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1.
Food Chem ; 307: 125645, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644983

RESUMO

A simple electrochemical sensor was developed to determine the concentration of Ca2+ in meat. Graphene was treated with oxygen plasma for 10 s and 30 s comparing with the pristine graphene. Through analyzing morphology and chemical composition, the graphene with the lowest defect density was chosen to mix with bovine serum albumin molecule-functionalized gold nanoparticles. It was interesting that only a few gold nanoparticles were trapped in the graphene with 10 s plasma treatment. Then, under the optimal condition measured, the limit of detection was detected as 3.9 × 10-8 M with a linear relationship from 5 × 10-8 to 3 × 10-4 M. Finally, the proposed electrochemical method was applied to detect Ca2+ in the pork sample with stability and reproducibility verified by parallel detections. Thus, the proposed method demonstrates its potential for effectively detecting Ca2+ in meat and prominently reduces time consumption on operations and pretreatments.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Carne/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Ouro/química , Grafite/química , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Troponina C/metabolismo
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 394-400, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study examined the potential for 'Smart Food' with respect to contributing to the Sustainable Development Goal 2 of ending malnutrition by 2030, using a small-scale capacity building case study in Oe Be Village, Myingyan district, Mandalay region, Myanmar. Within the study site, refined white rice is the major staple, followed by vegetables and animal source food in inadequate quantities. The protein intake in this particular dry zone community meets only 50% of the daily requirement and even less for those children aged less than 23 months. Therefore, to determine the acceptance and opportunity for legumes and millets which are produced locally, nutritious formulations were introduced for various age groups. In addition, a sensory evaluation of the recipes was conducted to test the acceptance of the nutritious products. RESULTS: Two weeks of the inclusion of millets and pigeonpea in the diets of children aged 6-23 months had a positive impact on wasting, stunting and underweight (P = 0.002, 0.014 and 0.023, respectively). Moreover, the acceptability of these new food products by the children was found to be high. These results indicate an unexplored opportunity for specific millets rich in iron, zinc and calcium, as well as for pigeonpea rich in protein, if prepared in a culturally acceptable way. CONCLUSION: The impact and acceptability of this small scale and short-term intervention indicate the potential for Smart Food products in filling the nutrition gap arising from the traditional food consumption habits in the dry zones of Myanmar. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Cajanus/metabolismo , Milhetes/metabolismo , Cajanus/química , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro/análise , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Milhetes/química , Mianmar , Estado Nutricional , População Rural
3.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(6): 445-456, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553227

RESUMO

To investigate effects of dietary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) levels and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD3) supplementation on performance and bone properties of broiler starters, 224 male Arbor Acre broilers were used in a 21-d trial. Broilers were allotted to one of four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement including diets either normal or low in Ca and P, which were further supplemented or not with 69 µg 25OHD3/kg feed. Feeding low Ca and P diets significantly reduced performance of boilers and decreased ash, Ca, P and hydroxyproline contents in tibias and femurs (p < 0.05). Ultimate load, bending moment, stiffness and energy to fail were decreased (p < 0.05) in broilers fed diets deficient in Ca and P. Addition of 25OHD3 did not influence performance but significantly increased serum 25OHD3 levels. Furthermore, the addition of 25OHD3 caused an increased tibial and femoral bone density and femoral hydroxyproline content (p < 0.05), increased bending moment in tibias (p < 0.05), and enhanced ultimate load and bending moment in femurs (p < 0.05). No significant interactions were observed for bone properties. Overall, feeding 25OHD3 at 69 µg/kg feed to broilers had no effect on growth performance but partly improved bone biochemical and biomechanical properties of broiler starters.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroxicolecalciferóis/metabolismo , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Tíbia/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fêmur/fisiologia , Hidroxicolecalciferóis/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 144(16): 1125-1132, 2019 08.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416104

RESUMO

A finely balanced control system keeps the extracellular calcium concentration within narrow limits. Disorders of calcium metabolism are often based on altered parathormone levels. Symptoms are not always clear, sometimes they are even missing: the more it is important to know possible associated diseases. The author presents basics, current diagnostics and concrete therapy options. Central hormone for the regulation of the calcium balance is the parathyroid hormone. With decreasing calcium, PTH leads to an increase in extracellular free calcium concentration in three ways. The classic symptoms of pHPT (polyuria, polydipsia, "stone, leg, and stomach pain") are rare now, as the condition is diagnosed much earlier. Treatment of choice in all symptomatic patients with pHPT is surgery. FHH and pHPT are both characterized by hypercalcaemia and increased parathyroid hormone. The differential diagnosis of urinary calcium excretion, which is usually lower in FHH but normal or elevated in pHPT, is crucial. In primary hypoparathyroidism, parathyroid failure interferes with calcium homeostasis at a central location. Consequences are hypocalcaemia, hyperphosphatemia and lack of active vitamin D. Due to increased urinary calcium excretion, patients with ADH are at high risk for kidney stones, nephrocalcinosis and the development of renal insufficiency. Recently, rhPTH 1-84 has been available for the treatment of hypoparathyroidism. However, long-term data is still lacking to provide a safe indication, considering potential effects and side effects.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Metabolismo do Cálcio , Cálcio na Dieta , Cálcio , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cálcio/fisiologia , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoparatireoidismo , Vitamina D
5.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 6005-6018, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328776

RESUMO

To meet the high calcium (Ca) demand during eggshell biomineralization (2 g of Ca per egg), laying hens develop specific metabolic regulations to maintain Ca homeostasis. The intake of Ca, its solubilization, and absorption capacity are enhanced at sexual maturity (SM). A better knowledge of the intestinal Ca transporters involved in their variations at this stage could indicate new nutritional strategies to enhance Ca digestive utilization. Transcellular Ca absorption pathway and its major player calbindin-D 28 K (CALB1) mediate a saturable transport, which has been extensively described in this model. Conversely, a contribution by the paracellular pathway involving non-saturable Ca transport through intercellular tight junction has also been suggested. The aim of the present study was to identify candidate genes of these two pathways and their patterns of expression, in immature pullets (12, 15, and 17 wk old) and mature laying hens (23 wk old) in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Using RT-qPCR, this study identifies 3 new candidate genes for transcellular, and 9 for paracellular Ca transport. A total of 5 candidates of the transcellular pathway, transient receptor potential cation channels subfamily C member 1 (TRPC1) and M member 7 (TRPM7); CALB1 and ATPase plasma membrane Ca2+ transporting 1 (ATP2B1) and ATPase plasma membrane Ca2+ transporting 2 (ATP2B2) were enhanced with age or after SM in the duodenum, the jejunum or all 3 segments. A total of 4 candidates of the paracellular pathway Claudin 2 (CLDN2) and tight junction proteins 1, 2, and 3 (TJP1, TJP2 and TJP3) increased in the small intestine after SM. Additionally, CALB1, ATP2B2, and CLDN2 were overexpressed in the duodenum or the jejunum or both segments after SM. The enhanced expression of candidate genes of the paracellular Ca pathway after SM, supports that the non-saturable transport could be a mechanism of great importance when high concentrations of soluble Ca are observed in the intestinal content during eggshell formation. Both pathways may work cooperatively in the duodenum and jejunum, the main sites of Ca absorption in laying hens.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Galinhas/genética , Feminino , Absorção Intestinal/genética
6.
J Anim Sci ; 97(9): 3907-3919, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294448

RESUMO

The objective of this present study was to determine the effects of phytase dosing on growth performance, mineral digestibility, phytate breakdown, and the level of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) in muscle plasma membranes of weanling pigs. A total of 160 barrows were used in a randomized completely block design and assigned to 4 treatments for a 7-wk study. Depending on the feeding phase, diets differed in dietary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) levels (positive control [PC]: 8 to 6.8g/kg Ca; 7.3 to 6.3 g/kg P; negative control [NC]: 5.5 to 5.2 g/kg Ca; 5.4 to 4.7 g/kg P). NC diets were supplemented with phytase at 0 (NC); 500 (NC + 500 FTU); or 2,000 FTU/kg (NC + 2,000 FTU) phytase units/kg. Blood was collected after fasting (day 48) or feeding (day 49) for measurement of plasma inositol concentrations. On day 49, 2 pigs per pen were euthanized, and duodenal and ileal digesta samples were collected to determine inositol phosphates (InsP6-2) concentrations. High phytase supplementation increased BW on days 21, 35, and 49 (P < 0.05). Over the entire feeding period, ADG, ADFI, and feed efficiency were increased by NC + 2,000 FTU compared with the other treatments (P < 0.05). Postprandial plasma inositol concentration was increased in NC + 2,000 (P < 0.01), but there was only a tendency (P = 0.06) of a higher fasting plasma inositol concentration in this group. Inositol concentrations in the portal vein plasma (day 49) were not different among treatments. Duodenal digesta InsP5 and InsP6 concentrations were similar in PC and NC, but higher in these 2 treatments (P < 0.05) than those supplemented with phytase. Phytase supplementation decreased InsP6-4, resulting in increased InsP3-2 and myo-inositol concentrations. Similar effects were found in ileal contents. Compared with NC, phytase supplementation resulted in greater cumulative InsP6-2 disappearance (93.6% vs. 72.8% vs. 25.0%, for NC + 2,000 FTU, NC + 500 FTU and NC, respectively, P < 0.01) till the distal ileum. Longissimus dorsi muscle plasma membrane GLUT4 concentration was increased by NC + 2,000 FTU (P < 0.01) compared with NC. In summary, high phytase supplementation increased growth performance of nursery pigs. The higher myo-inositol release from phytate could contribute to the increased expression of GLUT4 in muscle plasma membranes. Further investigation is needed to determine whether this is associated with enhanced cellular glucose uptake and utilization.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Inositol/sangue , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Íleo/metabolismo , Fosfatos de Inositol/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculos/metabolismo , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia
7.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5789-5800, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265114

RESUMO

The anti-nutritional effects of dietary inositol phosphates (IP6 through IP3) have been recognized in broiler chickens; however, inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is more potent than the lower IP esters. The efficacies of 2 commercial phytases, a Buttiauxella sp. phytase (BSP) and a Citrobacter braakii phytase (CBP) at 500 and 1,000 FTU/kg, were studied on IP6-3 concentrations in the crop, proventriculus + gizzard, and distal ileum digesta, and ileal IP6 disappearance in broilers at day 22. Apparent ileal P and Ca digestibility, and bone quality at days 22 and 33 were also measured. Female Ross 308 broilers (n = 1,890; 30 birds × 7 diets × 9 replicates) were fed corn-soy-based crumbled diets. The 7 diets included a primary breeder recommendation-based positive control diet (PC); the PC marginally reduced in available P by 0.146% and Ca by 0.134% of the diet, (NC1) or moderately reduced by 0.174 and 0.159% of the diet, respectively (NC2). Other diets were the NC1 + BSP or CBP at 500 FTU/kg (NC1+500BSP and NC1+500CBP) and the NC2 + BSP or CBP at 1,000 FTU/kg (NC2+1,000BSP and NC2+1,000CBP). Each of the NC1 and NC2 had distal ileum IP6 disappearance similar to that of PC, but each had lower P digestibility and the majority of measured bone quality parameters than the PC. The ileal IP6 levels were decreased by 52.0 and 32.7% for NC1+500BSP and NC1+500CBP, respectively, relative to NC1 and by 73.6 and 50.9% for NC2+1,000BSP and NC2+1,000CBP, respectively, relative to NC2 (P < 0.001), with a similar effect for distal ileum IP6 disappearance. Overall, phytase in the NC diets increased P digestibility, and femur breaking strength and cortical bone mineral density at days 22 and 33. Overall, each of the phytases at each dose degraded IP6-3 across the gastrointestinal tract segments to increase P digestibility and the P and Ca utilization in bone. However, dietary BSP at 1,000 FTU/kg was most effective. Supplemental phytase degrades phytate to decrease the anti-nutritional effects in a dose- and phytase-dependent manner.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/metabolismo , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/química , Fosfatos de Inositol/metabolismo , 6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Citrobacter/química , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
J Anim Sci ; 97(8): 3369-3378, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265734

RESUMO

The quality and strength of the skeleton is regulated by mechanical loading and adequate mineral intake of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). Whole body vibration (WBV) has been shown to elicit adaptive responses in the skeleton, such as increased bone mass and strength. This experiment was designed to determine the effects of WBV and dietary Ca and P on bone microarchitecture and turnover. A total of 26 growing pigs were utilized in a 60-d experiment. Pigs were randomly assigned within group to a 2 × 2 factorial design with dietary Ca and P concentration (low and adequate) as well as WBV. The adequate diet was formulated to meet all nutritional needs according to the NRC recommendations for growing pigs. Low Ca, P diets had 0.16% lower Ca and 0.13% lower P than the adequate diet. Pigs receiving WBV were vibrated 30 min/d, 3 d/wk at a magnitude of 1 to 2 mm and a frequency of 50 Hz. On days 0, 30, and 60, digital radiographs were taken to determine bone mineral content by radiographic bone aluminum equivalency (RBAE) and serum was collected to measure biochemical markers of bone formation (osteocalcin, OC) and bone resorption (carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks, CTX-I). At day 60, pigs were euthanized and the left third metacarpal bone was excised for detailed analysis by microcomputed tomography (microCT) to measure trabecular microarchitecture and cortical bone geometry. Maximum RBAE values for the medial or lateral cortices were not affected (P > 0.05) by WBV. Pigs fed adequate Ca and P tended (P = 0.10) to have increased RBAE max values for the medial and lateral cortices. WBV pigs had significantly decreased serum CTX-1 concentrations (P = 0.044), whereas animals fed a low Ca and P diet had increased (P < 0.05) OC concentrations. In bone, WBV pigs showed a significantly lower trabecular number (P = 0.002) and increased trabecular separation (P = 0.003), whereas cortical bone parameters were not significantly altered by WBV or diet (P > 0.05). In summary, this study confirmed the normal physiological responses of the skeleton to a low Ca, P diet. Interestingly, although the WBV protocol utilized in this study did not elicit any significant osteogenic response, decreases in CTX-1 in response to WBV may have been an early local adaptive bone response. We interpret these data to suggest that the frequency and amplitude of WBV was likely sufficient to elicit a bone remodeling response, but the duration of the study may not have captured the full extent of an entire bone remodeling cycle.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/farmacologia , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Fósforo na Dieta/farmacologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Densidade Óssea , Remodelação Óssea , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Vibração , Microtomografia por Raio-X/veterinária
9.
J Anim Sci ; 97(8): 3390-3398, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162527

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that a corn-expressed phytase increases growth performance, bone measurements, and nutrient digestibility by young growing pigs, if added to diets that are deficient in Ca and P. In Exp. 1, 60 pigs (initial BW: 10.78 ± 0.67 kg) were randomly allotted to 6 dietary treatments that included a positive control diet (PC; 0.70% total Ca and 0.60% total P) and a negative control diet (NC; 0.50% total Ca and 0.42% total P). Four additional diets were formulated by supplementing the NC diet with 250, 500, 1,000, or 1,500 phytase units (FTU)/kg. Diets were fed for 28 d and the individual BW of pigs on days 1 and 28 were recorded. Fecal samples were collected from days 25 to 27 to calculate apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of Ca and P. On the last day of the experiment, all pigs were euthanized, and the left femur was removed and analyzed for ash, Ca, and P. Results indicated that growth performance, ATTD of Ca and P, and bone ash measurements were reduced (P < 0.05) in NC fed pigs compared with PC fed pigs. However, growth performance, ATTD of Ca and P, and bone ash measurements were improved (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) by including increasing concentrations of phytase to the NC diet. In Exp. 2, experimental procedures were similar to those used in Exp. 1. Forty-eight pigs (initial BW: 11.15 ± 0.85 kg) were randomly allotted to 6 dietary treatments in a 28-d experiment. Treatments included a PC diet, an NC diet, and 4 diets in which 500 or 1,000 FTU/kg of either the corn-expressed phytase or a commercial microbial phytase were added to the NC diet. Pigs fed the NC diet had reduced (P < 0.01) final BW, ADG, G:F, and bone ash concentrations compared with pigs fed the PC diet. When 500 FTU/kg phytase was fed, no differences were observed in growth performance or bone ash measurements between phytase sources, and there were no differences in growth performance among pigs fed 1,000 FTU/kg of either phytase source or the PC diet. However, regardless of concentration or source of phytase, pigs fed the PC diet had greater (P < 0.001) amount of bone ash, bone Ca, and bone P compared with pigs fed phytase diets. In conclusion, the corn-expressed phytase is effective in improving growth performance, Ca and P digestibility, and bone measurements in pigs fed diets that are deficient in Ca and P.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/farmacologia , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Zea mays/enzimologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/farmacologia , Fezes/química , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Minerais , Distribuição Aleatória , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/genética
10.
Poult Sci ; 98(10): 4313-4326, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237335

RESUMO

Genetic progress and increasing nutrient density for greater body mass and meat yield in poultry has inadvertently led to an imbalance between pectorales mass and sternal development which may or may not be detrimental to productivity and welfare. Slowing weight gain while promoting bone mineralization could positively influence sternal health. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of graded calcium (Ca) supplementation in low nutrient density (LND) diets on sternal mass and bone turnover in meat ducks. Male meat ducks (720, 15-day-old) were randomly assigned and fed a standard nutrient density positive control (PC) diet, and 4 LND diets with 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, and 1.1% Ca, respectively. Metabolic energy (ME) was reduced in the LND by 9.5 and 16.3% at 15-35 D and 36-56 D compared to PC diet, respectively, while maintaining proportionate essential nutrient proportions to energy similar as in the PC diet. Although the 0.9% Ca LND diet decreased body weight and sternal dimension, it increased the relative sternum weight, the trabecular bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV) and Ca content of the sternum compared with PC diet. Feeding 0.7% or more Ca with the LND diet significantly increased the mineral content, bone density, BV/TV, and trabecular number of the sternum for 49-days-old ducks. Furthermore, the LND diet with 0.7% or more Ca-increased osteocyte-specific gene mRNA and osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression, and it blocked the expression of cathepsin K and decreased osteoclasts number per bone surface. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining also revealed that the addition 0.7% or more Ca to the LND diet significantly decreased the number of osteoclasts compared with the 0.5% Ca LND diet. Meanwhile TRAP activity in serum was significantly decreased in 0.7% or more Ca-treated groups. We concluded that LND diet with 0.7% or more Ca may maintain optimal sternal mass through suppressing bone resorption for meat duck.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Patos/fisiologia , Osteoclastos/fisiologia , Esterno/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ganho de Peso , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Remodelação Óssea , Calcificação Fisiológica , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Diferenciação Celular , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Nutrientes/análise , Osteoblastos/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória
11.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5562-5570, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189179

RESUMO

Gnotobiotic broiler chickens were used to study interactive effects of supplemented phosphorus, calcium (PCa), and phytase (Phy) on myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis (dihydrogen phosphate) (InsP6) degradation and release of myo-inositol in the digestive tract. In 2 subsequent runs, the chickens were subjected to 1 of 4 dietary treatments with and without PCa and Phy supplementation. Sanitized eggs were hatched in 8 germfree isolators, and a minimum of 9 male Ross 308 chickens were placed in each pen (total 16 pens). Treatments implemented on day 10 included gamma-irradiated diets without (PCa-; 4.1 g P and 6.2 g Ca/kg DM) or with (PCa+; 6.9 g P and 10.4 g Ca/kg DM) monosodium phosphate and limestone supplementation and without (Phy-) or with (Phy+) 1,500 FTU Phy/kg feed in a factorial arrangement. On day 15, digesta was collected from different sections of the intestinal tract and analyzed for InsP isomers and myo-inositol. The isolators did not remain germfree, but analysis of contaminants and results of InsP degradation indicated no or minor effects of the identified contaminants. Prececal InsP6 disappearance was 42% with the PCa-Phy- treatment and 17% with PCa+Phy-. No InsP3-4 isomers were found in the digesta of the terminal ileum in PCa-Phy-. The concentration of myo-inositol in the ileal digesta from PCa-Phy- (6.1 µmol/g DM) was significantly higher than that from PCa+Phy- (1.7 µmol/g DM), suggesting rapid degradation of the lower InsP isomers by mucosal phosphatases and their inhibition by PCa. Phytase supplementation increased InsP6 disappearance and prevented inhibitory effects of PCa supplements (72% in PCa-Phy+ and 67% in PCa+Phy+). However, PCa supplementation reduced the degradation of lower InsP isomers mainly in the posterior intestinal sections in the presence of Phy, resulting in significantly lower myo-inositol concentrations. It is concluded that mucosa-derived phosphatases might significantly contribute to InsP6 degradation in broiler chickens. The potential of mucosa-derived phosphatases to degrade InsP6 and lower InsP is markedly reduced by dietary PCa supplementation.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/metabolismo , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Vida Livre de Germes , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Masculino
12.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052301

RESUMO

: The association between nutrient patterns and metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been examined in a Japanese population. A cross-sectional study was performed on 30,108 participants (aged 35-69 years) in the baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. Dietary intake was assessed using a 46-item food frequency questionnaire. MetS was diagnosed according to the Joint Interim Statement Criteria of 2009, using body mass index instead of waist circumference. Factor analysis was applied to energy-adjusted intake of 21 nutrients, and three nutrient patterns were extracted: Factor 1 (fiber, potassium and vitamins pattern); Factor 2 (fats and fat-soluble vitamins pattern); and Factor 3 (saturated fatty acids, calcium and vitamin B2 pattern). In multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for sex, age, and other potential confounders, Factor 1 scores were associated with a significantly reduced odds ratio (OR) of MetS and all five components. Factor 2 scores were associated with significantly increased prevalence of MetS, obesity, and high blood pressure. Factor 3 scores were significantly associated with lower OR of MetS, high blood pressure, high serum triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol levels. Analysis of nutrient patterns may be useful to assess the overall quality of diet and its association with MetS.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Nutrientes/classificação , Adulto , Idoso , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/metabolismo
13.
J Anim Sci ; 97(6): 2524-2533, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056701

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of increasing the dose of a 6-phytase from Buttiauxella on phytate degradation, mineral, energy, and AA digestibility in weaned pigs fed complex diets based on wheat, corn, soybean meal, barley, and rapeseed meal. A negative control (NC) diet containing no added inorganic phosphorus (P) and a reduction of 0.1% calcium (Ca) and 36 kcal/kg ME was supplemented with Buttiauxella phytase at 0, 250, 500, 1,000, or 2,000 FTU/kg diet and tested against a nutritionally adequate, positive control (PC) diet. One phytase units (FTU) is the amount of enzyme that liberates 1 micromole of inorganic phosphate per minute from a sodium phytate substrate at pH 5.5 and 37 °C. Barrows (Topigs × Pietrian; initial mean body weight 19.3 kg) were housed individually in metabolic crates and fed the test diets in mash form via 2 equal meals per day for 9 d (fed at 2.5 times the maintenance energy requirement), with 8 replicate pigs per treatment, in 2 experimental runs (total n = 48). After a 3-d adaptation period, urine and feces were collected over 5 d for measurements of apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and retention of nutrients. On day 9, pigs were euthanized and ileal digesta collected for measurements of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients. Phytase improved (P < 0.05) digestibility of all measured AA except Trp (P < 0.1), and AID P, nitrogen, phytate, ATTD P, Ca versus NC. Increasing phytase dose from 0 (NC) to 2,000 FTU/kg increased AID Lys, Cys, Thr, Val, Ile, Leu, mean AA, P, N, phytate, ATTD P, N, Na, energy, ME, P retention (g/d), and reduced P excretion (g/d) in a linear or exponential manner (P < 0.05). Phytase at 2,000 FTU/kg improved AA digestibility by between +3.1 percentage points (Trp) and +8.8 percentage points (Cys) versus NC (average +6.3 percentage points) (P < 0.05). Phytase inclusion at 2,000 FTU/kg reduced P excretion (g/d) by 57% versus PC (P < 0.05). In conclusion, increasing Buttiauxella phytase in the range of 0 to 2,000 FTU/kg increased phytate degradation, improved AA and P digestibility, and reduced P excretion in weaned pigs fed complex diets.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Enterobacteriaceae/enzimologia , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Brassica rapa , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Hordeum , Minerais/metabolismo , Soja , Triticum , Zea mays
14.
Poult Sci ; 98(10): 4919-4928, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065713

RESUMO

To study the effects of pre-lay dietary Ca and strain on Ca utilization and femur quality at 1st through to 50th egg, 30 Lohmann Brown (LB) and 30 Lohmann Selected Leghorn-Lite (LSL) pullets (14 weeks of age, woa) reared under same management regimen were used. Six pullets/strain were necropsied for baseline femur samples and the rest (24 pullets/strain) placed in individual cages (65 × 30 × 45 cm3) and fed 1% Ca developer diet for 2 wk. At 16 woa, all pullets were weighed and allocated within strains to pre-lay diets (2.5 vs. 4.0% Ca) effectively creating a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The pullets were offered pre-lay diets for 2 wk and switched to 4% Ca diet at 18 woa. The diets contained TiO2 to determine apparent retention (AR) of Ca. The age, BW, and feed intake (FI) at 1st, 25th, and 50th egg were recorded. Excreta samples were taken during pre-lay, at 1st and 25th egg and 4 hens per treatment were necropsied for femur samples at 1st, 25th, and 50th egg. There was no interaction (P > 0.05) between pre-lay Ca and strain on Ca intake, femur mineral density (FMD), mineral content (FMC), breaking strength (FBS), and ash (FA) content at 1st, 25th, and 50th egg. At 1st egg, pre-lay Ca interacted with strain on AR of Ca (P = 0.014) such that LB hens retained more Ca at 2.5 vs. 4.0% Ca or LSL at 2.5% Ca. Pre-lay Ca had no effect (P > 0.05) on FMD, FMC, FBS, and FA at 1st, 25th, and 50th egg lay. Compared with LB hens, LSL hens had higher FMD (0.30 vs. 0.19 g/cm2; P = 0.010) and FA (51.9 vs. 42.5%; P < 0.01) at 1st egg and FBS (259.4 vs. 173.8 N, P < 0.01) at 25th egg. In conclusion, except at 25th egg, pre-lay Ca and strain had independent effect on Ca utilization. Femur attributes to 1st egg suggested innate need for LSL birds to accumulate critical bone mass prior to first oviposition.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Fêmur/química , Fêmur/fisiologia , Óvulo/fisiologia
15.
Poult Sci ; 98(10): 4896-4900, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064011

RESUMO

Dietary factors such as adenine have been linked to phosphate-calcium metabolism disturbance and adverse productive outcomes. Anti-fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) antibody has been proposed to ameliorate adenine-induced abnormal FGF23/phosphate metabolism. This experiment was conducted to investigate the application of anti-FGF-23 antibody in adenine-gavaged laying hens. Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens with (n = 10) or without (control group, n = 10) systemic anti-FGF-23 antibody were orally gavaged with adenine (600 mg/hen/D) for 21 consecutive days. Adenine gavage increased (P ≤ 0.01) plasma phosphate and calcium levels and tended to increase (0.05 < P ≤ 0.1) plasma 1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol [1,25(OH)2D3] level of hens without FGF-23 antibody. In hen with anti-FGF-23 antibody, adenine gavage increased (P ≤ 0.01) body weight and plasma calcium level and decreased (P ≤ 0.05) plasma FGF-23 level. Feed intake of hens in both treatments was suddenly decreased (control hens decreased from 111 to 55 g, P ≤ 0.01; anti-FGF-23 hens decreased from 96 to 46 g, P ≤ 0.01) 10 D after adenine gavage. Anti-FGF-23 antibody tended to increase (0.05 < P ≤ 0.1) plasma phosphorus level of hens before adenine gavage, interestingly, and decreased (P ≤ 0.01) plasma FGF-23 level and kidney index (% of body weight) of hens after adenine gavage. In conclusion, anti-FGF-23 antibody might be used (before or in the early stage) to delay the development of adenine-induced abnormal FGF23/phosphate metabolism. This is the first study to investigate the FGF-23 status in chickens suffering from dietary factors which may cause abnormal renal phosphate resorption.


Assuntos
Adenina/administração & dosagem , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Autoanticorpos/metabolismo , Galinhas/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Necessidades Nutricionais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatos/metabolismo
16.
Poult Sci ; 98(10): 4359-4368, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073614

RESUMO

Calcium depletion is a valuable non-invasive tool for studying skeletal system disorders. A low calcium diet (LCD) was used to examine the pathophysiological characteristics and molecular mechanisms of osteoporotic damage in caged laying hens. Sixty 64-wk-old laying hens were randomly housed in single-bird cages, and the cages were divided into 2 treatments: fed a regular calcium diet (RCD, 3.69%) or a LCD (1.56%) for 8 wk. The diet-induced changes of serum bone remodeling indicators, bone strength, microstructure of the distal femur, and the gene expression profiling of keel bone were measured. Compared to RCD hens, LCD hens had higher activity of serum alkaline phosphatase and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase but lower serum calcium concentrations with reduced tibial and femoral mass, width, and strength (P < 0.05). In addition, LCD hens had greater densities of osteoclasts, osteoblasts, connective tissue cells, and osteoid in the trabecular bone (P < 0.05). The transcriptome analysis revealed that 563 unigenes were differentially expressed in keel bone between LCD and RCD hens. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses revealed that these differentially expressed genes were mainly associated with the osteoporosis-related signaling pathways involved in the biological functions of the bone cellular and extracellular structural modulations. The real-time PCR analysis further confirmed that the LCD enhanced the mRNA expression of collagen type 1 alpha 2, integrin-binding sialoprotein and periostin, but inhibited sclerostin expression. These findings indicate that LCD hens have a higher bone turnover and micro-architectural damage compared to RCD hens. The results further evidence dietary supplement of calcium is a critical nutrient strategy for improving hen skeletal health.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/fisiopatologia , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Transcrição Genética/fisiologia , Animais , Remodelação Óssea/genética , Calcificação Fisiológica/genética , Galinhas/genética , Feminino , Fêmur/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Tíbia/fisiologia
17.
J Anim Sci ; 97(8): 3440-3450, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111158

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca and the response to microbial phytase is constant among different sources of Ca carbonate and that the STTD of Ca is constant among different sources of dicalcium phosphate (DCP) when fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 80 pigs (initial BW: 19.0 ± 1.9 kg) were randomly allotted to 10 diets and 2 blocks with 4 pigs per diet in each block. Four sources of Ca carbonate were used, and each source was included in a diet without microbial phytase and a diet with microbial phytase (500 units/kg diet). Two Ca-free diets without or with microbial phytase were also formulated. Feed allowance was 2.7 times the maintenance energy requirement for ME and daily feed allotments were divided into 2 equal meals. The initial 4 d of each period were considered the adaptation period to the diets followed by 4 d of fecal collection using the marker-to-marker procedure. Pigs fed diets containing exogenous phytase had lower (P < 0.05) basal endogenous loss of Ca compared with pigs fed diets containing no phytase. There were no interactions between phytase and source of Ca carbonate. Values for STTD of Ca were greater (P < 0.05) for diets containing microbial phytase (77.3% to 85.4%) compared with diets without exogenous phytase (70.6% to 75.2%), and values for STTD of Ca differed (P < 0.05) among the 4 sources of Ca carbonate. In Exp. 2, 40 pigs (initial BW: 14.9 ± 1.3 kg) were allotted to a completely randomized design with 5 diets and 8 replicate pigs per diet. A basal diet in which all Ca was supplied by Ca carbonate was formulated. Three diets were formulated by adding 3 sources of DCP to the basal diet and a Ca-free diet was also used. Feeding and collection methods were as described for Exp. 1. Results indicated that values for STTD of Ca and ATTD of P were not different among diets, indicating that under the conditions of this experiment, the digestibility of Ca and P in DCP appears to be constant regardless of origin of DCP. In conclusion, use of microbial phytase reduces the basal endogenous loss of Ca and increases Ca digestibility in Ca carbonate. The STTD of Ca varies among sources of Ca carbonate, regardless of phytase inclusion, but that appears not to be the case for the STTD of Ca in different sources of DCP.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Carbonato de Cálcio/metabolismo , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Suínos/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/farmacologia , Fosfatos de Cálcio/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Masculino , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos/microbiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217490, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125379

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing doses of bacterial phytase (RONOZYME HiPhos) on performance and carcass characteristics of growing and finishing pigs. The study included 120 castrated males with initial weight of 23.21 ± 1.91 kg and 68 days of age, distributed in a randomized block design with five treatments and eight replicates with three animals each. The pigs were fed five corn-soybean meal-based diets: positive control (PC), supplemented with inorganic phosphorus and calcium; negative control (NC), with 0.13% reduction in available phosphorus and 0.11% in calcium; and three NC diets supplemented with 1,000, 2,000, and 3,000 phytase units (FYT)/kg in the feed. Compared with the NC diets without phytase, diets with 1,000, 2,000, and 3,000 FYT/kg inclusion increased the daily weight gain by +12% (quadratic, p<0.05) during the growing I period; +2.9, +2.9, and +10.5% (linear, p<0.01), respectively, during the growing II period; and +4.1, +5.1, and +8.2% (linear, p<0.001), respectively, over the entire experimental period. The daily feed intake increased by 0, +2.8, and +4.3% (linear, p<0.05), respectively, considering the entire experimental period; and the final live weight increased by +3.2, +4.2, and +6.1% (linear, p<0.001), respectively. The phytase treatments did not influence feed conversion ratio, carcass weight and yield, backfat thickness, loin depth and carcass lean meat. According to the European Carcass Classification (SEUROP), however, the animals fed the PC diet and the three phytase levels had more carcasses classified as E (between 55-60% lean meat) when compared to carcasses of pigs fed the NC. Supplementing increasing levels of phytase to a corn- and soybean meal-based diet with inorganic P and Ca reduction improved daily weight gain and feed intake of growing pigs, and such effects were maintained until slaughter age.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Citrobacter/enzimologia , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , 6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Dieta , Masculino , Carne/análise , Fósforo na Dieta/análise , Suínos/fisiologia
19.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137803

RESUMO

Kidney stone disease should be viewed as a systemic disorder, associated with or predictive of hypertension, insulin resistance, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular damage. Dietary and lifestyle changes represent an important strategy for the prevention of kidney stone recurrences and cardiovascular damage. A full screening of risk factors for kidney stones and for cardiovascular damage should be recommended in all cases of calcium kidney stone disease, yet it is rarely performed outside of stone specialist clinics. Many patients have a history of kidney stone disease while lacking a satisfactory metabolic profile. Nonetheless, in a real-world clinical practice a rational management of kidney stone patients is still possible. Different scenarios, with different types of dietary approaches based on diagnosis accuracy level can be envisaged. The aim of this review is to give patient-tailored dietary suggestions whatever the level of clinical and biochemistry evaluation. This can help to deliver a useful recommendation, while avoiding excessive dietary restrictions especially when they are not based on a specific diagnosis, and therefore potentially useless or even harmful. We focused our attention on calcium stones and the different scenarios we may find in the daily clinical practice, including the case of patients who reported renal colic episodes and/or passed stones with no information on stone composition, urinary risk factors or metabolic cardiovascular risk factors; or the case of patients with partial and incomplete information; or the case of patients with full information on stone composition, urinary risk factors and metabolic cardiovascular profile.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Líquidos , Exercício , Cálculos Renais/prevenção & controle , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Cálcio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/epidemiologia , Cálculos Renais/metabolismo , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(6): 5699-5705, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005315

RESUMO

Absorption of dietary calcium from the rumen is a quantitatively important process in calcium homeostasis of ruminants. In 3 separate experiments in dairy cows, we applied a technique developed in sheep to measure the rate of strontium (Sr) absorption from the rumen as an indicator of calcium absorption capacity. Absorption from the rumen after an oral dose of SrCl2 resulted in a maximum plasma concentration of Sr after 1 h, whereas absorption from the small intestine after injection of SrCl2 into the abomasum through a cannula occurred more slowly. The second experiment demonstrated that the calcium absorption capacity index of the rumen was significantly greater in 21 lactating Friesian cows (230 ± 66, mean ± SEM) than in 6 mature, nonlactating, nonpregnant heifers (101 ± 21, mean ± SEM). In a third experiment, we compared clinically normal cows at the onset of lactation with those that developed parturient paresis. In cows that developed severe hypocalcemia, plasma concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D were significantly elevated (144 ± 60 pg/mL vs. 90 ± 54 pg/mL; means ± SEM) and their rumen calcium absorption index was significantly decreased compared with that of clinically normal cows. Evidence suggested that mobilization of calcium from bone as lactation commenced was significantly depressed in paretic cows compared with those that did not show clinical signs of hypocalcemia. Moreover, ruminal stasis suppressed the absorption of calcium from the rumen. We conclude that measurement of Sr concentration in blood plasma after an oral dose of SrCl2 into the rumen can be used as an index of rumen calcium absorption capacity under different states of calcium homeostasis.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Bovinos/metabolismo , Estrôncio/metabolismo , Abomaso/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Hipocalcemia/metabolismo , Hipocalcemia/veterinária , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Lactação , Paresia Puerperal/metabolismo , Gravidez , Rúmen/metabolismo
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