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1.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669650

RESUMO

Apples are an important source of biologically active compounds. Consequently, we decided to model hard gelatin capsules with lyophilized apple powder by using different excipients and to evaluate the release kinetics of phenolic compounds. The apple slices of "Ligol" cultivar were immediately frozen in a freezer (at -35°C) with air circulation and were lyophilized with a sublimator at the pressure of 0.01 mbar (condenser temperature, -85°C). Lyophilized apple powder was used as an active substance filled into hard gelatin capsules. We conducted capsule disintegration and dissolution tests to evaluate the quality of apple lyophilizate-containing capsules of different encapsulating content. Individual phenolic compounds can be arranged in the following descending order according to the amount released from the capsules of different compositions: chlorogenic acid > rutin > avicularin > hyperoside > phloridzin > quercitrin > (-)-epicatechin > isoquercitrin. Chlorogenic acid was the compound that was released in the highest amounts from capsules of different encapsulating content: its released amounts ranged from 68.4 to 640.3 µg/mL. According to the obtained data, when hypromellose content ranged from 29% to 41% of the capsule mass, the capsules disintegrated within less than 30 min, and such amounts of hypromellose did not prolong the release of phenolic compounds. Based on the results of the dissolution test, the capsules can be classified as fast-dissolving preparations, as more than 85% of the active substances were released within 30 min.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/análise , Cápsulas/química , Liofilização , Malus/química , Etanol/química , Gelatina/química , Glicosídeos/química , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Pós
2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(7): 8940-8951, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565847

RESUMO

Chemotherapy is currently the most universal therapeutics to tumor treatment; however, limited curative effect and undesirable drug resistance effect are the two major clinical bottlenecks. Herein, we develop a two-in-one cross-linking strategy to prepare a stimuli-responsive prodrug nanogel by virtue of delivering a combination of chemotherapeutic drugs of 10-hydroxy camptothecin and doxorubicin for ameliorating the deficiencies of chemotherapy and amplifying the cancer therapeutic efficiency. The obtained prodrug nanogel has both high drug loading capacity and suitable nanoscale size, which are beneficial to the cell uptake and tumor penetration. Moreover, the chemotherapeutic drugs are released from the prodrug nanogel in response to the reductive tumor microenvironment, enhancing tumor growth inhibition in vitro and in vivo by the synergistic DNA damage. Based on these results, the unique prodrug nanogel would be a promising candidate for satisfactory tumor treatment-based chemotherapy by a simple but efficient strategy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Camptotecina/farmacologia , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Camptotecina/química , Cápsulas/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/síntese química , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Camundongos , Nanogéis/química , Oxirredução , Tamanho da Partícula , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polietilenoimina/química , Pró-Fármacos/síntese química , Pró-Fármacos/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(7): 8082-8094, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570927

RESUMO

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are a significant and growing threat to human health. Recently, two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have shown antimicrobial activity and have the potential to be used as new approaches to treating antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this Research Article, we exfoliate transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) nanosheets using synthetic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) sequences, and demonstrate the broad-spectrum antibacterial activity of MoSe2 encapsulated by the T20 ssDNA sequence in eliminating several multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. The MoSe2/T20 is able to eradicate Gram-positive Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus at much lower concentrations than graphene-based nanomaterials. Eradication of MDR strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter baumannii are shown to occur at at 75 µg mL-1 concentration of MoSe2/T20, and E. coli at 150 µg mL-1. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the thymine bases in the T20 sequence lie flat on the MoSe2 surface and can, thus, form a very good conformal coating and allow the MoSe2 to act as a sharp nanoknife. Electron microscopy shows the MoSe2 nanosheets cutting through the cell membranes, resulting in significant cellular damage and the formation of interior voids. Further assays show the change in membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation as mechanisms of antimicrobial activity of MoSe2/T20. The cellular death pathways are also examined by mRNA expression. This work shows that biocompatible TMDCs, specifically MoSe2/T20, is a potent antimicrobial agent against MDR bacteria and has potential for clinical settings.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Calcogênios/farmacologia , DNA de Cadeia Simples/química , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/farmacologia , Células A549 , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/química , Cápsulas/química , Cápsulas/farmacologia , Calcogênios/química , DNA de Cadeia Simples/síntese química , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/química , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tamanho da Partícula , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/análise , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Propriedades de Superfície
4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(7): 7997-8005, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577306

RESUMO

Application of natural products as new green agrochemicals with low average lifetime, low concentration doses, and safety is both complex and expensive due to chemical modification required to obtain desirable physicochemical properties. Transport, aqueous solubility, and bioavailability are some of the properties that have been improved using functionalized metal-organic frameworks based on zinc for the encapsulation of bioherbicides (ortho-disulfides). An in situ method has been applied to achieve encapsulation, which, in turn, led to an improvement in water solubility by more than 8 times after 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin HP-ß-CD surface functionalization. High-resolution high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HR HAADF-STEM) and integrated differential phase contrast (iDPC) imaging techniques were employed to verify the success of the encapsulation procedure and crystallinity of the sample. Inhibition studies on principal weeds that infect rice, corn, and potato crops gave results that exceed those obtained with the commercial herbicide Logran. This finding, along with a short synthesis period, i.e., 2 h at 25 °C, make the product an example of a new generation of natural-product-based herbicides with direct applications in agriculture.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos/farmacologia , Amaranthus/efeitos dos fármacos , Echinochloa/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Lolium/efeitos dos fármacos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/farmacologia , Agroquímicos/síntese química , Agroquímicos/química , Cápsulas/química , Cápsulas/farmacologia , Dissulfetos/química , Dissulfetos/farmacologia , Herbicidas/síntese química , Herbicidas/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/síntese química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Solubilidade , Propriedades de Superfície , Zinco/química , Zinco/farmacologia
5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(2): 2988-2996, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403846

RESUMO

Hollow graphene oxide microcapsules (GOMs) have been widely used in energy, electronics, catalysis, sensing, tissue engineering, and drug loading due to their unique properties. However, it is still a great challenge to prepare GOMs with high quality and in large quantity using a simple method. In this work, we obtained single-component GOMs using the liquid nitrogen cavitation effect, which directed the self-assembly of graphene oxide (GO) debris at the gas-liquid interface. This method avoids the introduction of additional components and removal of templates. The morphology of GOM with wrinkles on its surface was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The abundant polar groups of GO microcapsules enabled them to easily disperse in water. Based on this, GOMs have good potential for loading hydrophobic drugs. Subsequently, we used GOMs as carriers to deliver a hydrophobic drug paclitaxel (PTX), which exhibited a good loading capacity. Moreover, PTX loaded GOMs showed excellent cytotoxicity to A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The GOMs also showed a pH-dependent drug release performance. Therefore, GOMs can be regarded as potential carriers for biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Grafite/química , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacocinética , Cápsulas/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Paclitaxel/farmacocinética , Água/química
6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(2): 2371-2381, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404209

RESUMO

This work describes the preparation and characterization of printed biodegradable polymer (polylactic acid) capsules made in two different shapes: pyramid and rectangular capsules about 1 and 11 µm in size. Obtained core-shell capsules are described in terms of their morphology, loading efficiency, cargo release profile, cell cytotoxicity, and cell uptake. Both types of capsules showed monodisperse size and shape distribution and were found to provide sufficient stability to encapsulate small water-soluble molecules and to retain them for several days and ability for intracellular delivery. Capsules of 1 µm size can be internalized by HeLa cells without causing any toxicity effect. Printed capsules show unique characteristics compared with other drug delivery systems such as a wide range of possible cargoes, triggered release mechanism, and highly controllable shape and size.


Assuntos
Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Poliésteres/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Cápsulas/química , Linhagem Celular , Doxiciclina/administração & dosagem , Doxiciclina/farmacocinética , Composição de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Células HeLa , Humanos , Camundongos , Tamanho da Partícula , Impressão Tridimensional/instrumentação
7.
Carbohydr Polym ; 251: 116988, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142560

RESUMO

Potential benefit of microencapsulation is its ability to deliver and protect incorporated ingredients such as vitamin E. Microcapsule wall properties can be changed by adding of coss-linking agents that are usually considered toxic for application. The microcapsules were prepared by a spray-drying technique using coacervation method, by depositing the coacervate formed in the mixture of chitosan and sodium lauryl ether sulfate to the oil/water interface. All obtained microcapsules suspensions had slightly lower mean diameter compared to the starting emulsion (6.85 ± 0.213 µm), which shows their good stability during the drying process. The choice and absence of cross-linking agents had influence on kinetics of vitamin E release. Encapsulation efficiency of microcapsules without cross-linking agent was 73.17 ± 0.64 %. This study avoided the use of aldehydes as cross-linking agents and found that chitosan/SLES complex can be used as wall material for the microencapsulation of hydrophobic active molecules in cosmetic industry.


Assuntos
Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Cápsulas/química , Quitosana/química , Cosméticos/administração & dosagem , Cosméticos/farmacocinética , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacocinética , Fármacos Dermatológicos/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Dermatológicos/farmacocinética , Dessecação , Emulsões , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Técnicas In Vitro , Cinética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Tamanho da Partícula , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Vitamina E/farmacocinética
8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(1): 120-130, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An ultrasonic spray nozzle was evaluated for the production of powders and microcapsules, using blueberry extract, modified starch (HI-CAP 100), and whey protein isolate (WPI). The effects of ultrasonic power and the concentration of coating materials on the characteristics of the resulting samples - such as viscosity, particle size, microencapsulation efficiency, color, glass transition temperature, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and morphology - were also studied. RESULTS: The apparent viscosity was primarily affected by the self-heating of the ultrasonic nozzle as the power increased. The largest mean particle size of samples was observed under conditions of 30% coating concentration at 10 W. Glass transition temperatures (Tg ) of the samples were affected by all atomization parameters significantly (P < 0.05) and the highest Tg values of all samples were determined when the coating concentration was maximum (30%) and power level was minimum (5 W). The FTIR and XRD results indicate that the power of the ultrasonic nozzle did not cause any change in WPI structure and led to only a small change in the structure of HI-CAP 100 at 10 W. The short atomization time preserved, to some extent, the properties of the coating materials and the blueberry extract. With regard to the morphological properties, it was observed that the samples obtained with WPI showed less shrinkage than HI-CAP 100. CONCLUSION: The results indicated that an ultrasonic nozzle could be used successfully to prepare the blueberry microcapsule with HI-CAP 100 and WPI as coating materials. This study may contribute to the development of ultrasonic nozzle applications using different coatings for the microencapsulation of high-quality functional materials. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Carboidratos/química , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ultrassom/métodos , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Cápsulas/química , Frutas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Pós/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Amido/química , Temperatura , Ultrassom/instrumentação , Viscosidade , Difração de Raios X
9.
Food Chem ; 338: 128026, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932088

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of Saskatoon powder addition on phytochemical parameters, biological activity, and nutritional value of wheat bread. Supplementation increased phenolics content up to 72% in the bread with 6% powder content. This increase was reflected in the improved antioxidative properties of breads, especially after their supplementation with the microencapsulated additives (an increase by 93% in the bread enriched with 6% of powder covered with maltodextrin). The in vitro digestion released the antioxidative compounds, leading to higher bioaccessibility of the breads enriched with the microencapsulated powders. The highest inhibition of activities of cyclooxygenase 1 and -2, as well as amylase and glucosidase was recorded for the breads enriched with the additive microencapsulated with maltodextrin and inulin. Thus, Saskatoon berry powders, especially the microencapsulated ones, may be used as functional components in designing innovative bakery products.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Cápsulas/química , Pós/análise , Rosaceae/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/química , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/química , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Glucosidases/antagonistas & inibidores , Glucosidases/metabolismo , Polifenóis/análise , Polissacarídeos/química , Rosaceae/metabolismo , Triticum/química
10.
Food Chem ; 335: 127642, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739814

RESUMO

Spray drying is the most commonly used encapsulation technique to stabilize sensitive bioactive compounds and sometimes enhances their performance. Vitamin B12 and vitamin D3 deficiencies are reported worldwide and co-encapsulation can provide a combined solution to this problem. The present work aimed at encapsulation of vitamin B12 and D3 by spray drying using experimental design to optimize wall material combination. Optimized solution obtained from the experimental design (gum acacia : Hi-Cap® 100 : maltodextrin = 38:60:2) provided spherical particles with smooth surface and better stability of both the vitamins. In vitro release mechanism showed a slow release for both the vitamins after encapsulation. The optimized co-encapsulated microcapsules obtained in this work showed an improved bioavailability of 151% for vitamin B12 and 109% for vitamin D3 in comparison with the control. This study delivered a suitable medium to provide water soluble vitamin B12 and fat soluble vitamin D3 in single product.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Vitamina B 12/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cápsulas/química , Goma Arábica/química , Cinética
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(2): 726-734, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid dissolution in digestive tract and moisture sorption during ambient storage are the two challenges of dry probiotic preparations. To solve these problems, microcapsules with shellac (LAC) addition containing Limosilactobacillus reuteri TMW 1.656 were designed in this work to provide a good moisture barrier and to provide controlled release in digestive tract, based on the hydrophobicity and acid-resistance of LAC. Four microcapsules were prepared using the method of emulsification/external gelation based on the crosslinking reaction between alginate or LAC with calcium ion, including alginate/sucrose (ALG), alginate/shellac/sucrose (ALG/LAC), alginate/whey protein isolate/sucrose (ALG/WPI) and alginate/whey protein isolate/shellac/sucrose (ALG/WPI/LAC). RESULTS: Measurements of physical properties showed that microcapsules with LAC addition (ALG/WPI/LAC and ALG/LAC) had larger particle size, much denser structure, lower hygroscopicity and slower solubilization in water, which agreed with the primary microcapsule design. Probiotic survivals in digestive juices followed the order of ALG/WPI/LAC ≥ ALG/WPI ≥ ALG/LAC > ALG. Probiotic stability after heating and ambient storage both exhibited the order of ALG/WPI/LAC > ALG/LAC ≈ ALG/WPI > ALG, which can be explained by the decreased hygroscopicity with adding LAC. CONCLUSION: LAC addition contributed to better probiotic survivals after freeze drying, simulated digestion, heating and ambient storage, and whey protein isolate (WPI) addition had a synergistic effect. Microcapsule hygroscopicity was closely related with probiotic survivals after heating and ambient storage, while microcapsule solubilization was closely related with probiotic survivals in simulated juices. Within our knowledge, this is the first report to improve probiotic stability during ambient storage based on LAC hydrophobicity. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Lactobacillaceae/química , Probióticos/química , Alginatos/química , Cápsulas/química , Composição de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Armazenamento de Medicamentos , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactobacillaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Viabilidade Microbiana , Tamanho da Partícula , Resinas Vegetais/química
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 170: 424-436, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383080

RESUMO

Cancer is a major health issue concerning to all of us. Current treatment options are still limited due to not-selective action. Encapsulation is contemplated as an innovative approach to address systemic toxicity and tumor resistance caused by traditional therapies, while increasing encapsulated compounds bioavailability. The coating material of capsules strongly determines the success of the system. Since alginate has been proved non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable, it is considered a potential vehicle for therapeutic factors encapsulation. Besides, it has the particular ability to form hydrogels, which hold a high-water content and greatly resemble to natural soft tissues. The present review exposes the state-of-the-art and the most sophisticated alginate-based systems for cancer therapy and research. It begins with an overview of alginate hydrogels and the qualities that make them especially suitable for biomedical applications. In the following section, the application of alginate hydrogels as pioneering strategies for cancer treatment is described. Several examples of alginate-based delivery systems of therapeutic drugs, proteins and nucleic acids are provided. Significant emphasis is placed in both oral delivery systems and colorectal cancer therapy. Moreover, the role of alginate 3-D scaffolds for both cell culture and delivery is explained. Lastly, other applications of alginate-based hydrogels such as tumor biomarkers immunosensing and fluorescent surgical marker are included.


Assuntos
Alginatos/química , Hidrogéis/química , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Cápsulas/química , Cápsulas/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos
13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(1): 1333-1344, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351598

RESUMO

Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), a promising alternative fumigant, has been highly desirable for excellent management of soil pests and diseases. However, high volatility and moderate toxicity of this sulfide limit its application. To address these issues, a novel controlled release formulation of DMDS was proposed employing multiple emulsions and polyurea microcapsules (DMDS@MEs-MCs). The successful combination of the two technologies was revealed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and Fourier transform infrared. According to the multiple encapsulation structure, the encapsulation efficiency decreased by only 3.13% after thermal storage, compared with a 15.21% decrease of microcapsules made with only a monolayer film. DMDS@MEs-MCs could effectively control the release of active ingredient, which increased applicator and environmental safety during application. Moreover, it could be facilely used by spraying and drip irrigation instead of a special fumigation device. The innovative formulation exhibited better control efficacy on soil pathogens (Fusarium spp. and Phytophthora spp.) and root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) than DMDS technical concentration (DMDS TC). In addition, it did not inhibit seed germination after 10 days when the plastic film was removed from the fumigated soil. This method appears to be of broad interest for the development of safe and handy fumigant application.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/toxicidade , Cápsulas/química , Dissulfetos/toxicidade , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Emulsões/química , Polímeros/química , Animais , Cápsulas/toxicidade , Cucumis sativus/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/toxicidade , Portadores de Fármacos/toxicidade , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Emulsões/toxicidade , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Phytophthora/efeitos dos fármacos , Polímeros/toxicidade , Microbiologia do Solo , Tylenchoidea/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Food Chem ; 338: 128089, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091980

RESUMO

Antarctic krill oil (KO) was encapsulated into yeast cells (YCs), and the physicochemical, morphological, and conformational characterizations of KO-loaded YCs (KYCs) were investigated. Moreover, the oxidation stability and in vitro release behavior of KYCs were evaluated. Results showed that KYCs provided significantly higher oxidative stability than native KO. The fatty acid profile remained obviously unchanged after encapsulation. Most interestingly, the phospholipid proportion increased from 49.76% ± 1.42% to 59.92% ± 1.39% after encapsulation. Furthermore, there was a slow and prolonged release of KYCs, along with higher bioaccessibility of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid than the KO-in-water emulsion (69.62% ± 7.67% and 66.67% ± 4.55% vs 47.44% ± 4.4% and 39.74% ± 3.89%). KO encapsulation in YCs can be considered as an efficient approach for extending the oxidative and in vitro stability of this nutritious oil and facilitating its application in food products.


Assuntos
Cápsulas/química , Euphausiacea/metabolismo , Óleos de Peixe/química , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Animais , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/química , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/química , Emulsões/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Óleos de Peixe/metabolismo , Oxirredução
15.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 335: 108890, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971300

RESUMO

The bioactivity of essential oils applied in foods to act as natural preservatives can be reduced due to interactions with other components of the food matrix. Microencapsulation can help to increase the functionality of these compounds. In addition, the electrostatic interaction between proteins and polysaccharides can result in double-layered encapsulating structures, ensuring greater protection to essential oils than using only protein as surface active agent. In this work, pink pepper essential oil was microencapsulated by spray drying of single-layer emulsions, stabilized by soy protein isolate (SPI), and of double-layer emulsions, stabilized by soy protein isolate/high methoxyl pectin (SPI/HMP). Pink pepper essential oil showed predominance of α-pinene, ß-pinene, ß-mircene, δ-3-carene, d-limonene, and germacrene D. Compared to SPI microcapsules, SPI/HMP microcapsules better preserved the total volatile content identified in pure oil, showed less water adsorption during storage at relative humidity ≥75% and improved antimicrobial properties. When stored for 20 days (25 °C/RH = 52.8%), both microcapsules allowed more gradual release of volatiles compared with non-encapsulated oil. Microencapsulation by spray drying did not have negative effects on the antioxidant activity of the encapsulated oil, as the microcapsules showed similar results to the non-encapsulated oil, around 11 µg Trolox/mg of oil. After storage, however, the non-encapsulated oil showed greater losses of its antioxidant activity due to higher rates of volatile release. In the in vitro antimicrobial activity assay, both microcapsules inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua, although no inhibition was observed against Gram-negative bacteria. When added in milk, both microcapsules reduced bacterial growth, whereas non-encapsulated oil showed no satisfactory inhibition. Faster reduction of microbial growth in milk was observed for SPI/HMP microcapsules. Inhibition results were better for skim milk than for whole milk, suggesting that the interaction of essential oil with other lipids present in milk decreased its bioactivity. Microencapsulation positively affected the functionality of pink pepper essential oil, highlighting its potential for application as a natural preservative in food products.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae/química , Antibacterianos/química , Conservantes de Alimentos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cápsulas/química , Cápsulas/farmacologia , Dessecação , Emulsões/química , Emulsões/farmacologia , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Pectinas/química , Proteínas de Soja/química , Terebintina/química , Terebintina/farmacologia
16.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 24(5): 408-412, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886639

RESUMO

There is still an evident need for nonsterile compounded medications for pediatric and elderly patients in cases where patients require dose adjustments or have swallowing difficulties. Pharmacists generally have the choice between compounding capsules or oral liquids. In daily pharmacy practice, extemporaneous capsules are from time to time seen as a better alternative to oral liquid medication, although various published studies indicate that weight variation and/or uniformity of content can be significantly out of specification for compounded capsules. In contrast, analyses with the ready-to-use oral liquid vehicle SyrSpend SF in 104 different formulations with 89 unique active pharmaceutical ingredients showed results that all 6.414 samples analyzed were within specification. It can, therefore, be argued that SyrSpend SF could be a better way to assure content uniformity compared to manually compounded, small-batch extemporaneous capsules.


Assuntos
Excipientes , Farmácias , Idoso , Cápsulas/química , Criança , Composição de Medicamentos , Excipientes/química , Humanos
17.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 4(9): 853-862, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632226

RESUMO

Patients with kidney failure commonly require dialysis to remove nitrogenous wastes and to reduce burden to the kidney. Here, we show that a bacterial cocktail orally delivered in animals with kidney injury can metabolize blood nitrogenous waste products before they diffuse through the intestinal mucosal barrier. The microbial cocktail consists of three strains of bacteria isolated from faecal microbiota that metabolize urea and creatinine into amino acids, and is encapsulated in calcium alginate microspheres coated with a polydopamine layer that is selectively permeable to small-molecule nitrogenous wastes. In murine models of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney failure, and in porcine kidney failure models, the encapsulated microbial cocktail significantly reduced urea and creatinine concentrations in blood, and did not lead to any adverse effects.


Assuntos
Enteroadsorção/métodos , Microbiota , Compostos de Nitrogênio/isolamento & purificação , Insuficiência Renal/terapia , Administração Oral , Alginatos/química , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Cápsulas/administração & dosagem , Cápsulas/química , Creatinina/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/microbiologia , Indóis/química , Camundongos , Microfluídica , Microesferas , Compostos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Polímeros/química , Suínos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ureia/metabolismo
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10198, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576906

RESUMO

A trend of present encapsulation research indicates an increased interest in the search for natural encapsulants for bioactive phytochemicals. The present study in pursuit of the same studies the use of jackfruit seed starch (JSS), an underutilized natural polysaccharide in conjugation with soy protein isolate (SPI) as an encapsulating material and NBRE-15 as an emulsifier. Three independent variables viz., total soluble solids (TSS, 20, 25 and 30° Brix), SPI: JSS (1:1, 1:3 and 1:5) and NBRE-15 (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%) were optimized for achieving the most efficient encapsulation of anthocyanin using a three level, three parameter, Box-Behnken design (BBD) of the Design of Experiments (DOE). The responses considered for the optimization were monomeric anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity and encapsulation efficiency. A combination of 27.0% TSS, 1:5 SPI: JSS ratio and 0.3% NBRE-15 was found to be optimum for the encapsulation of anthocyanin with the desirability of 92.6%. Microcapsules obtained using the optimized combination of independent variables was found to contain 3215.59 mg/100 g monomeric anthocyanin. The antioxidant activity and encapsulation efficiency of the encapsulated material obtained using optimized combinations of independent variable were found to be 365.26 µmol Trolox/g and 89.71%, respectively. The microcapsules were also additionally analyzed for the particle size distribution and morphological characterization. Particle size analysis indicated that the microcapsules obtained had a mean particle size of 60.97 µm. Scanning electron microscopy for morphological characterization indicated that the microcapsules so obtained were oval to round in shape and had a smooth surface. Storage studies to estimate the half-life of anthocyanin in the microcapsule at room temperature (37 °C) clearly indicated greater stability i.e. 63 days when stored under amber-colored vial compared to only 35 days when stored under clear transparent vial.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Artocarpus/química , Emulsificantes/química , Pós/química , Sementes/química , Proteínas de Soja/química , Amido/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cápsulas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Polissacarídeos/química , Temperatura
19.
Food Chem ; 328: 127125, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480262

RESUMO

This study evaluates the addition of monolayered (MO) and multilayered (MU) fish oil microcapsules to meat model systems and determines the effects of processing and culinary cooking. Adding MO and MU increased the content of EPA and DHA and the level of secondary oxidation products but being far away from the oxidation values that generate anomalous flavours. However, it did not lead to oxidative damage of the enriched batches or affect the moisture and lipid content during processing and/or culinary cooking. The type of fish oil microcapsules, the processing and/or culinary cooking and the type of meat matrix influenced the fatty acid digestion. The highest bioaccessibility of EPA and DHA occurred in cooked samples enriched with MO after processing and before culinary cooking. To optimize EPA and DHA enrichment and bioaccessibility, the type of fish oil microcapsules may be selected as a function of the type of added meat products.


Assuntos
Culinária , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Lipídeos/química , Carne/análise , Carne de Porco/análise , Animais , Cápsulas/química , Digestão , Óleos de Peixe/química , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6521, 2020 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300137

RESUMO

The growing interest of oncologists in natural compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids is encouraging the development of innovative and efficient carriers for the delivery of those drugs. This study examines carboxymethyl chitosan-based microcapsules created by spray drying as a method for delivering biologically active compounds isolated from the Cistus herb. Effects of sterilization and encapsulation on the polyphenol and flavonoid content of Cistus extract were investigated to optimize the production process. Furthermore, in vitro studies were carried out to examine the anticancer properties of sterilized polyphenols and flavonoids on glioblastoma cells isolated from oncological patients. Acquired results show high anticancer potential towards glioblastoma as well as low cytotoxicity towards non-cancer cell lines by the substances in question. Steam sterilization is shown to affect the content of biologically active compounds the least. We demonstrate that the investigated form of drug encapsulation is both efficient and potentially possible to scale up from the viewpoint of the pharmaceutical industry.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cistus/química , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Cápsulas/química , Cápsulas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quitosana/análogos & derivados , Quitosana/química , Quitosana/farmacologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Esterilização
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