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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 3024-3033, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467692

RESUMO

To explore the potential effective components and mechanism of Zhishe Tongluo Capsules in the treatment of ischemic stroke via network pharmacology, molecular docking and cellular experiment. The chemical constituents of Zhishe Tongluo Capsules were found by TCMSP, BATMAN-TCM and literatures. The constituents-target network was predicted by BATMAN-TCM database. Key words such as cerebral stroke, ischemic stroke and cerebral ischemic stroke were used to search ischemic stroke related targets, and then Venny Map was constructed based on the targets of traditional Chinese medicine and the targets of ischemic stroke. The overlapping targets were imported into STRING database to establish the interaction network. Furthermore, the core targets were screened out by Cytoscape software. Go and KEGG enrichment analysis were performed through DVIAD database. The results showed a total of 193 potential chemical constituents, 985 drug targets and 6 035 disease targets. There were 631 potential targets, 44 core targets and 55 potential active components for treating ischemic stroke through Venny mapping. GO enrichment analysis mainly involved response to hypoxia and positive regulation of ERK1/ERK2. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis mainly involved cholinergic synapse, cAMP signaling pathway, and calcium signaling pathway. Molecular docking data revealed that TP53, EGFR, IL6, INS, TNF and SRC had a good capability to bind with their corresponding active components. To ensure the protective effect Zhishe Tongluo Capsules on the inflammation reaction, an in vitro model of lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells was built. The contents of IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α in the supernatant were significantly decreased by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The findings suggested that Zhishe Tongluo Capsules could prevent the injury of ischemic stroke by inhibiting the inflammation.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Cápsulas , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(16): 4208-4213, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467734

RESUMO

In this study, emotional stress-induced herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1) susceptibility model was employed to simu-late the pathological state of " depression-induced liver fire", and the protection effect of Qingre Xiaoyanning(QX) in clearing liver fire was investigated. BALB/c mice were randomly divided into a normal group, a HSV-1 group, a restraint stress + HSV-1 group,low-(0. 658 g·kg~(-1)) and high-dose(1. 316 g·kg~(-1)) QX groups, and an acyclovir group. Except for the normal group and the HSV-1 group, the mice in other groups received daily restraint stress for 6 h from day 3 of medication. On day 9 of medication, mice were anesthetized by isoflurane and infected intranasally with HSV-1. Survival rate, weight change, encephalitis symptoms, and eye injury of mice were recorded for 14 d after virus infection. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and immunohistochemical staining were used to detect pathological changes and HSV-1 antigen distribution. Plaque assay was performed to detect the titer of HSV-1. The protein ex-pression of ICP27 in the mouse brain was detected by Western blot. The experimental results showed that QX could increase the survival rate of HSV-1-infected mice loaded with emotional stress(P<0. 001), reduce the titer of HSV-1 in the mouse brain(P<0. 01), relieve brain inflammation(P<0. 05) and eye injury(P<0. 05), down-regulate the expression of ICP27 related to HSV-1(P<0. 05), and decrease the distribution of HSV-1 antigen in the mouse brain. The results demonstrated that QX significantly reduced the susceptibility to HSV-1 induced by emotional stress, which is expected to provide a theoretical basis for the treatment and preven-tion of HSV-1 infection and promote the clinical development and application of Chinese medicine effective in clearing liver fire.


Assuntos
Herpes Simples , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Angústia Psicológica , Animais , Cápsulas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(16): 4287-4292, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467743

RESUMO

The formulation of expert consensus on clinical application of Chinese patent medicines, in means of exploring the effective combination of experience and evidence to form a research method in line with the characteristics of Chinese patent medicines, is an important transitional stage for clinical researches on Chinese patent medicines. Pre-searching is a new step in the formulation of expert consensus on clinical application of Chinese patent medicines. Before steps of interview and investigation on clinical application, pre-searching is conducted to collect publications and literature on certain variety and similar Chinese patent medicines; the publications on related medical classics and formulas of this variety; the recommendation condition of this variety in clinical practice guidelines and expert consensus; and the medication regimens recommended in disease-specific guidelines. Pre-searching is designed to know about the advantages of certain variety of Chinese patent medicine as well as its potential problems recorded in the literature, which is helpful to find out the clinical positioning of Chinese patent medicines, develop reasonable clinical questions and provide ideas for formal literature searching. However, it is not the direct basis for developing clinical questions. Moreover, interviews and investigations are still needed to further clarify the clinical positioning of Chinese patent medicines and develop reasonable questions. This paper took expert consensus on clinical application of Yanshen Jianwei Capsules as an example to introduce the pre-searching process and methods used during formulation of expert consensus on clinical application of Chinese patent medicines, and to further discuss the role of pre-searching to facilitate the formulation of clinical questions on selection of participants, interventions, controls and outcomes.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Cápsulas , China , Consenso , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
4.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 128: 112271, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474830

RESUMO

Folic acid (FA) is a crucial vitamin for all living creatures. However, it is susceptible to degradation under pH, heat, ultraviolet (UV) and day sunlight conditions, resulting in lowering its bioavailability. Therefore, a versatile protective encapsulation system for FA is highly required to overcome its inherent instability. We report the use of the robust Lycopodium clavatum sporopollenin (LCS) microcapsules, extracted from their natural micrometer-sized raw spores, for FA microencapsulation. The physico-chemical characterisation of the LCS microcapsules are comprehensively investigated before and after the microencapsulation using SEM, elemental, CLSM, FTIR, TGA/DTG and XRD analyses, revealing a successful FA encapsulation within the LCS in an amorphous form. The phenylpropanoid acids, responsible for the UV protection and the autofluorescence of the LCS, were found in the LCS as evidenced by FTIR analysis. TGA/DTG results revealed that the hemi-cellulose and cellulose are the major component of the LCS. A controlled and sustained release of FA from FA-loaded LCS were achieved where the release profile of FA-loaded LCS was found to be pH-dependent. The percentages of cumulative FA released after 10 h at 37 ± 0.5 °C were 45.5% and 76.1% in pH 1.2 and 7.4, respectively, ensuring controlled and slow release in simulated physiological conditions. The FA release kinetic studies indicated the prevalence of the Fickian diffusion mechanism in pH 1.2, while anomalous non-Fickian transport was ascribed for FA release in pH 7.4. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay revealed that the obtained formulations were biocompatible against the human skin fibroblast (HSF) cell line. The versatile LCS microcapsules exhibited intriguing photostability for FA under UV or sunlight irradiation. Concretely, the obtained FA sustained delivery and photoprotection properties of these LCS microcapsules validate their multifunctional characteristics, opening up intriguing applications in oral and topical drug delivery as well as in food industry.


Assuntos
Ácido Fólico , Vitaminas , Biopolímeros , Cápsulas , Carotenoides , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Humanos , Cinética
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(15): 3990-3997, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472276

RESUMO

To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Gongxuening Capsules in the treatment of abnormal vaginal bleeding after medical abortion. CNKI, Wanfang, SinoMed, VIP, PubMed, Cochrane Library and EMbase databases were retrieved to comprehensively collect the clinical randomized controlled trials(RCTs) of Gongxuening Capsules for treatment of abnormal vaginal bleeding after medical abortion from the establishment of the databases to October 10, 2020. Literature screening, data extraction and quality evaluation were conducted independently by two system reviewers according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Cochrane Handbook bias risk assessment tool was used for the literature methodology quality evaluation, RevMan 5.3 software was used for Meta-analysis, and the evidence quality of outcomes was evaluated by the evidence quality grading system(GRADE). A total of 16 RCTs were inclu-ded. The results of Meta-analysis showed that as compared with the western medicine treatment alone, the addition of Gongxuening Capsules to the western medicine treatment can reduce the amount of vaginal bleeding(RR=1.23, 95%CI[1.19, 1.27], P<0.000 01), shorten vaginal bleeding time(RR_(≤15 d number of people)=1.39, 95%CI[1.31, 1.48], P<0.000 01; MD_(number ofdays)=-1.20, 95%CI[-1.66,-0.74],P<0.000 01). However, there was no obvious advantage in abortion effect(RR=1.02, 95%CI[0.99, 1.06], P=0.14) and menstrual recovery(MD=-0.35, 95%CI[-0.96, 0.25], P=0.25). The results of GRADE showed that the grading level was low for vaginal bleeding volume and vaginal bleeding time, and extremely low for abortion effect and mens-trual recovery. In terms of safety, 16 studies reported adverse events. Only one study showed no adverse events and the rest showed transient nausea, vomiting, stomach burning, upper abdominal discomfort and other gastrointestinal symptoms. The results show that the addition of Gongxuening Capsules to the application of western medicine in treatment of drug abortion can reduce the amount of vaginal bleeding and shorten vaginal bleeding time, but the abortion effect and menstrual recovery have no obvious advantages. The use of Gongxuening Capsules helps to achieve less adverse reactions and higher safety. Due to the small sample size of the included studies and many methodological quality problems, no conclusions with clinical guidance value can be obtained. Large sample-zise, high-qua-lity randomized controlled trials are still needed for further verification.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Cápsulas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Hemorragia Uterina
6.
Nanoscale ; 13(34): 14354-14362, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477718

RESUMO

Microencapsulation of therapeutic cells has widely advanced toward the development of treatments for various diseases, in particular seeking the protection of cell transplants from immune rejection. However, several challenges in cell therapy remain due to the lack of suitable methods to monitor in vivo microcapsule tracking, microcapsule stability and/or altered cell viability and proliferation upon transplantation. We propose in this work the incorporation of contrast agents in microcapsules, which can be easily visualized by SERS imaging. By placing SERS probes in the alginate extracellular layer, a high contrast can be obtained with negligible toxicity. Specifically, we used a pH-sensitive SERS tracking probe consisting of gold nanostars encoded with a pH-sensitive Raman-active molecule, and protected by a layer of biocompatible polymer coating, grafted on the nanoparticles via electrostatic interactions. This nanomaterial is highly sensitive within the biologically relevant pH range, 5.5-7.8. We demonstrate that this SERS-based pH sensor can provide information about cell death of microencapsulated cells, in a non-invasive manner. As a result, we expect that this approach should provide a general strategy to study biological interactions at the microcapsule level.


Assuntos
Ouro , Nanoestruturas , Cápsulas , Sobrevivência Celular , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
7.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 150: 109864, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489023

RESUMO

Encapsulated enzymes are stable under various conditions and used in enzyme therapy, catalysis, and biosensors. The capsules are often inspired by structures from nature such as viral capsids, DNA motifs and diatom frustules. They are based on inorganic minerals as well as soft or polymeric materials, or even a combination of these. The choice of material influences the enzyme loading and response to heat, pH and presence of proteases. This review provides a comparison of enzyme encapsulation based on these different principles with a focus on materials inspired by nature.


Assuntos
Biomimética , Polímeros , Biopolímeros , Cápsulas , Catálise , Dióxido de Silício
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(14): 3705-3711, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402295

RESUMO

To observe the effect of Xinfeng Capsules on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) B lymphocytes,inflammatory mediators,FAK/CAPN/PI3K pathway,in order to explore the mechanism of Xinfeng Capsules in improving clinical symptoms of RA.Joint and systemic symptoms of RA patients were observed,and laboratory indicators[hemoglobin (HGB),platelet count (PLT),erythrocyte sedimentation (ESR),immunoglobulin (Ig) G,Ig A,Ig M,rheumatoid factor (RF),anti-cyclic citrulline antibody (CCP-AB),C-reactive protein (CRP)]were detected.ELISA was used to detect serum interleukin (IL)-1ß,IL-10,IL-33,chemokine 5 (CCL5),and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).CD3~-CD19~+B cells were measured by flow cytometry.Western blot was used to detect FAK,p-FAK,CAPN,PI3K protein.The results showed that Xinfeng Capsules could significantly alleviate RA joint and systemic symptoms and improve clinical efficacy.And Xinfeng Capsules could increase HGB,decrease PLT,CCP-AB,CRP,ESR index,upregulate IL-10 expression,and down-regulate IL-1ß,IL-33,CCL5,VEGF,CD3~-CD19~+B cells,FAK,p-FAK,CAPN,PI3K expressions (P<0.01).Based on the above results,Xinfeng Capsules may reduce the expression of CD3~-CD19~+,regulate the balance of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines,inhibit abnormal activation of FAK/CAPN/PI3K pathway,and improve clinical symptoms of RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos B , Cápsulas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Humanos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
9.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 77: 105700, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364068

RESUMO

In this study, microcapsules were prepared by spray drying and embedding hemp seed oil (HSO) with soy protein isolate (SPI) and maltodextrin (MD) as wall materials. The effect of ultrasonic power on the microstructure and characteristics of the composite emulsion and microcapsules was studied. Studies have shown that ultrasonic power has a significant impact on the stability of composite emulsions. The particle size of the composite emulsion after 450 W ultrasonic treatment was significantly lower than the particle size of the emulsion without the ultrasonic treatment. Through fluorescence microscopy observation, HSO was found to be successfully embedded in the wall materials to form an oil/water (O/W) composite emulsion. The spray-dried microcapsules showed a smooth spherical structure through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the particle size was 10.7 µm at 450 W. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis found that ultrasonic treatment would increase the degree of covalent bonding of the SPI-MD complex to a certain extent, thereby improving the stability and embedding effect of the microcapsules. Finally, oxidation kinetics models of HSO and HSO microcapsules were constructed and verified. The zero-order model of HSO microcapsules was found to have a higher degree of fit; after verification, the model can better reflect the quality changes of HSO microcapsules during storage.


Assuntos
Cannabis/química , Modelos Químicos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Proteínas de Soja/química , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Cápsulas , Cinética , Oxirredução
10.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443359

RESUMO

Beet has been used as an ingredient for functional foods due to its high antioxidant activity, thanks to the betalains it contains. The effects of the addition of beet extract (liquid and lyophilized) on the physicochemical characteristics, color, antioxidant activity (AA), total betalains (TB), total polyphenols (TP), and total protein concentration (TPC) were evaluated on stirred yogurt. The treatments (T1-yogurt natural, T2-yogurt added with beet juice, T3-added extract of beet encapsulated with maltodextrin, and T4-yogurt added with extract of beet encapsulated with inulin) exhibited results with significant differences (p < 0.05). The highest TB content was observed in T2 (209.49 ± 14.91), followed by T3 (18.65 ± 1.01) and later T4 (12.96 ± 0.55). The highest AA was observed on T2 after 14 days (ABTS˙ 0.819 mM TE/100 g and DPPH˙ 0.343 mM TE/100 g), and the lowest was found on T1 at day 14 (ABTS˙ 0.526 mM TE/100 g and DPPH˙ 0.094 mM TE/100 g). A high content of TP was observed (7.13 to 9.79 mg GAE/g). The TPC varied between 11.38 to 12.56 µg/mL. The addition of beet extract significantly increased AA in yogurt, betalains being the main compounds responsible for that bioactivity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Beta vulgaris/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Iogurte/análise , Cápsulas , Fenômenos Químicos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Fenômenos Mecânicos
11.
Langmuir ; 37(35): 10424-10432, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427433

RESUMO

Core-shell microcapsules with combined features of hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity have become much popular. However, the assembly of biocompatible and edible materials in hydrophilic-hydrophobic core-shell microcapsules is not easy. In this work, based on electrostatic interactions, we prepared controllable calcium alginate (ALG)-zein core-shell particles of different shapes and sizes using hydrophilic ALG and hydrophobic zein by a two-step extrusion method. Negatively charged hydrogel beads of spherical, ellipsoidal, or fibrous shape were added into a positively charged zein solution (dissolved in 70% (v/v) aqueous ethanol solution) to achieve different-shaped core-shell particles. Interestingly, the size, shape, and shell thickness of the particles can be regulated by the needle diameter, stirring speed, and zein concentration. Moreover, for simplification, the core-shell particles were also synthesized by a one-step extrusion method, in which an ALG solution was added dropwise into a 70% (v/v) aqueous ethanol solution containing zein and CaCl2. The particles synthesized in this work showed controlled digestion of encapsulated medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) and sustained release of encapsulated thiamine and ethyl maltol. Our preparation method is simplistic and can be extended to fabricate a variety of hydrophilic and hydrophobic core-shell structures to encapsulate a broad spectrum of materials.


Assuntos
Zeína , Alginatos , Cápsulas , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Eletricidade Estática
12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(33): 39066-39075, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387079

RESUMO

A controlled release formulation based on silica microcapsules is an ideal selection to improve both the effective utilization and duration of pesticides to decrease ecological damage. Herein, a simple and green method for preparing double-shelled microcapsules was developed using a newly prepared quaternary ammonium ionic liquid (IL) as the functional additive to entrap avermectin (Ave) in mesoporous silica nanospheres (MSNs) and tannic acid-Cu (TA-Cu) complex as the sealing agent to form the core-shell structure (Ave-IL@MSN@TA-Cu). The obtained microcapsules with an average size of 538 nm had pH-responsive release property and good stability in soil. The half-life of microcapsules (34.66 days) was 3 times that of Ave emulsifiable concentrate (EC) (11.55 days) in a test soil, which illustrated that microcapsules could protect Ave from rapid degradation by microorganisms by releasing TA, copper, and quaternary ammonium in the soil. Ave-IL@MSN@TA-Cu microcapsules had better nematicidal activity and antibacterial activity than Ave EC due to the synergistic effect of Ave, IL, and copper incorporated in the microcapsules. Pot experiments showed that the control efficacy of microcapsules was 87.10% against Meloidogyne incognita, which is better than that of Ave EC (41.94%) at the concentration of 1.0 mg/plant by the root-irrigation method after 60 days of treatment owing to the extended duration of Ave in microcapsules. The simple and green method for the preparation of double-shelled microcapsules based on natural quaternary ammonium IL would have tremendous potential for the extensive development of controlled release pesticide formulations.


Assuntos
Cápsulas/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Praguicidas/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Tylenchoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Cobre/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacologia , Composição de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Química Verde , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Ivermectina/química , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Porosidade , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Solubilidade , Taninos/química , Fatores de Tempo
13.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 203: 114227, 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198196

RESUMO

Calcitriol is an active product of vitamin D produced by the liver and kidney hydroxylase metabolism with strong physiological activity. It is the preferred form of medicine for patients with insufficient bone mineralization due to chronic kidney disease. Calcitriol soft capsule is one of the common preparation forms, the main drug content of which is very low (1.55 µg g-1), and the pharmaceutical excipients interfere greatly, especially the oily matrix medium-chain triglycerides. Therefore, removing the interference of oily matrix is ​​the main challenge in the content determination. At present, the commonly used sample purification method for the determination of calcitriol in soft capsules is liquid-liquid extraction, but it usually consumes a lot of toxic organic solvents and it is costly. The adoption of SPE purification method, on the one hand, requires specific experimental equipment, and on the other hand, the organic solvent used in the experiment may cause the dissolution of SPE column tube materials, which will interfere with the subsequent detection. Herein, in order to achieve a cost-effective and reliable determination of calcitriol soft capsule content, we developed a dispersive solid-phase (DSPE) extraction method that directly uses irregular silica as sorbent, which is followed by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV detector(HPLC-UV)analysis. Selective retention of calcitriol is achieved by the polar interaction between calcitriol and silica, what's more, sufficient contact between washing solvent and sorbent can be guaranteed. Therefore, after pretreatment with DSPE, the interference of oily matrix on detection can be mostly removed and then improve the accuracy of the method compared to the SPE method. Under the optimal conditions of DSPE, calcitriol showed a good linear relationship in the range of 0.15-2.99 µg g-1, the R2 was 0.997. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 101.1%-102.0% for calcitriol were achieved in the oily matrix at the levels of 0.75, 1.50 and 2.24 µg g-1. And the intra-day and inter-day RSD were less than 2.5 % and 3.2 %. Meanwhile, the LOD and LOQ of calcitriol was 0.01 µg g-1 and 0.02 µg g-1, which is in full compliance with the regulatory level fixed by the EU, China or other countries. This method was further verified to determine the content of calcitriol in commercial calcitriol soft capsules and the recoveries of three batches of products was 86.2 %-94.4 %. Based on these characteristics, the proposed method makes it possible to determine the low content of weakly polar drugs in the oily matrix in a simple, low-cost and reliable way.


Assuntos
Calcitriol , Dióxido de Silício , Cápsulas , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Extração em Fase Sólida
14.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 191: 113458, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216876

RESUMO

Monodisperse droplet has been widely used as a versatile tool in different disciplines including biosensing. Existing methods still struggle to balance the droplet generation performance with system simplicity. Here we introduce a novel droplet generation scheme based on the acoustic streaming generated from a vibrating sharp-tip capillary. The unique fluid pattern enables efficient droplet generation without any external pressure sources. This method achieved real-time modulation of droplet size over an ultra-wide range (6.77-661 µm), high throughput (up to 5000 droplets/s), and good monodispersity (<4%) with a power consumption below 60 mW. This method has enabled a multi-volume digital PCR with a dynamic range of ~6 orders of magnitude and multiplexing capability. It has also enabled a simple protocol to produce cell-laden alginate microcapsules in variable sizes with excellent biocompatibility. Overall, the present method combines high performance with small footprint and portability, which will be especially valuable for droplet applications requiring variable droplet size and performed in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Cápsulas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
15.
Nanoscale ; 13(29): 12623-12633, 2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264256

RESUMO

Nanomaterial-based platforms are promising vehicles for the controlled delivery of therapeutics. For these systems to be both efficacious and safe, it is essential to understand where the carriers accumulate and to reveal the site-specific biochemical effects they produce in vivo. Here, a dual-mode mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) method is used to evaluate the distributions and biochemical effects of anti-TNF-α nanoparticle stabilized capsules (NPSCs) in mice. It is found that most of the anticipated biochemical changes occur in sub-organ regions that are separate from where the nanomaterials accumulate. In particular, TNF-α-specific lipid biomarker levels change in immune cell-rich regions of organs, while the NPSCs accumulate in spatially isolated filtration regions. Biochemical changes that are associated with the nanomaterials themselves are also observed, demonstrating the power of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MSI to reveal markers indicating possible off-target effects of the delivery agent. This comprehensive assessment using MSI provides spatial context of nanomaterial distributions and efficacy that cannot be easily achieved with other imaging methods, demonstrating the power of MSI to evaluate both expected and unexpected outcomes associated with complex therapeutic delivery systems.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Nanoestruturas , Animais , Cápsulas , Camundongos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral
16.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208387

RESUMO

Increasing antibiotic resistance in bacteria that cause zoonotic infections is a major problem for farmers rearing animals for food as well as for consumers who eat the contaminated meat resulting in food-borne infections. Bacteriophages incorporated in animal feed may help reduce carriage and infections in animals including chickens and pigs. There are, however, unmet challenges in protecting phages from processing stresses e.g., during animal feed pelleting operations and during transit of phages through the acidic gastric environment. Core-shell capsules were produced using a concentric nozzle and commercially available encapsulation equipment to fabricate capsules with phages formulated in an oil-in-water microemulsion in the core. pH-responsive capsules released the encapsulated phage cargo within 10-30 min triggered by changes in local environmental pH typically found in the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract of animals. Acid stability of phages exposed to pH values as low as pH 1 was demonstrated. Encapsulated phages were able to withstand exposure to 95 °C wet heat thermal stress for up to 120 s, conditions typically encountered during feed pellet extrusion processing. Free phages were inactivated within 15 s under these conditions. The present study demonstrates that encapsulation of bacteriophages in core-shell pH-responsive capsules with water-in-oil emulsified phages in the core significantly improves phage viability upon exposure to processing and environmental stresses that require consideration during production of animal feed and application in animals for biocontrol. The results from this study should help guide future development of phage formulations suitable for use in animal feed for animal biocontrol applications.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bacteriófagos , Cápsulas , Composição de Medicamentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/virologia , Bioengenharia , Microbiota , Temperatura
17.
Biomater Sci ; 9(15): 5136-5143, 2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34223592

RESUMO

Bacterial infection of a wound is a major complication that can significantly delay proper healing and even necessitate surgical debridement. Conventional non-woven fabric dressings, including gauzes, bandages and cotton wools, often fail in treating wound infections in a timely manner due to their passive release mechanism of antibiotics. Here, we propose adhesive mechanically-activated microcapsules (MAMCs) capable of strongly adhering to a fibrous matrix to achieve a self-regulated release of antibiotics upon uniaxial stretching of non-woven fabric dressings. To achieve this, a uniform population of polydopamine (PDA)-coated MAMCs (PDA-MAMCs) are prepared using a microfluidics technique and subsequent oxidative dopamine polymerization. The PDA-MAMC allows for robust mechano-activation within the fibrous network through high retention and effective transmission of mechanical force under stretching. By validating the potential of a PDA-MAMCs-laden gauze to release antibiotics in a tensile strain-dependent manner, we demonstrate that PDA-MAMCs can be successfully incorporated into a woven material and create a smart wound dressing for control of bacterial infections. This new mechano-activatable delivery approach will open up a new avenue for a stretch-triggered, on-demand release of therapeutic cargos in skin-mountable or wearable biomedical devices.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecção dos Ferimentos , Adesivos , Bandagens , Cápsulas , Humanos
18.
Int J Pharm ; 606: 120926, 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303818

RESUMO

We have previously optimized the internal phase separation process to give rise to aqueous core microcapsules with polymeric shells composed of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or poly(lactide) (PLA). In this study, the ability of these microcapsules to act as controlled release platforms of the model hydrophilic drug phenobarbital sodium was tested. Furthermore, the effect of the initial amounts of drug and water added to the system during microcapsule synthesis was investigated. Finally, the effect of varying polymer properties such as end functionalities, molecular weights, and lactide to glycolide ratios, on the characteristics of the produced microcapsules was studied. This was done by utilizing seven different grades of the polyester polymers. It was demonstrated that, within certain limits, drug loading is nearly proportional to the initial amounts of drug and water. Furthermore, drug encapsulation studies demonstrated that ester termination and increases in polymeric molecular weight result in lower drug loading and encapsulation efficiency. Moreover, drug release studies demonstrated that ester termination, increases in molecular weight, and increases in the lactide to glycolide ratio all result in slower drug release; this grants the ability to tailor the drug release duration from a few days to several weeks. In conclusion, such minor variations in polymer characteristics and formulation composition can result in dramatic changes in the properties of the produced microcapsules. These changes can be fine-tuned to obtain desirable long-acting microcapsules capable of encapsulating a variety of hydrophilic drugs which can be used in a wide range of applications.


Assuntos
Ácido Láctico , Água , Cápsulas , Composição de Medicamentos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Tamanho da Partícula , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico
19.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 204: 114245, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256326

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of hard capsule shells on the possibility of non-invasive monitoring and authentication of medicines presented in capsules dosage form. It is shown that the NIR measurements followed by the chemometric analysis, reflects all macro-components of the analyzed samples, which are the PVC blister, the capsule shell, and the capsule contents. The special variable selection procedure, based on the pure spectra of all components, makes it possible to develop a model that is insensitive to small variations of the capsule shell. The shrinkage of spectral region can greatly affect the results of the classification. Consequently, in case we are interested in the whole remedy, capsules with deviations in shell properties should be rejected as the substandard ones. If we are only interested in the quality of capsules' content, the developed model is effective and applicable in the routine testing. The final model helps to understand and demonstrate the reason for the rejection of substandard samples authentication. It also gives a practical signal to the manufacturer to pay attention to the quality of the capsule shells.


Assuntos
Oxazolidinonas , Cápsulas , Isoxazóis
20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(27): 32205-32216, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225456

RESUMO

Biofouling remains as a persistent problem impeding the applications of membranes for water and wastewater treatment. Green anti-biofouling of membranes made of natural and environmentally friendly materials and methods is a promising strategy to tackle this problem. Herein, we have developed a functionalized PVDF membrane with stimuli-responsive lysozyme nanocapsules (NCP). These nanocapsules can responsively release lysozyme according to environmental stimuli (pH and redox) induced by bacteria. Results showed that (i) the surface of the functionalized membrane with NCP had enhanced hydrophilicity, reduced roughness, and negative charge, (ii) a remarkable reduction of adsorption of proteins, polysaccharides, and bacteria was achieved by the functionalized membrane, and (iii) the colony forming unit (CFU) of bacteria on a membrane surface was reduced more than 80% within 24 h of contact. In addition, the NCP membrane showed excellent anti-biofouling activity regarding the bacterial viability being 12.5 and 8.3% on the membrane after filtration with 108 CFU mL-1 Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus solution as feed, respectively. The coating layer and assembled nanocapsules endowed the membrane with improved lysozyme stability, anti-adhesion performance, and antibacterial activity. Stimuli-responsive lysozyme nanocapsule engineered microfiltration membranes show great potential for anti-biofouling in future practical application.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Engenharia , Filtração , Membranas Artificiais , Microtecnologia/métodos , Muramidase/química , Muramidase/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Cápsulas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanoestruturas/química , Oxirredução , Propriedades de Superfície
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