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1.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 104-111, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral caries (PC) has recently been shown to affect over half of UK and Australian horses. OBJECTIVES: To examine affected cheek teeth histologically and ultrastructurally, to assess the possible route(s) of carious infection into the dental tissues and to further describe the pathological changes in affected teeth. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive pathological study. METHODS: Four control and 16 cheek teeth with different grades of PC were examined grossly, histologically and by electron microscopy. RESULTS: Cariogenic bacteria from plaque entered peripheral cementum perpendicular to the sides of teeth alongside Sharpey's fibres or vascular channels or more horizontally alongside exposed intrinsic fibres and cemental growth lines. Subsequent intra-cemental bacterial spread created different patterns of caries including vertical and horizontal flake-like patterns; deep, large flask-shaped or smaller superficial ellipsoid-shaped lytic lesions. Cemental caries progressed to affect enamel, dentine and even pulp. Gross examination underestimated the degree of caries observed on histological evaluation. MAIN LIMITATIONS: No dental histories were available; all teeth were examined on a single occasion. CONCLUSION: Equine PC causes different patterns of cemental lesions that appear dependent on the route of cariogenic bacterial invasion. Progression of caries can lead to pulpitis and tooth loss. Gross examination can underestimate the true extent of caries.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Dente/patologia , Animais , Cavalos , Dente/ultraestrutura
2.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(11): 1576-1582, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719280

RESUMO

Aims: To evaluate the diagnostic abilities of near-infrared light transillumination (using the DIAGNOcam) and bitewing radiographs in detecting cavitated proximal carious lesions in primary molars. Subjects and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional analytical, clinical study. The proximal surfaces of primary molars of healthy 5- to 8-year-old children were radiographically screened for the presence of carious lesions in the enamel or outer third of dentin (D1). Two trained and calibrated examiners evaluated the depth of caries in bitewing radiographs and DIAGNOcam images and then verified the presence of cavitation by direct visual examination using the "International Caries Detection and Assessment System" after temporary tooth separation. Results: A total of 236 proximal lesions were included in the study. Most of the clinically cavitated lesions (51.9%) were D1 radiographically and in outer dentin lesions (scores 3 and 4) by the DIAGNOcam (37% and 48.1%, respectively). Although DIAGNOcam showed higher sensitivity (0.852) compared to the radiographs (0.519), it showed slightly less specificity (0.569) compared to the radiographs (0.579). However, DIAGNOcam showed higher value of the area under the curve (AUC = 0.722; P < 0.001) compared to the radiographic method (AUC = 0.561; P = 0.308). Conclusions: The DIAGNOcam showed higher sensitivity and better accuracy than bitewing radiographs in diagnosing cavitated proximal lesions in primary molars and can be generally considered as an alternative to radiographs to detect cavitation without the hazards of ionizing radiation in children.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Microrradiografia/instrumentação , Microrradiografia/métodos , Radiografia Interproximal/métodos , Radiografia Dentária/métodos , Dente Decíduo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transiluminação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Esmalte Dentário/diagnóstico por imagem , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Dentina/diagnóstico por imagem , Dentina/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dente Molar/patologia , Radiografia Dentária Digital , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
3.
Infect Immun ; 87(10)2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383746

RESUMO

Candida albicans, a major opportunistic fungal pathogen, is frequently found together with Streptococcus mutans in dental biofilms associated with severe childhood caries (tooth decay), a prevalent pediatric oral disease. However, the impact of this cross-kingdom relationship on C. albicans remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we employed a novel quantitative proteomics approach in conjunction with transcriptomic profiling to unravel molecular pathways of C. albicans when cocultured with S. mutans in mixed biofilms. RNA sequencing and iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation)-based quantitative proteomics revealed that C. albicans genes and proteins associated with carbohydrate metabolism were significantly enhanced, including sugar transport, aerobic respiration, pyruvate breakdown, and the glyoxylate cycle. Other C. albicans genes and proteins directly and indirectly related to cell morphogenesis and cell wall components such as mannan and glucan were also upregulated, indicating enhanced fungal activity in mixed-species biofilm. Further analyses revealed that S. mutans-derived exoenzyme glucosyltransferase B (GtfB), which binds to the fungal cell surface to promote coadhesion, can break down sucrose into glucose and fructose that can be readily metabolized by C. albicans, enhancing growth and acid production. Altogether, we identified key pathways used by C. albicans in the mixed biofilm, indicating an active fungal role in the sugar metabolism and environmental acidification (key virulence traits associated with caries onset) when interacting with S. mutans, and a new cross-feeding mechanism mediated by GtfB that enhances C. albicans carbohydrate utilization. In addition, we demonstrate that comprehensive transcriptomics and quantitative proteomics can be powerful tools to study microbial contributions which remain underexplored in cross-kingdom biofilms.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Streptococcus mutans/genética , Transcriptoma , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Candida albicans/metabolismo , Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Criança , Técnicas de Cocultura , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Glucanos/metabolismo , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteômica , Streptococcus mutans/metabolismo , Streptococcus mutans/patogenicidade , Simbiose/genética
4.
Georgian Med News ; (291): 50-53, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418730

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to determine the spread and intensity of dental caries in the adolescents and study the characteristics of damage to create the unified method of prognosis and development risk level of the aforementioned pathology. Impact of risk factors on the mineralization of hard tissue of tooth was studied in the 381 adolescents aged 11-16. The study found that dental caries spread among the research group was high, with the 77.9% (p>0,005), and the intensity was between average (DMFT=2,3). An analysis of the differences between values of the average caries intensity and the SIC index (Significant Caries index) in relative terms showed that minimal differences were observed in adolescents 12-13 years old (1.4 times), and maximum differences in 15-16 years old (2.5 times). Among local risk factors that induce demineralizing processes of hard tooth tissues in all age groups, poor oral hygiene (86.5%) and dental anomalies (56%) are the most significant, whereas among general risk factors, the hormonal state of juvenile age (27.2%) is of primary importance. Thus, the assessment of the role and significance of common and local risk factors of the development of dental caries, considering age, will allow organizing their early prevention mechanisms and selection of the most appropriate and optimal treatment method.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Prevalência
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 1271523, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317022

RESUMO

Fixed orthodontic treatments often lead to enamel demineralization and cause white spot lesions (WSLs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the mineralization degree of 2 types of WSLs based on ICDAS index and compare the remineralizing efficacy of 3 oral hygiene practices after 1 month and 3 months. 80 mild demineralized and 80 severe demineralized enamel specimens were randomized into three treatments: fluoride toothpaste (FT), fluoride varnish plus fluoride toothpaste (FV+FT), and CPP-ACP plus fluoride toothpaste (CPP-ACP+FT). Microhardness tester, DIAGNODent Pen 2190, and scanning electron microscope were used to evaluate the changes of mineralization degree. Both qualitative and quantitative indicators suggested that the mild and severe white spot lesions were different in the degree of mineralization. Severe WSLs demineralized much more seriously than mild lesions even after 3 months of treatment. Despite the variation in severity, both lesions had the same variation trend after each measure was applied: FT had weak therapeutic effect, FV + FT and CPP-ACP + FT were effective for remineralization. Their remineralizing efficacy was similar after 1 month, and combined use of CPP-ACP plus F toothpaste was more effective after 3 months. In order to fight WSLs, early diagnosis was of great importance, and examination of the tooth surface after air-dry for 5 seconds was recommended. Also, when WSLs were found, added remineralizing treatments were required.


Assuntos
Dente Pré-Molar/efeitos dos fármacos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Dente Pré-Molar/patologia , Fosfatos de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Fluoretos Tópicos/uso terapêutico , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Remineralização Dentária , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico
6.
Microb Pathog ; 135: 103615, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254603

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the caries features in hypoplastic Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed including 28 patients, 14 with hypoplastic AI and 14 controls for whom Decayed (D), Missed (M) and Filled (F) Teeth (T) were checked for a DMFT index evaluation. Twenty-eight saliva samples, 4 bacterial plaques and 19 teeth were used. Decayed teeth were observed under polarized light and scanning electron microscopy. Salivary pH was measured and saliva bacterial strains were biochemically identified and confirmed by PCR. Bacterial adhesions to tooth surfaces were observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and evaluated by colony enumeration after in vitro culture of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei with dental fragments. RESULTS: DMFT indexes were significantly lower in AI patients (mean DMFT = 0.8) compared to controls (mean DMFT = 2.9). Decayed teeth revealed sclerotic, demineralized, invaded and disintegrated zones in dentine. Dental plaques were rich with filamentous bacteria in AI patients. Oral microbiotome of the saliva showed a low rate of Streptococci and a significant high level of Bacillus spp, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium in AI patients. In vitro study showed a significant high adhesion of Lactobacillus casei and a weak adhesion of Streptococcus mutans on AI dental hard tissues. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that hypoplastic AI patients have (i) a low DMFT index, (ii) an alkaline pH of saliva enriched with Bacillus spp, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium and (iii) dental tissues more easily invaded by Lactobacilli than Streptococci. The combination of these bacteria seems to give AI patients protection against dental caries.


Assuntos
Amelogênese Imperfeita/microbiologia , Amelogênese Imperfeita/patologia , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Amelogênese Imperfeita/complicações , Bacillus , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Aderência Bacteriana , Biofilmes , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/complicações , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Enterococcus , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactobacillus casei , Saliva/química , Saliva/microbiologia , Streptococcus mutans , Propriedades de Superfície , Adulto Jovem
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151296

RESUMO

This study investigated pH, activity and concentration of carbonic anhydrase VI (CA VI) in dental biofilm of caries and caries-free children of 7-9 years old. Seventy-four children were selected and divided into two groups. The caries diagnosis was performed according to the WHO criteria, including the early caries lesion. After biofilm collection and pH determination, CA VI concentration and activity were determined by ELISA and Zimography respectively. The data were submitted to a Mann-Whitney test and to Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses. Means and standard deviations of dental caries for the caries group were of 3.162 ± 1.385. The biofilm pH was significantly higher in the caries-free group. The CA VI activity was significantly higher in biofilm of children with caries. The CA VI concentration was significantly higher in biofilm of caries-free children. In caries-free children, there was a moderate negative correlation between CA VI activity and concentration in dental biofilm as well as between pH and CA VI activity. A negative correlation between biofilm pH and CA VI concentration was found in the caries group. In conclusion, CA VI was shown to be more active in the biofilm of school children with caries in order to contribute to neutralization of biofilm acid.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Cárie Dentária/enzimologia , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Criança , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Ativação Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino
8.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214946, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973902

RESUMO

Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death. The effect of tobacco is even more contundent in people with mental illness and, in general, cigarette smoking addiction is influenced by genetic factors. The opioid system is involved in the mesolimbic reward system, which is of great importance in addictive behaviors, such as smoking and is influenced by genes such as the OPRM1. The aim of this study was to evaluate if selecting a comparison group that include light smokers versus people that never smoked impacts the results of genetic association studies. In addition, to evaluate the genetic association in different groups of smokers by analyzing independent covariates such as mental illness and clinical dental data. All subjects were participants of the Dental Registry and DNA Repository project. Genotyping was carried out using TaqMan chemistry for two markers in OPRM1 (rs553202 and rs7755635). Logistic regression analyses were performed as implemented in PLINK. The established value for alpha was 5%, and the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was evaluated by the chi-square test with one degree of freedom for each marker. 1,897 patients were included, which were allocated to eight distinct groups, according to the frequency and quantity of cigarettes smoked and mental illness status. There was no significant association between the two markers in OPRM1 and smoking. When mental illness and dental clinical data (tooth loss, dental caries, and periodontitis) were used as covariates, there were associations between heavy smoking and OPRM1, when non-smokers were used as comparison. We did not have diet or microbiome data to consider for these dental analyses and suggest that these kinds of data should be always incorporated in the future. Significant results were found only when the covariables mental illness and oral clinical data were added to the analysis.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Fumar Cigarros , Cárie Dentária , Periodontite , Receptores Opioides mu/genética , Perda de Dente , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/genética , Comportamento Aditivo/patologia , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Fumar Cigarros/genética , Fumar Cigarros/patologia , Fumar Cigarros/fisiopatologia , Cárie Dentária/genética , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Cárie Dentária/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Periodontite/genética , Periodontite/patologia , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Perda de Dente/genética , Perda de Dente/patologia , Perda de Dente/fisiopatologia
9.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(4): 527-533, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975958

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of impacted teeth and the frequency of pathologies they caused by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) retrospectively. Materials and Methods: In this study, 608 patients' CBCT images were analyzed retrospectively. Detected impacted teeth were classified as incisor, canine, premolar, molar, third molar, and supernumerary teeth. The pathologies caused by impacted teeth are classified as cysts or tumors, tooth decay, root resorptions, and periodontal bone loss. Results: Impacted teeth were detected in 34.37% of the 608 CBCT images included in the study. The distribution of impacted teeth was 9.4% incisor, 29.4% canine, 9.9% premolar, 2.9% molar, 9.3% supernumerary, and 39.9% third molar teeth. Approximately 63.7% of the impacted teeth caused a pathology. The pathology that was most commonly caused by impacted teeth was periodontal bone loss (44.4%), and respectively others were root resorptions (33.3%), cysts or tumors (8.6%), and tooth decay (2.3%). The most common cause of this pathology was right mandibular third molar teeth. Conclusion: Impacted teeth were common and they often caused a pathology. CBCT is a useful device to assess the impacted teeth. When the impacted teeth are evaluated, each tooth should be assessed within itself. If the impacted teeth are not caused by pathology, they can be kept under control.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Reabsorção da Raiz/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente Impactado/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Perda do Osso Alveolar/epidemiologia , Perda do Osso Alveolar/etiologia , Dente Pré-Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Incisivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Dente Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente Serotino/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reabsorção da Raiz/epidemiologia , Dente Impactado/complicações , Dente Impactado/epidemiologia , Dente Supranumerário/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 5070383, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032348

RESUMO

This research evaluated the effects of subpressure on the shear bond strength (SBS) of 80 specimens with flat enamel surfaces and on AgNO3 microleakage of 40 specimens with flat enamel surfaces and 40 specimens with 1 mm deep cavities before and after thermocycling. The enamel of 168 specimens was grounded to a flat surface. Two types of sealants (E and H) were selected. Sealants were applied to enamel surface (88 specimens, group F) either subjected or not to subpressure. The bonding interfaces were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the SBS was examined using a universal testing machine before and after thermocycling. The failure mode was also analyzed. For the microleakage test, 80 specimens were grouped as group A (original enamel flat surface) and group B (a round cavity of 1 mm in depth) (40 per group). Sealants were applied to the teeth either subjected or not to subpressure. The specimens were submitted to a microleakage protocol with AgNO3 and analyzed before and after thermocycling. Statistical analysis was performed for the data. The results showed that subpressure eliminated voids on the interface between the enamel and sealants and significantly enhanced specimens' SBS. Although thermocycling reduced SBS significantly, specimens under subpressure after thermocycling still showed higher SBS than specimens under nonsubpressure before thermocycling. The subpressure groups showed a lower microleakage level compared to nonsubpressure groups, though thermocycling caused deeper silver infiltration. In addition, different sealants showed no significant effect on the SBS and microleakage performance. Overall, subpressure application improves sealant bonding and retention rate and has potential to prevent secondary caries.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Cárie Dentária/terapia , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Selantes de Fossas e Fissuras/uso terapêutico , Ataque Ácido Dentário/métodos , Colagem Dentária/métodos , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Esmalte Dentário/fisiopatologia , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Dente Molar/efeitos dos fármacos , Selantes de Fossas e Fissuras/química , Cimentos de Resina/química , Cimentos de Resina/uso terapêutico , Resistência ao Cisalhamento , Propriedades de Superfície
11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 4503450, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30881987

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between salivary 1,5-anhydroglucitol (AG), vitamins A (VA), C (VC), and E (VE), and caries risk in children. 100 healthy children aged between 6 and 13 years were divided into two equal groups of caries-free (DMFS/dmfs=0) and caries active (DMFS/dmfs>3). Unstimulated midmorning saliva was collected from all the children and the levels of salivary AG and vitamins A, C, and E were measured. Caries risk assessment was done using American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry Caries Assessment Tool. Analysis of salivary AG and vitamins was performed using a commercially available ELISA kit. Low levels of AG were present in caries active and high caries risk groups compared to caries-free and low/medium caries risk groups. This difference is statistically significant (p < 0.05). A strong negative correlation between AG and caries activity was observed in the caries active group. VA was not related to caries activity, while VC and VE displayed a statistically significant correlation (p < 0.05). Similarly, a strong negative correlation was observed between the levels of AG and high caries risk group. Salivary AG, VC, and VE together are related to caries risk in caries active children. These salivary parameters can act as indicator of caries status in children.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Cárie Dentária/metabolismo , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Vitamina E/metabolismo , Adolescente , Ácido Ascórbico/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Desoxiglucose/isolamento & purificação , Desoxiglucose/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Saliva/química , Saliva/metabolismo , Vitamina A/isolamento & purificação , Vitamina E/isolamento & purificação
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1922: 379-392, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838592

RESUMO

As laboratory models are bridges to in vivo caries studies, they must mirror clinical conditions, where demineralization and remineralization alternate constantly (i.e., pH cycling) and are only interrupted during the very short period of application of investigational products, such as toothpaste or mouth rinse. In view of this, models have been developed, based on pH cycling, to study the anticaries or caries remineralizing effects of substances. The pH cycling models have long been accepted and utilized by the scientific community and the toothpaste industry as an appropriate alternative to animal caries testing, particularly for ionic fluoride-based dentifrices. Several pH cycling models have been developed and described in the literature over the years. However, in this chapter, we crudely categorize them into two types: according to what the investigational product is tailored to achieve, i.e., prevention of caries development (net demineralization) or remineralization of early caries (net remineralization). Thus the models are termed "demineralization" or "remineralization" models and are described in details here together with their disadvantages and applications.


Assuntos
Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Dentifrícios/farmacologia , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Animais , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Dentifrícios/uso terapêutico , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Dente/efeitos dos fármacos , Dente/patologia , Desmineralização do Dente/patologia , Desmineralização do Dente/prevenção & controle
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1922: 393-403, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838593

RESUMO

Dental caries is an infectious oral disease caused primarily by complex interactions of cariogenic oral flora (biofilm) with dietary carbohydrates on the tooth surface over time. Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus (S. mutans and S. sobrinus) are the most prevalent cariogenic species within the oral biofilm and considered the main etiological agents of caries. Pulp exposure and infection can be caused by trauma, carious lesion, and mechanical reasons. Pulp response to these exposures depends on the state of the pulp as well as the potential bacterial contamination of pulp tissue. Herein, we describe the process of using two in vivo rodent models to study the progression of dental caries and pulp disease: a nutritional microbial model and a pulp disease induction model. The progression of the carious lesion and pulpal infections in both models was assessed by micro-CT imaging and histomorphometric analysis. Moreover, the pulp disease induction models can be used to compare and assess the antibacterial and reparative properties of the different pulp capping materials.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Streptococcus mutans/fisiologia , Streptococcus sobrinus/fisiologia , Animais , Biofilmes , Polpa Dentária/microbiologia , Polpa Dentária/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1922: 511-523, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838597

RESUMO

Epidemiological investigations of early childhood oral health rely upon the collection of high-quality clinical measures of health and disease. However, ascertainment of valid and accurate clinical measures presents unique challenges among young, preschool-age children. The paper presents a clinical research protocol for the conduct of oral epidemiological examinations among children, implemented in ZOE 2.0, a large-scale population-based genetic epidemiologic study of early childhood caries (ECC). The protocol has been developed for the collection of information on tooth surface-level dental caries experience and tooth-level developmental defects of the enamel in the primary dentition. Dental caries experience is recorded using visual criteria modified from the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), and measurement of developmental defects is based upon the modified Clarkson and O'Mullane Developmental Defects of the Enamel Index. After a dental prophylaxis (toothbrushing among all children and flossing as needed), children's teeth are examined by trained and calibrated examiners in community locations, using portable dental equipment, compressed air, and uniform artificial light and magnification conditions. Data are entered directly onto a computer using a custom Microsoft Access-based data entry application. The ZOE 2.0 clinical protocol has been implemented successfully for the conduct of over 6000 research examinations to date, contributing phenotype data to downstream genomics and other "omics" studies of ECC and DDE, as well as traditional clinical and epidemiologic dental research.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/patologia , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Saúde Bucal , Dente Decíduo/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Esmalte Dentário/anormalidades , Esmalte Dentário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pesquisa em Odontologia/métodos , Humanos , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Dente Decíduo/anormalidades , Dente Decíduo/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Indian J Dent Res ; 30(1): 52-56, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900657

RESUMO

Introduction: Infiltrant resins were developed to hamper carious lesion progression and mask the whitish appearance of first evidence of caries. Objective: This study aimed at testing the hypothesis that a long application time of resin infiltrant in proximal enamel caries improves esthetic outcome compared to the commercially recommended time. Materials and Methods: Twenty teeth with uncavitated inactive proximal white enamel caries lesions (selected by two calibrated examiners; inter-examiner κ = 0.87) were divided into two groups (experimental and control group; n = 10) that agreed regarding lesion surface area. Lesions were infiltrated following the protocol recommended by the manufacturer (two applications, 3 min application first and another 1 min application later; control) and by the protocol tested in this study (one application of 30 min; experimental). Enamel opaqueness (esthetic outcome) was measured by a calibrated examiner (intra-class coefficient of 0.9) before and after infiltration using fluorescence microscopy. Results: Reduction of enamel opaqueness was significantly higher in the experimental group (40.0% ± 18.5%) than in the control group (18.6% ± 14.9%) (P = 0.0105, one-tailed t-test; Hedge's g of 1.28, 95% confidence interval of 0.43/2.13, and power of 86%). Conclusions: It can be concluded that the application time of 30 min provides a greater reduction in opaqueness of proximal enamel lesion compared to the application time recommended by the manufacturer. The high effect size could stimulate patients to comply with the treatment time.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/patologia , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Resinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Estética Dentária , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 168(4): 750-763, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous researchers have assumed that the Late Prehistoric Oneota were less reliant on maize agriculture than their Middle Mississippian neighbors to the south. This assumption is based on the idea that intensive maize agriculture is related to sociopolitical complexity, and that the climate of the Great Lakes region was less conducive to full-scale agriculture than that of the American Bottom. Here, we assess the diet of the Oneota using dental pathology to test the hypothesis that the Oneota in Eastern Wisconsin were highly reliant on maize agriculture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To test our hypothesis, skeletal remains representing 187 individuals and 1,102 teeth were examined from nine Oneota sites from the Middle Fox and Koshkonong Localities, as well as the Late Woodland/Middle Mississippian site of Aztalan. Dental caries, antemortem tooth loss (AMTL), and dental abscesses were assessed for each individual in the sample. Dental pathologies in the Oneota groups were compared to each other based on Locality and to the Aztalan population using chi-squared tests. RESULTS: Dental caries rates for the Oneota, based on the tooth count approach, were observed at 16.8% for the Middle Fox Locality, and 49% for the Koshkonong Locality. Comparatively, the Late Woodland/Middle Mississippian population from Aztalan had a tooth count rate of 19.5%. AMTL rates were similar across samples. Dental abscessing was universally low. DISCUSSION: The relatively high rate of dental caries among the Oneota is comparable to Middle Mississippian populations from throughout the Midwest, suggesting similar reliance on maize between the groups.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Índios Norte-Americanos , Saúde Bucal/história , Adolescente , Adulto , Agricultura/história , Criança , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/história , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Dieta/história , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/etnologia , Índios Norte-Americanos/história , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paleodontologia , Dente/patologia , Wisconsin , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(4)2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791530

RESUMO

The mineral content of dental hard tissues has traditionally been measured by destructive tests such as transverse microradiography. Microfocus X-ray computed tomography (micro CT) has enabled non-destructive 3D assessment of tooth demineralization. This study compared the preventive effects of silver diammine fluoride (SDF) and potassium iodide (KI) in comparison with fluoride varnish. SDF has been known to arrest caries but darkens the tooth. KI creates a precipitate with SDF that reduces the discoloration, but its effects on SDF efficacy in terms of preventing demineralization of at-risk root dentin surfaces is unknown. Bovine root dentin blocks were randomly distributed into four groups and subjected to a pretreatment in each group (n = 8); Control: deionized water (DIW); F-Varnish: 5% sodium fluoride varnish: 38% Saforide; SDF+KI: SDF followed by saturated solution of KI in DIW. The treated dentin was subjected to 8 cycles of demineralization (pH 5) for 14 h and remineralization in artificial saliva (pH 7) for 10 h. Specimens were then scanned for 12 min using micro CT at 73 KV and 1012 µA with 8.3 µm resolution. The 3D images were analyzed in Amira software to calculate lesion depth (LD), surface layer mineral density (SL) and mineral loss (ΔZ) for each specimen. One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni posthoc showed that there was a statistically significant difference between Control and all three other groups for all parameters (P < 0.001), however, there was no statistical difference among F-Varnish, SDF and SDF+KI (P > 0.05). Single application of F-Varnish, SDF and SDF+KI showed comparable preventive effects against root dentin demineralization. Application of KI did not affect anti-demineralization properties of SDF in this study. Micro CT is a quick and effective method for objective and high-resolution characterization of dentin caries lesions.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos Tópicos/administração & dosagem , Iodeto de Potássio/administração & dosagem , Cárie Radicular/prevenção & controle , Animais , Bovinos , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico por imagem , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Dentina/diagnóstico por imagem , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Dentina/patologia , Humanos , Cárie Radicular/diagnóstico por imagem , Cárie Radicular/patologia , Desmineralização do Dente/diagnóstico por imagem , Desmineralização do Dente/tratamento farmacológico , Raiz Dentária/diagnóstico por imagem , Raiz Dentária/efeitos dos fármacos , Raiz Dentária/patologia , Microtomografia por Raio-X
18.
J Int Med Res ; 47(4): 1696-1704, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803280

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six candidate genes (enamelin [ ENAM]; tuftelin 1 [ TUFT1]; matrix metallopeptidase 13 [ MMP13]; interleukin 1 beta [ IL1B]; interleukin 10 [ IL10]; interleukin 1 receptor antagonist [ IL1RN]) and dental caries in children from northwest China. METHODS: This case-control study enrolled children (12-15 years) who underwent routine dental examinations. The children were divided into two groups based on the presence of dental caries. A saliva sample was collected and seven SNPs (rs3806804A/G in ENAM, rs3811411T/G in TUFT1, rs2252070A/G and rs597315A/T in MMP13, rs1143627C/T in IL1B, rs1800872A/C in IL10 and rs956730G/A in IL1RN) were genotyped. RESULTS: A total of 357 children were enrolled in the study: 161 with dental caries and 196 without dental caries. No significant difference was found in the alleles and genotypes of five genes ( ENAM, TUFT1, MMP13, IL10 and IL1RN) between those with and without dental caries. A significant relationship was found between the IL1B rs1143627C/T polymorphism and dental caries susceptibility with those carrying the rs1143627CT genotype having a lower risk of dental caries compared with those carrying the CC genotype (odds ratio 0.557; 95% confidence interval 0.326, 0.952). CONCLUSION: The IL1B rs1143627C/T polymorphism may be associated with dental caries susceptibility in children from northwest China.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/genética , Proteínas do Esmalte Dentário/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/genética , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Metaloproteinase 13 da Matriz/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico
19.
J Appl Biomater Funct Mater ; 17(1): 2280800019827798, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808229

RESUMO

Nowadays, dental caries is one of the most common oral health problems, affecting most individuals. It has been found that, by remineralizing enamel at an early stage in the formation of enamel caries, teeth can be effectively protected from dental caries. In this work, a peptide with eight repetitive sequences of aspartate-serine-serine (8DSS) is applied as the bio-mineralizer in an in-vivo rat enamel caries model. Nondestructive quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital (QLF-D) imaging and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) are used to evaluate the remineralization of enamel carious lesions by measuring the total fluorescence radiance loss of the molar area (Δ QTotal), acquired using QLF-D imaging, and the mineral density and residual molar enamel volume, acquired using micro-CT. Correlations are explored between Δ QTotal and mineral density (strong correlation, r = 0.8000, p < 0.001) and Δ QTotal and residual molar enamel volume (moderate correlation, r = 0.6375, p < 0.001). Our results demonstrate that 8DSS is a promising in-vivo remineralization agent that exhibits comparable effects to NaF ( p < 0.05), which has been verified using the classical Keyes method. Moreover, the nondestructive QLF-D and micro-CT methods can be combined to quantify the remineralization of enamel carious lesions three-dimensionally in vivo, making them broadly applicable in quantifying hard tissues.


Assuntos
Dente Molar/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/farmacocinética , Remineralização Dentária/métodos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dente Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente Molar/patologia , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Fluorescência Quantitativa Induzida por Luz , Ratos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Microtomografia por Raio-X
20.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(1): 117-124, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666030

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this in-vivo study was to evaluate the long-term clinical survival of different deep dentin caries treatment options. Materials and Methods: : In total, 391 patients with at least one permanent tooth with clinically diagnosed deep dentin caries were inspected. Two hundred and fourteen patients were examined at recall visits. Inclusion criteria were teeth with deep caries lesions with pulp vitality but absence of spontaneous pain and periapical alterations. The subjects received either stepwise removal (SWR), complete caries removal (CCR), or direct pulp capping (DPC). The radiological and clinical exams were performed after a mean observation time of 62 months. Success was defined as pulp sensitivity to vitality test and absence of periapical lesions as well as a clinical symptom. Data were statistically analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and log-rank (Mantel-Cox) tests (α = 0.05). Results: Of the total 214 patients evaluated, 126 received SWR, 88 received CCR, and 67 received DPC treatment. One hundred and twenty-seven restorations were amalgam and 141 were composite. The mean observation period was 62 months. Survival rates were 85.7%, 90.9%, and 59.7% for SWR, CCR, and DPC, respectively (P = 0.001). Success rates of amalgam restorations (86.6%) were similar to composite restorations (83%), and both were found to be successful (P = 0.401). Conclusion: SWR treatment should be considered to preserve pulp vitality of deep dentin lesions instead of CCR or DPC. Clinical Relevance: SWR method for deep dentin caries management had acceptable results over 5 years.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/terapia , Preparo da Cavidade Dentária/métodos , Capeamento da Polpa Dentária/métodos , Restauração Dentária Permanente/métodos , Dentina/patologia , Adulto , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico por imagem , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Materiais Dentários , Polpa Dentária/diagnóstico por imagem , Polpa Dentária/patologia , Polpa Dentária/fisiologia , Exposição da Polpa Dentária/patologia , Exposição da Polpa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Dentina/diagnóstico por imagem , Dentição Permanente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tratamento do Canal Radicular , Resultado do Tratamento
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