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1.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 67-75, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although, peripheral caries (PC) affects almost half of UK horses, no comprehensive microbiological study has been performed on this disorder. As a high proportion of oral bacteria cannot be conventionally cultured, molecular microbiological techniques such as Next Generation Sequencing are required to examine the complex oral bacteria community. OBJECTIVES: To identify the microbiota involved in equine PC, including comparing microbiota at the more commonly and severely affected three caudal cheek teeth with the less commonly affected three rostral cheek teeth. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Equine dental plaque samples were collected from the palatal aspects of cheek teeth of 63 horses. DNA was isolated and amplified using PCR, targeting the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene and Next Generation Sequencing of these gene amplicons was performed. The acquired data were processed and analysed using Mothur and R. RESULTS: Streptococcus species was the genus most commonly associated with equine PC, whereas Gemella species was the genus most associated with the control group. In a further analysis where the rostral and caudal cheek teeth were compared with each other and with the control group. Veillonella species was the most commonly associated genus with PC of the rostral cheek teeth, Streptococcus species was the most associated genus with the caudal cheek teeth, and Corynebacterium with the control group. MAIN LIMITATIONS: Some bacteria can have multiple heterogeneous copies of the 16S rRNA gene, which can affect the estimation of their relative abundance. CONCLUSIONS: Similar to caries studies in other species, acidogenic and aciduric microorganisms including Streptococcus species were found to be associated with equine peripheral caries.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Cárie Dentária/veterinária , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Placa Dentária/veterinária , Cavalos
2.
Arch Oral Biol ; 109: 104578, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589997

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to observe the effect of V. parvula on the physiological activity of S. mutans and elucidate the role of V. parvula on dental caries. DESIGN: We constructed dual-species biofilms formed by V. parvula and S. mutans, and measured the pH dynamics, biofilm growth, Extracellular Polysaccharide (EPS) synthesis, and expression of S. mutans EPS synthesis-associated genes affected by V. parvula. RESULTS: pH dynamics were not altered when V. parvula and S. mutans were co-cultured during a 120 -h test period. However, S. mutans cell number and EPS synthesis in dual-species biofilms were found to be significantly higher than in single-species biofilms. Moreover, expression levels of genes encoding glucosyltransferases (gtfs), gtfB and gtfC specifically, were up-regulated when S. mutans was co-cultured with V. parvula. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that V. parvula is not, as previously thought, protective and associated with caries health. On the contrary, V. parvula might participate in caries development through interactions with S. mutans. This study suggests that V. parvula may have an impact on the pathogenesis of dental caries.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Streptococcus mutans/fisiologia , Veillonella/fisiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Técnicas de Cocultura , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Glucosiltransferases/genética
3.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 308, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dental caries is a biofilm-diet-dependent worldwide public health problem, and approaches against microorganisms in cariogenic biofilms are necessary. METHODS: The antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of 12 Casearia sylvestris extracts (0.50 mg/mL) from different Brazilian biomes (Atlantic Forest, Cerrado, Caatinga, Pampa, and Pantanal) and varieties (sylvestris, lingua, and intermediate) were tested against two species found in cariogenic biofilms (Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans). The extracts effective against S. mutans were used to evaluate the "adhesion strength" of this bacterium to the salivary pellicle and initial glucan matrix and the S. mutans-GtfB activity. Also, the antimicrobial activity against S. mutans of three fractions (methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane; 0.25 mg/mL) from the extracts was evaluated. RESULTS: Three extracts from the Atlantic Forest variety sylvestris (FLO/SC, GUA/CE, PRE/SP) reduced ≥50% (> 3 logs) S. mutans viable population (p < 0.0001 vs. vehicle), while two extracts from the same biome and variety (PAC/CE, PRE/SP) decreased ≥50% of the viable counts of C. albicans (p < 0.0001 vs. vehicle). For S. mutans biofilms, three extracts (GUA/CE, PAC/CE, PRE/SP) reduced the biomass by ≥91% (p > 0.0001 vs. vehicle) and 100% of the microbial population (p < 0.0001 vs. vehicle). However, for the fungal biofilm, two extracts (PAC/CE, PRE/SP) reduced the viable counts by ≥52% (p < 0.0001 vs. vehicle), but none reduced biomass. The extracts with higher antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities presented higher content of clerodane-type diterpenes and lower content of glycosylated flavonoids than the less active extracts. The extracts had no effect on the removal of cells adhered to the pellicle (p > 0.05 vs. vehicle) while promoted the detachment of a larger number of S. mutans cells from GtfB-glucan matrix (p < 0.0031 vs. vehicle), and FLO/SC, GUA/CE and PRE/SP reduced the quantity of glucans (p < 0.0136 vs. vehicle). Only the ethyl acetate fractions reduced the microbial population of S. mutans (p < 0.0001 vs. vehicle), except for one (PAC/CE). Among the ethyl acetate fractions, three from var. lingua (two from Cerrado, and one from Cerrado/Caatinga) reduced ≥83% of the microbial population. CONCLUSIONS: C. sylvestris extracts from Atlantic Forest var. sylvestris and ethyl acetate fractions from Cerrado and Cerrado/Caatinga var. lingua may be used as a strategy against cariogenic microorganisms.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Casearia/química , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Brasil , Candida albicans/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Streptococcus mutans/fisiologia
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1197: 179-189, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732942

RESUMO

The genetic basis of oral health has long been theorized, but little information exists on the heritable variance in common oral and dental disease traits explained by the human genome. We sought to add to the evidence base of heritability of oral and dental traits using high-density genotype data in a well-characterized community-based cohort of middle-age adults. We used genome-wide association (GWAS) data combined with clinical and biomarker information in the Dental Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) cohort. Genotypes comprised SNPs directly typed on the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 chip with minor allele frequency of >5% (n = 656,292) or were imputed using HapMap II-CEU (n = 2,104,905). We investigated 30 traits including "global" [e.g., number of natural teeth (NT) and incident tooth loss], clinically defined (e.g., dental caries via the DMFS index, periodontitis via the CDC/AAP and WW17 classifications), and biologically informed (e.g., subgingival pathogen colonization and "complex" traits). Heritability (i.e., variance explained; h2) was calculated using Visscher's Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA), using a random-effects mixed linear model and restricted maximum likelihood (REML) regression adjusting for ancestry (10 principal components), age, and sex. Heritability estimates were modest for clinical traits-NT = 0.11 (se = 0.07), severe chronic periodontitis (CDC/AAP) = 0.22 (se = 0.19), WW17 Stage 4 vs. 1/2 = 0.15 (se = 0.11). "High gingival index" and "high red complex colonization" had h2 > 0.50, while a periodontal complex trait defined by high IL-1ß GCF expression and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans subgingival colonization had the highest h2 = 0.72 (se = 0.32). Our results indicate that all GWAS SNPs explain modest levels of the observed variance in clinical oral and dental measures. Subgingival bacterial colonization and complex phenotypes encompassing both bacterial colonization and local inflammatory response had the highest heritability, suggesting that these biologically informed traits capture aspects of the disease process and are promising targets for genomics investigations, according to the notion of precision oral health.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fenótipo , Cárie Dentária/genética , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
5.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 32(2): 97-102, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664300

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to validate and establish a cut off point and the predictive value of an adhesion test (AA-MSMG), as a microbiological method for evaluating cariogenic risk. The study is based on a variant (20% sucrose) of a selective medium descripted by Gold et al. (MSMG). This method differentiates mutans group streptococci (MGS) by exacerbating the production of insoluble extracellular polysaccharide which gives adhesion to surfaces such as glass, plastic and dental enamel. Caries assessment according to ICDAS was conducted in 154 patients (aged >21 years) who were attended at Preventive and Community Dentistry Department, School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, between August 2017 to August 2018. The study population was assigned to groups according to the presence/ absence of caries lesions: Group A: ICDAS lesion code = 0 (L=0) on all dental surfaces (n=23); and Group B: L>1 (n=131). After mouth-rinsing with distilled water, saliva samples were collected with fasting and hygiene protocol, and sent immediately to the Microbiological Diagnosis Laboratory, Microbiology Department, School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires. Samples were homogenized and serially diluted to the tenth. 100 pl of the dilutions were cultured in 25 cm2 sterile plastic flasks containing 9.9 ml of modified selective medium described by Gold (MSMG-selective and differential medium). Cultures were incubated in an anaerobic atmosphere at 36 ± 1°C for 48 hours. The supernatants were eluted and the samples washed with sterile distilled water. Colony forming unit counts were performed by calibrated researchers (Kappa >0.75) using a stereoscopic microscope at 50X. Mutans group streptococci (MGS) counts ranged from 1x104 to 1x105 CFU/ml in group A, and were higher than 1x106 CFU/ml in Group B. Statically analysis of results (ROC) showed that the AAMSMG has a satisfactory predictive value (91%) and established a cutoff point in 1.68x105 UFC / ml. This would indicate that individuals whose MGS saliva counts are higher than the cutoff value would be 5 times more likely to develop dental caries. Adherence assay could be a useful microbiological predictor of caries risk.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Saliva/microbiologia , Streptococcus mutans/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Argentina , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Humanos , Antissépticos Bucais , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Dente/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(10): 1378-1387, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607727

RESUMO

Objective: The objective was to determine the antibacterial activity of Salvadora persica extract against bacteria isolated from dental plaque of patients. Materials and Methods: Out of 40 different clinical specimens collected from patients suffering from plaque-induced gingivitis, 12 Staphylococcus aureus and 8 Streptococcus sp. isolates were recovered. The isolates were screened for their biofilm-forming capacity using tissue culture plate (TCP), tube method (TM), and congo red agar (CRA) method. Antibacterial activity of methanolic S. persica extract as well as of commercial antimicrobials against tested isolates was performed. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and gas chromatography-MS (GC-MS) analysis were performed for S. persica crude extract and its volatile oil, respectively, to determine their constituents. Results: Out of 20 isolates, 80%, 85%, and 90% showed positive results using TM, CRA, and TCP, respectively. The highest antimicrobial activity of methanolic S. persica extract was observed at 200 mg/ml. HPLC-MS analysis shows many polyphenols in S. persica extract such as Chrysin-8-c-ß-D-glucopyranoside, ferulic acid, gallic acid, and stigmasterol. Chemical composition of the essential oil of S. persica was determined by GC-MS yield; a mixture of monoterpene and hydrocarbons. The major compounds were butylated hydroxytoluene followed by benzene (isothiocyanatomethyl). Conclusion: Methanolic extract of S. persica had significant antibacterial effect against S. aureus and Streptococcus sp. isolates, and it may be gave a good alternative method for controlling oral pathogen.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Gengivite/microbiologia , Boca/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Salvadoraceae/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Boca/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Infect Immun ; 87(12)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527122

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated that recombinant protein PAc could be administered as an anticaries vaccine. However, the relatively weak immunogenicity of PAc limits its application. In the present study, we investigated the effect of two adjuvant combinations of chitosan plus Pam3CSK4 (chitosan-Pam3CSK4) and of chitosan plus monophosphoryl lipid A (chitosan-MPL) in the immune responses to the PAc protein in vivo and in vitro PAc-chitosan-Pam3CSK4 or PAc-chitosan-MPL promoted significantly higher PAc-specific antibody titers in serum and saliva, inhibited Streptococcus mutans colonization onto the tooth surfaces, and endowed better protection effect with significantly less caries activities than PAc alone. Chitosan-Pam3CSK4 and chitosan-MPL showed no statistically significant differences. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that the chitosan-Pam3CSK4 and chitosan-MPL combinations are promising for anticaries vaccine development.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Lipídeo A/análogos & derivados , Lipopeptídeos/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Feminino , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/análise , Lipídeo A/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas NLR/agonistas , Streptococcus mutans/patogenicidade , Receptores Toll-Like/agonistas , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Fatores de Virulência/imunologia
8.
Infect Immun ; 87(10)2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383746

RESUMO

Candida albicans, a major opportunistic fungal pathogen, is frequently found together with Streptococcus mutans in dental biofilms associated with severe childhood caries (tooth decay), a prevalent pediatric oral disease. However, the impact of this cross-kingdom relationship on C. albicans remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we employed a novel quantitative proteomics approach in conjunction with transcriptomic profiling to unravel molecular pathways of C. albicans when cocultured with S. mutans in mixed biofilms. RNA sequencing and iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation)-based quantitative proteomics revealed that C. albicans genes and proteins associated with carbohydrate metabolism were significantly enhanced, including sugar transport, aerobic respiration, pyruvate breakdown, and the glyoxylate cycle. Other C. albicans genes and proteins directly and indirectly related to cell morphogenesis and cell wall components such as mannan and glucan were also upregulated, indicating enhanced fungal activity in mixed-species biofilm. Further analyses revealed that S. mutans-derived exoenzyme glucosyltransferase B (GtfB), which binds to the fungal cell surface to promote coadhesion, can break down sucrose into glucose and fructose that can be readily metabolized by C. albicans, enhancing growth and acid production. Altogether, we identified key pathways used by C. albicans in the mixed biofilm, indicating an active fungal role in the sugar metabolism and environmental acidification (key virulence traits associated with caries onset) when interacting with S. mutans, and a new cross-feeding mechanism mediated by GtfB that enhances C. albicans carbohydrate utilization. In addition, we demonstrate that comprehensive transcriptomics and quantitative proteomics can be powerful tools to study microbial contributions which remain underexplored in cross-kingdom biofilms.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Streptococcus mutans/genética , Transcriptoma , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Candida albicans/metabolismo , Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Criança , Técnicas de Cocultura , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Glucanos/metabolismo , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteômica , Streptococcus mutans/metabolismo , Streptococcus mutans/patogenicidade , Simbiose/genética
9.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 56(2): 118-123, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High prevalence of dental caries in ulcerative colitis (UC) has been attributed to diet and changes in salivary environment. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize the prevalence of dental caries, salivary flow rates, salivary buffering capacity and cariogenic bacteria counts of Mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp and to evaluate their relationship with drug therapy, disease activity and duration. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with UC patients followed in a tertiary center. Participants were submitted to a questionnaire (including demographic data, oral hygiene, eating habits) and a clinical observation with assessment of plaque index and Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth index. Unstimulated/stimulated saliva was collected. Medical records, disease activity (Partial Mayo Score) and disease duration were collected. Laboratory data included salivary flow rates, salivary buffering capacity (CRT® buffer) and cariogenic bacteria count (Mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp) in saliva using the CRT® bacteria test (results: high or low counts). RESULTS: Thirty UC patients were recruited. Oral hygiene routines were daily teeth brushing once or more (96.7%) and fluoride toothpaste (73.3%). Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth index (mean 16.17±6.428) was not affected by the frequency of soft drinks, cakes, sweets and sugars between meals (P>0.2). Long-term disease showed a trend towards higher prevalence of caries (P=0.06). Most presented normal salivary flow rates, unstimulated (73.3%) and stimulated (60.0%), and high salivary buffering capacity (66.7%). Any association was found with age, gender, disease activity, disease duration and drug therapy. High Mutans streptococci and low Lactobacillus spp count were observed in 73.3% and 60% of patients, respectively. Patients with active disease (100%) and longer duration (88.9%) displayed higher Mutans streptococci count. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dental caries observed in UC patients was significant and did not seem to be influenced by their eating habits. The high prevalence of Mutans streptococci count may be a major risk factor for dental caries and may be looked as part of the UC dysbiosis. Dental care of UC patients should be planned according with this microbiota variation.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/complicações , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Saliva/microbiologia , Streptococcus mutans/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Carga Bacteriana , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Higiene Bucal , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 197, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study was aimed to evaluate the molecular level anticaries effect of different medicinal plants against Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans) glucosyltransferases (gtf). METHODS: A total of six natural sources named as Terminalia chebula (T.chebula), Psidium guajava (P.guajava), Azadirachta indica (A.indica) and Pongamia pinnata (P.pinnata); two essential oils, clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and peppermint oil (Mentha piperita) were selected as test samples. Hydroalcoholic plant extracts and essential oils were examined for their inhibitory potential on gtf isolated from S.mutans. Polyherbal mouth wash was prepared and its effect on gtf activity was compared with commercial chlorhexidine mouth wash (5%w/v). Enzyme kinetic study was carried out in order to explore the molecular mechanism of enzyme action. RESULTS: Out of six natural sources tested, A.indica has shown maximum inhibitory effect of 91.647% on gtf and T.chebula has shown IC50 of 1.091 mg/ml which is significant when compared to standard chlorhexidine. From the final result of kinetic analysis it was found that T.chebula, P.guajava and P.pinnata have show uncompetitive inhibition where as A.indica has shown non-competitive inhibition. Surprisingly, both essential oils have shown allosteric inhibition (sigmoidal response). The polyherbal moutwash has shown significant inhibitory potential on gtf (95.936%) when compared to commercial chlorhexidine mouthwash (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: All the tested samples have shown considerable gtf inhibitory action. Moreover polyherbal mouth wash has shown promising noncompetitive inhibitory activity against gtf and it could be the future formulation to combat dental caries.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Glucosiltransferases/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Streptococcus mutans/enzimologia , Antibacterianos/química , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Desenho de Drogas , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Humanos , Cinética , Antissépticos Bucais/química , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Curr Microbiol ; 76(11): 1238-1246, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377819

RESUMO

Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) adheres to the tooth surface, metabolizes carbohydrates, and produces acid products, leading to enamel demineralization-the onset of dental caries. Rapid acidification by S. mutans has been observed in the presence of glucose. However, little is known about the role of small RNAs (sRNAs) in S. mutans in the presence of glucose and their relationship to tooth adherence. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of sRNAs in S. mutans (18-50 nucleotides) regarding adherence capacity under 1% and 5% glucose concentrations. The pH drop and adherence capacity in the 1% glucose condition were similar to these parameters under conditions of 5% sucrose that were published in our previous study. A total of 2149 candidate sRNA with at least 100 average reads in the 5% and 1% glucose libraries were obtained. Between the two libraries, 581 sRNAs were differentially expressed and 43 sRNAs were verified. However, the expression levels of the predicted target genes gtfC and spaP were similar between the 1% and 5% glucose conditions. The bioinformatic analysis suggested that differentially expressed sRNAs may be involved in several pathways. These findings indicate that sRNAs were induced under these glucose concentrations and a series of sRNAs were specifically induced, respectively. sRNAs that are induced under glucose stress may be involved in regulating adherence of S. mutans.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana , Glucose/análise , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Streptococcus mutans/fisiologia , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , RNA Bacteriano/genética , Streptococcus mutans/genética , Streptococcus mutans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sacarose/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(14)2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340425

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature followed by a meta-analysis about the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on the microorganisms responsible for dental caries. The research question and the keywords were constructed according to the PICO strategy. The article search was done in Embase, Lilacs, Scielo, Medline, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Pubmed databases. Randomized clinical trials and in vitro studies were selected in the review. The study was conducted according the PRISMA guideline for systematic review. A total of 34 articles were included in the qualitative analysis and four articles were divided into two subgroups to perform the meta-analysis. Few studies have achieved an effective microbial reduction in microorganisms associated with the pathogenesis of dental caries. The results highlight that there is no consensus about the study protocols for PDT against cariogenic microorganisms, although the results showed the PDT could be a good alternative for the treatment of dental caries.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/microbiologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida/patogenicidade , Candidíase/microbiologia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Humanos , Azul de Metileno/farmacologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Porphyromonas gingivalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Porphyromonas gingivalis/patogenicidade , Corantes de Rosanilina/farmacologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Streptococcus/patogenicidade , Cloreto de Tolônio/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Dent Med Probl ; 56(2): 137-142, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been reported that patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are more likely to exhibit periodontitis than patients without RA. However, the frequency and severity of dental caries in patients with RA is still unknown. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate whether higher counts of cariogenic bacteria are present in RA patients in contrast to healthy subjects, and to ascertain whether the frequency and severity of dental caries are increased in RA patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 160 adults: an RA group (n = 80) and a control group matched by age and gender (n = 80). The participants' dental status scores were determined based on the following indices: the Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, the Filled and Sound Teeth (FS-T) index, Treatment Needs Index (TNI), Care Index (CI), and Integrative Dental Caries Index (IDCI). DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Streptococcus sobrinus (S. sobrinus) were quantified using realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: The IDCI showed that the RA group was more affected, mainly presenting moderate to severe dental caries. The RA group also had higher global DMFT scores than the control group and scored higher on the decayed component of the DMFT index. The TNI and CI indicated that RA patients required more dental attention and appropriate treatment. The Streptococcus mutans count was significantly higher in the RA group. CONCLUSIONS: A complete basic oral examination, along with oral health instruction including adequate oral and dental hygiene, is crucial to prevent dental caries and associated complications in RA patients, since they appear to be more vulnerable than the non-RA population.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Cárie Dentária , Placa Dentária , Adulto , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Cárie Dentária/complicações , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Humanos , Streptococcus mutans/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus mutans/patogenicidade , Streptococcus sobrinus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus sobrinus/patogenicidade
14.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 383, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chitosan nanoparticle (nanochitosan) has a broad antimicrobial spectrum against diverse pathogenic microorganisms. However, its effect on dental caries-associated microorganisms, such as Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans is yet to be explored. These microorganisms are known for causing early childhood caries. Therefore, this study was aimed at investigating nanochitosan inhibition capacity against dual-species biofilms of S. mutans and C. albicans. In this study, nanochitosan antimicrobial activity is reported against mono and dual biofilm species of S. mutans and/or C. albicans at 3 and 18 h incubation time. Nanochitosan inhibition capacity was observed through biofilm mass quantity and cell viability. RESULTS: The present study successfully synthesized nanochitosan with average diameter of approximately 20-30 nm, and also established dual-species biofilms of S. mutans and C. albicans in vitro. With nanochitosan treatment, the cell viability of both microorganisms significantly decreased with the increasing concentration of nanochitosan. There was no significant decrease in biofilm mass both in the dual and single-species biofilms after 3 h of incubation. However, greater inhibition of biofilm was observed at 18 h incubation.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/química , Nanopartículas/química , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/fisiologia , Criança , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Humanos , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Streptococcus mutans/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Microb Pathog ; 135: 103626, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325573

RESUMO

Plaque-related diseases are amongst the most common ailments of the oral cavity. Streptococcus mutans is the causal agent of dental caries in animals and humans and is responsible for the formation and accumulation of plaques. This study aimed to identify and evaluate the role of the dental plaque isolates and its surrounding environment in plaque formation or inhibition. The study started with the identification of human dental plaque isolates from high caries index patients based on 16S rRNA and Mitis salivarius bacitracin agar (MSB) was used for S. mutans growing. Unexpectedly, the Streptococcus mutans was completely absent. The disc diffusion assay recorded that all the isolates had antimicrobial activity against the S. mutans growth. Enzymes assay revealed that the isolates produced dextransucrase, levansucrase and levanase activity with wide variation degrees. Also, the lactic acid production assay was done based in pH shift assessment. The highest pH shift and dextran yield were detected by the isolates Bacillus subtilis_AG1 and Bacillus mojavensis_AG3. The adherence test revealed that Lysinibacillus cresolivorans_W2 (MK411028) recorded the highest adhesion property (60%). Oligo- and polysaccharides were synthesized by the action of dextransucrase enzyme and their cytotoxicity tests were negative. Dextran with a molecular weight (117521 Da) recorded the highest antimicrobial efficacy against Bacillus subtilis_AG1 and Bacillusmojavensis_AG3 (65%, 63.5%) respectively. The results concluded that the dextran was the most important factor causing the dental plaque pathogenicity. Also, oral oligo- and polysaccharides might play a role in dental plaque control.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Streptococcus mutans/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillaceae/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus subtilis/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Aderência Bacteriana , Linhagem Celular , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Dextranos/metabolismo , Glucosiltransferases , Hexosiltransferases , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Boca/microbiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151296

RESUMO

This study investigated pH, activity and concentration of carbonic anhydrase VI (CA VI) in dental biofilm of caries and caries-free children of 7-9 years old. Seventy-four children were selected and divided into two groups. The caries diagnosis was performed according to the WHO criteria, including the early caries lesion. After biofilm collection and pH determination, CA VI concentration and activity were determined by ELISA and Zimography respectively. The data were submitted to a Mann-Whitney test and to Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses. Means and standard deviations of dental caries for the caries group were of 3.162 ± 1.385. The biofilm pH was significantly higher in the caries-free group. The CA VI activity was significantly higher in biofilm of children with caries. The CA VI concentration was significantly higher in biofilm of caries-free children. In caries-free children, there was a moderate negative correlation between CA VI activity and concentration in dental biofilm as well as between pH and CA VI activity. A negative correlation between biofilm pH and CA VI concentration was found in the caries group. In conclusion, CA VI was shown to be more active in the biofilm of school children with caries in order to contribute to neutralization of biofilm acid.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Cárie Dentária/enzimologia , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Criança , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Ativação Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino
17.
Int J Oral Sci ; 11(2): 19, 2019 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148553

RESUMO

Streptococcus mutans is a well-known cause of dental caries, due to its acidogenicity, aciduricity, and ability to synthesize exopolysaccharides in dental plaques. Intriguingly, not all children who carry S. mutans manifest caries, even with similar characteristics in oral hygiene, diet, and other environmental factors. This phenomenon suggests that host susceptibility potentially plays a role in the development of dental caries; however, the association between host genetics, S. mutans, and dental caries remains unclear. Therefore, this study examined the influence of host gene-by-S. mutans interaction on dental caries. Genome-wide association analyses were conducted in 709 US children (<13 years old), using the dbGap database acquired from the center for oral health research in appalachia (COHRA) and the Iowa Head Start programmes (GEIRS). A generalized estimating equation was used to examine the gene-by-S. mutans interaction effects on the outcomes (decayed and missing/filled primary teeth due to caries). Sequentially, the COHRA and GEIRS data were used to identify potential interactions and replicate the findings. Three loci at the genes interleukin 32 (IL32), galactokinase 2 (GALK2), and CUGBP, Elav-like family member 4 (CELF4) were linked to S. mutans carriage, and there was a severity of caries at a suggestive significance level among COHRA children (P < 9 × 10-5), and at a nominal significance level among GEIRS children (P = 0.047-0.001). The genetic risk score that combined the three loci also significantly interacted with S. mutans (P < 0.000 1). Functional analyses indicated that the identified genes are involved in the host immune response, galactose carbohydrate metabolism, and food-rewarding system, which could potentially be used to identify children at high risk for caries and to develop personalized caries prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária/genética , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Streptococcus mutans/genética , Streptococcus mutans/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Criança , Índice CPO , Galactoquinase , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Dente Decíduo
18.
Microb Pathog ; 135: 103615, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254603

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the caries features in hypoplastic Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed including 28 patients, 14 with hypoplastic AI and 14 controls for whom Decayed (D), Missed (M) and Filled (F) Teeth (T) were checked for a DMFT index evaluation. Twenty-eight saliva samples, 4 bacterial plaques and 19 teeth were used. Decayed teeth were observed under polarized light and scanning electron microscopy. Salivary pH was measured and saliva bacterial strains were biochemically identified and confirmed by PCR. Bacterial adhesions to tooth surfaces were observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and evaluated by colony enumeration after in vitro culture of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei with dental fragments. RESULTS: DMFT indexes were significantly lower in AI patients (mean DMFT = 0.8) compared to controls (mean DMFT = 2.9). Decayed teeth revealed sclerotic, demineralized, invaded and disintegrated zones in dentine. Dental plaques were rich with filamentous bacteria in AI patients. Oral microbiotome of the saliva showed a low rate of Streptococci and a significant high level of Bacillus spp, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium in AI patients. In vitro study showed a significant high adhesion of Lactobacillus casei and a weak adhesion of Streptococcus mutans on AI dental hard tissues. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that hypoplastic AI patients have (i) a low DMFT index, (ii) an alkaline pH of saliva enriched with Bacillus spp, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium and (iii) dental tissues more easily invaded by Lactobacilli than Streptococci. The combination of these bacteria seems to give AI patients protection against dental caries.


Assuntos
Amelogênese Imperfeita/microbiologia , Amelogênese Imperfeita/patologia , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Amelogênese Imperfeita/complicações , Bacillus , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Aderência Bacteriana , Biofilmes , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/complicações , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Enterococcus , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactobacillus casei , Saliva/química , Saliva/microbiologia , Streptococcus mutans , Propriedades de Superfície , Adulto Jovem
19.
Arch Oral Biol ; 105: 46-51, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254840

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dental caries is one of the most common infectious diseases in humans. Older adults retain more teeth than did earlier generations and thus are at high risk of root caries. The root surface is covered by cementum, which facilitates the spread of caries lesions into dentinal tissues. Propionibacterium acidifaciens has been detected in dentinal caries lesions; however, the pathogenetic mechanisms are not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathogenic mechanisms of cariogenic P. acidifaciens. METHODS: Saliva-induced aggregation of P. acidifaciens cells and adherence of the organism to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite were examined. Coaggregation of P. acidifaciens with other bacterial cells and binding of the organism to collagen were examined. Effect of Streptococcus mutans on the biofilm formation by P. acidifaciens was also examined. In addition, the effects of acids on the growth of P. acidifaciens were evaluated. RESULTS: P. acidifaciens exhibited strong binding to collagen but weak or moderate interaction with salivary proteins. P. acidifaciens showed weak coaggregation with streptococcal strains and Fusobacerium nucleatum. Biofilm formation by P. acidifaciens was inhibited by S. mutans. Moreover, P. acidifaciens tolerated to self-produced acids up to threshold concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that P. acidifaciens can bind to and survive inside dentinal tissue, and its acid production at low pH condition is involved in the development of dentinal caries.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Propionibacterium/patogenicidade , Aderência Bacteriana , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Saliva , Streptococcus mutans
20.
Georgian Med News ; (289): 42-46, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215877

RESUMO

Most sinusitis is the result of a periapical infection caused by caries or periodontal disease. The role of bacteria in the initiation of inflammation of the pulp and periapical zones has been well demonstrated. It is well known that colonization of microorganisms in the oral cavity can contribute to the development of pathology of the pulp and periapical organs. Purpose - to study the pathogenesis of maxillary sinusitis, which developed during the treatment of complications of caries of the upper jaw. The study involved 17 patients (mean 40.5±12.7 years) with maxillary sinusitis after treatment of complications of dental caries of the upper jaw. In 8 (47.2%) patients, the species composition of microflora in the sinuses was revealed. Material for the study was taken from the maxillary sinuses during the operative intervention. 24 hours before the operation, antibiotics were discontinued. Identification of isolated aerobic cultures and fungi was carried out using a Vitek 2-compact (BioMérieux, France). The susceptibility of antibiotics to the isolated microorganisms was determined using a Vitek 2-compact bacteriological analyzer. In 9 (53.0%) patients venous blood sampling was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the Zaporizhzhya laboratory Synevo (Belgium) for the study of general immunity. Aerobic bacteria were sown in 100.0% of patients. Gram-positive flora - staphylococcus and streptococcus (80.0%) and fungi - candida (20.0%). Monocultures were detected in 75.0% of patients, associations - in 25.0%. The maximum bacterial contamination index is 105 CFU, detected in 20.0% of cases; the minimum figure was 103 CFU, was found in 50.0% of cases. High Ig E values (173.3±76.7 IU/ml) and low CIC values (160 OU) indicate the presence of an allergic component in the pathogenesis of the disease and an adequate immune system response to sensitization and inflammation in patients in this group.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Sinusite Maxilar , Bactérias , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Humanos , Seio Maxilar , Sinusite Maxilar/microbiologia , Boca
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