kinetics of release of the amino acids within bloodstream.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Laticínios/análise , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Queijo/análise , Fenômenos Químicos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Iogurte/análise
17.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 189(2): 325-335, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30171595

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to analyze the existing studies and to investigate the relationship between the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and intakes of four individual dietary elements calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K). All relevant articles in both Chinese and English were searched and collected from PubMed, Web of Science, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases up to December 17, 2017. There were 29 eligible literatures selected for further meta-analysis, including 14 cohort studies and 15 case-control studies. The meta-analysis of cohort studies indicated that the high intakes of dietary Ca and Mg were negatively associated with the risk of CRC, as the hazard ratios (HR) were 0.76 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72, 0.80) and 0.80 (95% CI 0.73, 0.87), respectively. Nevertheless, high intake of dietary heme Fe was positively correlated to the incidence of colon cancer (HR = 1.01, 95% CI 0.82, 1.19) and rectal cancer (HR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.67, 1.42). A meta-analysis of case-control studies indicated that high intakes of dietary Ca, Mg, and K were negatively related with the occurrence of CRC, because the odds ratios (OR) were 0.36 (95% CI 0.32, 0.40), 0.80 (95% CI 0.63, 0.98) and 0.97 (95% CI 0.74, 1.21), respectively. However, high Fe intake from diet was positively correlated with the rising increasing of CRC (OR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.91, 1.18). More research is needed to indicate the risk relationship between element intake and CRC.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dieta , Ferro/análise , Magnésio/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria por Raios X
18.
Food Chem ; 278: 110-118, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583351

RESUMO

Dried, fermented blends of dairy products and cereals, such as kishk and tarhana, are foodstuffs traditionally consumed in many regions as they possess good nutritional qualities and extended storage stability. This study examined the nutritional composition of kishk or tarhana type products and compared with experimental blends of fermented milk and wheat bulgur containing 60-80% milk. The blends with higher milk contents had levels of protein (18.9%) and fat (5.8%) at the concentrations specified in fortified blended foods as outlined by the World Food Program. Higher milk contents were also associated with higher contents of calcium (323.2 mg/100 g), phosphorus (335.3 mg/100 g), vitamin A (486.7 µg/100 g) and α-tocopherol (174.5 µg/100 g). The nutritional content of the experimental fermented milk:wheat bulgur blends compared favourably with that of the commercial samples. These blends may be suitable as base products, to be fortified with micronutrients, for the development of fortified blended foods (FBFs) for humanitarian distribution.


Assuntos
Produtos Fermentados do Leite/análise , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Triticum , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Micronutrientes/análise , Leite , Fósforo/análise , alfa-Tocoferol/análise
19.
Arch Osteoporos ; 13(1): 135, 2018 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30515581

RESUMO

Peak bone mass is reached in late adolescence. Low peak bone mass is a well recognized risk factor for osteoporosis later in life. Our data do not support a link between vitamin D status, bone mineral density (BMD), and socioeconomic status (SES). However, there was a marked inadequacy of daily calcium intake and a high presence of osteopenia in females with low SES. PURPOSE: Our aims were to (1) examine the effects of different SES on BMD, vitamin D status, and daily calcium intake and (2) investigate any association between vitamin D status and BMD in female university students. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was used to obtain information about SES, daily calcium intake, and physical activity in 138 healthy, female university students (age range 18-22 years). Subjects were stratified into lower, middle, and higher SES according to the educational and occupational levels of their parents. All serum samples were collected in spring for 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (25OHD). Lumbar spine and total body BMD was obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan (Lunar DPX series). Osteopenia was defined as a BMD between - 1.0 and - 2.5 standard deviations (SDs) below the mean for healthy young adults on lumbar spine DXA. RESULTS: No significant difference was found between the three socioeconomic groups in terms of serum 25OHD concentration, BMD levels, or BMD Z scores (p > 0.05). Both the daily intake of calcium was significantly lower (p = 0.02), and the frequency of osteopenia was significantly higher in girls with low SES (p = 0.02). There was no correlation between serum 25OHD concentration and calcium intake and BMD values and BMD Z scores (p > 0.05). The most important factor affecting BMD was weight (ß = 0.38, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Low SES may be associated with sub-optimal bone health and predispose to osteopenia in later life, even in female university students.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Osteoporose/etiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Exercício , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Estado Nutricional , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Turquia , Universidades , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Anim Sci ; 96(11): 4611-4617, 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476154

RESUMO

Diet treatments were arranged in a split-plot design with the whole-plot consisting of 1 of 6 concentrations of dietary Cu (22 to 134 mg/kg total Cu) and the subplot using 1 of 2 sampling techniques (probe vs. hand grab). A total of 6 feeders per treatment were sampled using a brass open handle probe. The probe was inserted into the feeder 4 times to obtain a 900 g of sample. The hand-collected samples were obtained by inserting a bare hand into the feeder approximately 8 times to obtain a 900 g of sample. Within a feeder and sampling technique, subsamples (200 g) were created by using a sample splitting device. In addition to the 6 individual feeder samples, a subsample (33 g) from each individual feeder was pooled within dietary treatment and sampling technique to form a single composite sample (200 g). This process was repeated until 4 individual composite samples were created for each diet and sampling technique. Next, all samples were ground through a centrifugal mill and submitted for mineral analysis in duplicate for Cu, Zn, Ca, and P analysis. Results indicated variability when sampling feeders with a probe were reduced (P = 0.013) for Cu and marginally reduced (P = 0.058) for Ca when compared with hand-sampling. However, no evidence for differences was detected among sampling techniques for Zn and P for the individual feeder analysis. When samples were pooled from 6 feeders to form a single composite sample, there was no evidence for differences detected among sampling techniques for Cu, Zn, Ca, and P analysis. From these results, sampling frequency calculations were determined to assess sampling accuracy within a 95% confidence interval. Results indicated that the number of feeders or composite samples required to analyze was less for Cu, Zn, Ca, and P analysis when using a probe compared with a hand sampling. In summary, sampling with a probe is associated with less variability on an individual sample basis, but when individual samples are pooled to form a composite sample, there was no evidence for difference among sampling techniques. Our results suggest samples collected for these analyses with a probe and composited would be the best option to minimize variation and analytical costs.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Cobre/análise , Fósforo/análise , Suínos/metabolismo , Zinco/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Minerais/análise
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