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1.
Rev. cient. odontol ; 7(2): 86-96, jul.-dic. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046732

RESUMO

El diagnóstico de caries dental ya no es más como el diagnóstico tradicional que mencionaba histológicamente el inicio y el final de una cavidad. Se ha demostrado que los criterios de diagnóstico y las herramientas utilizadas en la detección de lesiones de caries afectan la toma de decisiones para su tratamiento. Hoy en día, la caries dental es considerada un proceso; por ello, en el presente artículo, se describen nuevas propuestas que nos ayudarán con el diagnóstico, manejo y control de dicha enfermedad. Los criterios Cambra e Icdas son los que teóricamente tienen sustento bajo evidencia científica de lo que es actualmente la patología y su desarrollo, por lo que se describen los antecedentes históricos de su desarrollo, sus principales características, y se proponen opciones de integración al proceso diagnóstico actual a favor de una mayor conservación de la estructura dentaria. (AU)


The diagnosis of dental caries is no longer like the traditional diagnosis that histologically mentioned at the beginning and end of a cavity. It has been shown that the diagnostic criteria and tools used in the detection of caries lesions affect the decision-making process for caries treatment. Today tooth decay is considered as a process; That is why in this article new proposals are presented that will help us with the diagnosis, management and control of said disease. The criteria Cambra and Icdas, are those that theoretically have sustenance under scientific evidence of what is currently the pathology and its development; Therefore, the historical background of the development of Cambra and Icdas, its main characteristics are described, and integration options are proposed to the current diagnostic process in favor of greater preservation of the dental structure. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle
2.
J Water Health ; 17(6): 845-862, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850893

RESUMO

The relationship between naturally fluoridated groundwater and dental fluorosis has received large attention from researchers around the world. Despite recognition that several factors influence this relationship, there is a lack of systematic studies analyzing the heterogeneity of these results. To fill such a gap, this study performs a systematic review and meta-analysis to understand which factors influence this relationship and how. Selected studies were sampled between 2007 and 2017 from Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus using keywords and Boolean operators. Results of the systematic review show that dental fluorosis affects individuals of all ages, with the highest prevalence below 11, while the impact of other factors (gender, environmental conditions, diet and dental caries) was inconclusive. Meta-regression analysis, based on information collected through systematic review, indicates that both fluoride in drinking water and temperature influence dental fluorosis significantly and that these studies might be affected by publication bias. Findings show that fluoride negatively affects people's health in less developed countries. The conclusions discuss policy tools and technological innovations that could reduce fluoride levels below that of the World Health Organization (WHO) (<1.5 mg/L).


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Água Potável/química , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Fluorose Dentária , Fluoretos/efeitos adversos , Água Subterrânea , Humanos , Prevalência
4.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(11): 1495-1502, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719270

RESUMO

Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical success of different fissure sealants applied to erupting permanent first molars by taking into consideration the stages of tooth eruption. Materials and Methods: Two hundred healthy children between ages 5 and 8 with the inclusion criteria were examined. The erupting permanent first molars were evaluated and those at stage 3 or 4 were selected. An investigator placed three different fissure sealants (giomer, hydrophilic, and hydrophobic resin-based). At the end of 18 months, retention loss, development of new dental caries, localization of retention losses, marginal integrity, and marginal discoloration were evaluated. Results: The rate of tooth with total retention at stage 3 was significantly higher (P < 0.05). The development of dental caries in teeth at stage 4 was found to be significantly higher than that of stage 3 (P < 0.05). In terms of marginal integrity, the difference between stages of tooth eruption is similar (P > 0.05). Regarding marginal discoloration, fissure sealants applied at stage 3 were considered to be more successful than those applied at stage 4 (P < 0.05). Conclusions: We may conclude that the tooth eruption affects clinical success and giomer-based fissure sealants may not be an alternative for resin-based fissure sealants in erupting teeth.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Dente Molar , Selantes de Fossas e Fissuras/uso terapêutico , Erupção Dentária , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 126(10): 507-511, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613279

RESUMO

A side effect of radiotherapy in the head and neck area is a reduction of the capillary blood flow and with it, a reduction in local defenses. Depending on the duration and intensity of the radiation, hypoxia, hypocellularity and hypovascularity, may occur, resulting in an increased risk of infection. Hyposalivation, a commonly occurring phenomenon after radiotherapy, leads to a higher caries sensitivity. To keep oral health at an acceptable level as much as possible, teeth are checked by a dentist prior to radiotherapy. Non-essential teeth and teeth with pathology are extracted, in order to prevent future problems. Dental treatment in the area treated with radiation will nevertheless sometimes be necessary after radiotherapy. Because the risk of infection is high and may result in the loss of part of the jaw, antibiotic prophylaxis is started prior to invasive treatment. In general, amoxicillin 500 mg 3dd 1 is chosen for 14 days. After treatment, wound healing should be checked by the specialist.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/complicações , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Humanos , Xerostomia/etiologia
6.
Infect Immun ; 87(12)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527122

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated that recombinant protein PAc could be administered as an anticaries vaccine. However, the relatively weak immunogenicity of PAc limits its application. In the present study, we investigated the effect of two adjuvant combinations of chitosan plus Pam3CSK4 (chitosan-Pam3CSK4) and of chitosan plus monophosphoryl lipid A (chitosan-MPL) in the immune responses to the PAc protein in vivo and in vitro PAc-chitosan-Pam3CSK4 or PAc-chitosan-MPL promoted significantly higher PAc-specific antibody titers in serum and saliva, inhibited Streptococcus mutans colonization onto the tooth surfaces, and endowed better protection effect with significantly less caries activities than PAc alone. Chitosan-Pam3CSK4 and chitosan-MPL showed no statistically significant differences. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that the chitosan-Pam3CSK4 and chitosan-MPL combinations are promising for anticaries vaccine development.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Lipídeo A/análogos & derivados , Lipopeptídeos/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Feminino , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/análise , Lipídeo A/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas NLR/agonistas , Streptococcus mutans/patogenicidade , Receptores Toll-Like/agonistas , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Fatores de Virulência/imunologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540018

RESUMO

An oral health prevention intervention was conducted with Mexican-American (MA) caregivers, focused on improving their oral health knowledge, behavior, and self-efficacy. Five in-person intervention sessions were conducted with caregivers, followed by a 15 min skill-building exercise. A goal-setting sheet was provided, and two goals were chosen for fulfilment during the three month intervention period. The data on parental oral health knowledge, behavior, and self-efficacy were collected pre- and post-intervention using a portion of Basic Factors Research Questionnaire (BRFQ). Paired t-tests were conducted to test significant differences in the means of pre- and post-intervention oral health behavior, knowledge, and self-efficacy scores, and pre- and post-intervention individual item scores. Forty six primary caregivers were enrolled. There were significant differences in the means of pre- and post-intervention oral health knowledge (p = 0.003), oral health behavior (p = 0.0005), and self-efficacy scores (p = 0.001). The individual item mean scores showed that there was a significant increase in the number of times caregivers checked for spots (p = 0.016) and a significant decrease in the consumption of sweet or sugary drinks (p = 0.032) post-intervention. Most of the caregivers believed that cavities were caused by germs in the mouth (p = 0.001), sharing utensils with children was bad for their teeth (p < 0.001), and fluoride toothpaste was best for a child's teeth (p < 0.001). The intervention resulted in improved caregiver oral health knowledge, behavior, and self-efficacy.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Americanos Mexicanos , Saúde Bucal , Criança , Humanos , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 203, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This systematic review aimed to assess the clinical effects of laser preparation compared to other types of chemical or mechanical preparation of tooth surfaces used in fissure sealant placement. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted up to January 2019, through Pubmed, Scopus, Medline/EMBASE via OVID and the Cochrane library. Only randomized clinical trials were included. RESULTS: Five studies were included in the systematic review and three were included in the meta-analysis. All the studies used acid-etching as a comparator to lasers. All the included studies were rated as having an overall high risk of bias introduced by performance bias. Three studies assessed the clinical effects of fissure sealants placed by acid or laser etching, one compared acid etching versus laser combined with acid etching and one investigated the influence of lasers on the objective and subjective parameters of stress during sealant application in children. The meta-analysis showed no significant difference between laser preparation and conventional acid-etching preparation at 3- (P = 0.08), 6- (P = 0.49), and 12-month (P = 0.87) follow-ups. One study reported that laser preparation as an adjunct to acid-etching enhanced the retention rate. No significant difference in the incidence of caries was reported. And no significant differences were found in heart rates, oxygen saturation or degree of the patient dental anxiety between acid-etching and laser preparation. CONCLUSION: The present limited evidence suggests that lasers could be an effective pretreatment method. The retention rate was similar to that of conventional acid etching. However, the included studies had an overall high risk of bias and more rigorously designed research is needed.


Assuntos
Ataque Ácido Dentário , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Lasers de Estado Sólido , Selantes de Fossas e Fissuras/uso terapêutico , Criança , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico , Humanos , Selantes de Fossas e Fissuras/efeitos adversos
9.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 202, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the relationship between enrolment in a school-based oral health prevention program (SOHP) and: 1) children's dental health status and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), and 2) mothers' oral health (OH) knowledge, attitude, practice, and OHRQoL. METHODS: This cross-sectional study, in the Kuwait Capital, included 440 primary school children aged 11 to 12 years and their mothers. Participants were classified into two groups: SOHP and non-SOHP. The SOHP group had been enrolled in the prevention program for at least 3 years: children had twice-a-year applications of fluoride varnish and fissure sealants if needed; mothers had, at least, one oral health education session. The non-SOHP group had negative consents and had not been exposed to the prevention program activities. Dental examinations were performed at schools using portable dental units. Caries experience was determined using the decayed (D/d), missing (M/m), and filled (F/f) teeth (T/t)/surface (S/s) indices. Children's OHRQoL was assessed using a self-administered validated Child Perceptions Questionnaire 11-14 (CPQ11-14). Mothers' OH knowledge, attitude, practice, and OHRQoL were also assessed. After Bonferroni correction, a p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant for caries experience measures while a p-value of less than 0.013 was considered statistically significant for OHRQoL subscales and mothers' OH knowledge, attitude, practice, and OHRQoL. RESULTS: Mean (SD) DT/dt, DMFT/dmft and DMFS/dmfs were 1.41 (1.66), 2.35 (2.33), and 4.41 (5.86) for SOHP children, respectively. For non-SOHP children, the means were 2.61 (2.63), 3.56 (3.05), and 7.24 (7.78), respectively. The difference between the SOHP and non-SOHP was statistically significant (p <  0.001). Children enrolled in the program had a higher number of sealed and restored teeth. No significant differences were found in CPQ11-14 scores or subscale scores between the two groups. No significant difference in mothers' OH knowledge, attitude, practices or OHRQoL was found between SOHP and non-SOHP groups (P > 0.013). CONCLUSION: Enrolment in the SOHP prevention services was associated with a positive impact on children's caries level with no significant impact on mothers' knowledge, attitude, practice, or OHRQoL.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/psicologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 210, 2019 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste is a key recommendation in evidence-based guidelines for caries prevention. Parents generally have sufficient knowledge to practice tooth brushing for their child, yet many experience barriers to actually implement the behaviour. Common barriers are associated with difficult child behaviour, stress, poor family organisation and management of routines. These underlying determinants of tooth brushing behaviour should be addressed in caries-preventive interventions. The 'Uitblinkers' intervention is a semi-structured interview method developed for oral healthcare professionals (OHPs), with the aim to improve the practice of twice daily tooth brushing in children. The interview method focusses on 1) identifying parents' barriers to tooth brushing, and 2) promoting parenting strategies (related to tooth brushing) to tackle the identified barriers. The intervention applies principles from learning theory, including stimulus control, operant conditioning and authoritative parenting. This paper describes a study protocol to evaluate the effect of the intervention. METHODS: This non-randomised cluster-controlled trial will be conducted in 40 general dental practices in The Netherlands. Intervention practices will implement the intervention in addition to care as usual, while control practices will only provide care as usual. From each dental practice, a random sample of 3 to 4-year-old children will be recruited. The intervention consists of three sessions between an OHP and parent, in which parenting strategies for identified barriers are discussed. The primary study outcome is children's dental caries experience after 24 months. Secondary outcomes include parents' self-efficacy in brushing their children's teeth, tooth brushing frequency in children and children's dental plaque scores. Differences in outcomes between the intervention and control group will be assessed using logistic and negative binomial regression. The feasibility of the intervention will be assessed through process evaluation. DISCUSSION: Findings of this study will ascertain whether promoting parenting strategies is a successful method to improve tooth brushing in children and to prevent childhood dental caries in a clinical dental setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered with the Netherlands National Trial Register (registration date: 7 September 2018; trial registration number: NTR7469 ).


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Poder Familiar , Escovação Dentária , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Países Baixos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Pais
11.
Head Face Med ; 15(1): 22, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-orthodontic white-spot lesions (WSL) in esthetically relevant incisor and canine areas impair dentofacial esthetics, and preventive dentistry treatment is definitely required in case of enamel cavitations. The incidence of lingual post-orthodontic WSL and cavitation following lingual MB treatment has been reported to be distinctively decreased compared to labial MB treatment. Moreover, lingual WSL do not impair dentofacial esthetics. It was the objective of this study to calculate consequential costs of preventive dental care necessary to recover labial or lingual post-orthodontic cavitations as well as esthetically relevant WSL following either labial or lingual MB interventions. METHODS: MB treatments (labial / lingual) were simulated in 1,000,000 patients between the ages of 12-18Y, with a median residual life time expectancy of 58Y based on local mortality tables. Range of MB Tx duration was 9-45 mo. Frequencies of post-orthodontic (labial / lingual) enamel damages were derived from large-scale WSL incidence studies. Anterior composite survival rates were based on a systematic review on the subject. Within the context of the German dental fee system (GOZ 2.3 and 3.5 fee increments), simulation of costs for enamel damage treatment and re-treatment (maximum: 5x) were based on single-surface composite restorations for lingual or labial cavitations and labial WSL treatment; and lingual WSL fluoridation. RESULTS: Overall mean total costs for Tx and re-Tx of both WSLs and cavitations may sum up to 1718.91 Eur in the high-cost (GOZ 3.5) scenario for conventional MB cases, versus 19.94 Eur for lingually treated cases, given that renewal of simulated single-surface restorations takes place at 15-year intervals. When focussing on patients diagnosed with least of one WSL, and/or cavitation, these mean costs increase up to 2332.35 Eur for conventionally treated MB patients, or 65.03 Eur for lingual MB patients. CONCLUSION: Costs for repeated treatment of post-orthodontic enamel damages produced by conventional vestibular fixed appliances may easily exceed the initially higher costs associated with lingual orthodontic treatment. Judged economically in the long term, lingual MB Tx may be considered as a more cost-effective solution for a correction of malocclusion.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Odontologia Preventiva , Adolescente , Criança , Cárie Dentária/economia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Esmalte Dentário , Estética Dentária , Humanos , Odontologia Preventiva/economia
12.
Arq Bras Cir Dig ; 32(2): e1437, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The bariatric surgery may have negative repercussions on oral conditions. AIM: To evaluate the impact of oral health educational/preventive program developed with patients submitted to gastroplasties. METHOD: The sample consisted of 109 patients randomly allocated to two groups: intervention group (IG), where they participated in the oral health promotion program that include multiple educational-preventive approaches; control group (CG), where they received usual care from the bariatric clinic staff, without participation in the program. The oral conditions investigated in the pre-operative and postoperative periods of one month (1M) and six months (6M) were: dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth wear, dental plaque and salivary flow. RESULTS: After bariatric surgery, patients in IG presented: fewer changes in enamel (6M: p=0.004), dentin (6M: p=0.005) and gingival bleeding (6M: p<0.0001), reduction in plaque index (1M, 6M: p<0.0001) and increased salivary flow (6M: p=0.039), when compared with CG. Incipient tooth wear was recorded in both groups (6M: p=0.713). CONCLUSION: There was a positive impact of the implemented program in the prevention of the main oral health problems in patients who underwent gastroplasties, contributing to their quality of life.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Saúde Bucal/educação , Higiene Bucal/educação , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Gastroplastia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice Periodontal , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD012595, 2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: School dental screening refers to visual inspection of children's oral cavity in a school setting followed by making parents aware of their child's current oral health status and treatment needs. Screening at school intends to identify children at an earlier stage than symptomatic disease presentation, hence prompting preventive and therapeutic oral health care for the children. This review evaluates the effectiveness of school dental screening in improving oral health status. It is an update of the original review, which was first published in December 2017. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of school dental screening programmes on overall oral health status and use of dental services. SEARCH METHODS: Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 4 March 2019), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, the Cochrane Register of Studies, to 4 March 2019), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 4 March 2019), and Embase Ovid (15 September 2016 to 4 March 2019). The US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on language or publication status when searching the electronic databases; however, the search of Embase was restricted to the last six months due to the Cochrane Centralised Search Project to identify all clinical trials and add them to CENTRAL. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (cluster or parallel) that evaluated school dental screening compared with no intervention or with one type of screening compared with another. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We included seven trials (five were cluster-RCTs) with 20,192 children who were 4 to 15 years of age. Trials assessed follow-up periods of three to eight months. Four trials were conducted in the UK, two were based in India and one in the USA. We assessed two trials to be at low risk of bias, two trials to be at high risk of bias and three trials to be at unclear risk of bias.None of the trials had long-term follow-up to ascertain the lasting effects of school dental screening.None of the trials reported the proportion of children with untreated caries or other oral diseases, cost effectiveness or adverse events.Four trials evaluated traditional screening versus no screening. We performed a meta-analysis for the outcome 'dental attendance' and found an inconclusive result with high heterogeneity. The heterogeneity was found to be, in part, due to study design (three cluster-RCTs and one individual-level RCT). Due to the inconsistency, we downgraded the evidence to 'very low certainty' and are unable to draw conclusions about this comparison.Two cluster-RCTs (both four-arm trials) evaluated criteria-based screening versus no screening and showed a pooled effect estimate of RR 1.07 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.16), suggesting a possible benefit for screening (low-certainty evidence). There was no evidence of a difference when criteria-based screening was compared to traditional screening (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.08) (very low-certainty evidence).In one trial, a specific (personalised) referral letter was compared to a non-specific one. Results favoured the specific referral letter with an effect estimate of RR 1.39 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.77) for attendance at general dentist services and effect estimate of RR 1.90 (95% CI 1.18 to 3.06) for attendance at specialist orthodontist services (low-certainty evidence).One trial compared screening supplemented with motivation to screening alone. Dental attendance was more likely after screening supplemented with motivation, with an effect estimate of RR 3.08 (95% CI 2.57 to 3.71) (low-certainty evidence).Only one trial reported the proportion of children with treated dental caries. This trial evaluated a post screening referral letter based on the common-sense model of self-regulation (a theoretical framework that explains how people understand and respond to threats to their health), with or without a dental information guide, compared to a standard referral letter. The findings were inconclusive. Due to high risk of bias, indirectness and imprecision, we assessed the evidence as very low certainty. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The trials included in this review evaluated short-term effects of screening. We found very low-certainty evidence that is insufficient to allow us to draw conclusions about whether there is a role for traditional school dental screening in improving dental attendance. For criteria-based screening, we found low-certainty evidence that it may improve dental attendance when compared to no screening. However, when compared to traditional screening, there is no evidence of a difference in dental attendance (very low-certainty evidence).We found low-certainty evidence to conclude that personalised or specific referral letters may improve dental attendance when compared to non-specific counterparts. We also found low-certainty evidence that screening supplemented with motivation (oral health education and offer of free treatment) may improve dental attendance in comparison to screening alone. For children requiring treatment, we found very-low certainty evidence that was inconclusive regarding whether or not a referral letter based on the 'common-sense model of self-regulation' was better than a standard referral letter.We did not find any trials addressing possible adverse effects of school dental screening or evaluating its effectiveness for improving oral health.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Saúde Bucal , Odontopediatria , Serviços de Odontologia Escolar/métodos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Odontopatias/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Medicina Preventiva , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Serviços de Odontologia Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Community Dent Health ; 36(2): 190-194, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436925

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test the effectiveness of fluoride varnish in preventing caries in early childhood in children at high risk of caries. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: 504 participants, with mean age of 21 months at baseline randomly allocated into a test and a control group. 427 children remained in the study after two years. INTERVENTION: Fluoride varnish applied four times a year, every three months. The intervention lasted for two years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dental status was recorded based on the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICADS). RESULTS: Mean dmfs was similar in the control and test groups at baseline (1.0 and 1.2 respectively) but was significantly different (10.1 and 5.2, p ⟨ 0.001, ANOVA) at endpoint. The proportion caries free in the two groups was 40% and 69.4% after two years. CONCLUSIONS: The application of fluoride varnish four times a year prevented the incidence and reduced the severity of caries in pre-school children. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: DRKS00013980.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Fluoretos Tópicos , Fluoretos , Cariostáticos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Fluoretos Tópicos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Lactente , Pintura , Dente Decíduo
15.
Community Dent Health ; 36(3): 229-236, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437389

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and severity of dental caries (at dentine and enamel levels of diagnosis) amongst Malaysian children and to investigate determinant factors associated with caries detection at these different thresholds. METHODS: This study involved life-long residents aged 12 years-old in fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas in Malaysia (n=595). The survey was carried out in 16 public schools by a calibrated examiner, using ICDAS-II criteria. A questionnaire on socio-demographic and oral hygiene practices was self-administered by parents/guardians. Data were analysed using Mann-Whitney U tests and logistic regression. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 74.4%. Caries prevalence at the dentine level or at the dentine and enamel level was significantly (p⟨0.001) higher among children in the non-fluoridated area (D1₋6MFT⟩0 = 82.4%, D4₋6MFT⟩0 = 53.5%) than in the fluoridated area (D1₋6MFT⟩0 = 68.7%, D4₋6MFT⟩0 = 25.5%). Considering only the decayed component of the index, no significant differences were observed between the two areas when the detection threshold was set at enamel caries (D1₋3) (p=0.506). However, when the detection criteria were elevated to the level of caries into dentine (D4₋6) there were clear differences between the fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas (p=0.006). Exposure to fluoridated water proved a significant predictor for lower caries prevalence in the statistical model. Children whose father and mother had a low monthly income had a significantly higher dentine caries prevalence. CONCLUSION: Results confirmed existing evidence of the benefit of water fluoridation in caries prevention. Detection criteria set at caries into dentine shows clear differences between fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas. Exposure to fluoridated water and socio-economic status were associated with caries prevalence.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Fluoretação , Criança , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Dentina , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Abastecimento de Água
16.
Community Dent Health ; 36(3): 214-220, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To update current knowledge of the distribution of drinking water fluoride content in Madagascar, in an effort to develop a strategy for the distribution of fluoridated salt to prevent tooth decay. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: In accordance with a strict protocol, water samples were collected from all the country's 22 regions. Fluoride concentration in ppm fluoride (F) was determined by use of a F ionselective electrode coupled with a pH/ion meter. RESULTS: A total of 651 sources of drinking water were sampled, of which 94% were found to have fluoride concentrations ≤ 0.7 ppm. The two regions with the highest number of water supplies with fluoride concentrations ⟩ 0.7 ppm are situated in the south and south-west of Madagascar. 87% of thermal springs have fluoride levels ⟩ 0.7 ppm, with a mean value of 2.21 ± 1.64 ppm. CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm that, with the exception of certain districts in the extreme south of Madagascar, fluoridated salt distribution would be appropriate for most regions in the country. This could be achieved by encouraging salt producers in the north and west of Madagascar, who are responsible for over 88% of national salt production, to fluoridate their salt. Most of this salt is distributed throughout the north and centre of the country, whereas very little is distributed to the extreme south.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Água Potável , Fluoretação , Fluoretos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos/química , Humanos , Madagáscar , Sais , Abastecimento de Água
17.
Microsc Res Tech ; 82(11): 1869-1877, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373738

RESUMO

Laser irradiation has been proposed as a preventive method against dental caries since it is capable to inhibit enamel demineralization by reducing carbonate and modifying organic matter, yet it can produce significant morphological changes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of Er:YAG laser irradiation on superficial roughness of deciduous dental enamel and bacterial adhesion. Fifty-four samples of deciduous enamel were divided into three groups (n = 18 each). G1_control (nonirradiated); G2_100 (7.5 J/cm2 ) and G3_100 (12.7 J/cm2 ) were irradiated with Er:YAG laser at 7.5 and 12.7 J/cm2 , respectively, under water irrigation. Surface roughness was measured before and after irradiation using a profilometer. Afterwards, six samples per group were used to measure bacterial growth by XTT cell viability assay. Adhered bacteria were observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Paired t-, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis and pairwise Mann-Whitney U tests were performed to analyze statistical differences (p < .05). Before treatment, samples showed homogenous surface roughness, and after Er:YAG laser irradiation, the surfaces showed a significant increase in roughness values (p < .05). G3_100 (12.7 J/cm2 ) showed the highest amount of Streptococcus mutans adhered (p < .05). The increase in the roughness of the tooth enamel surfaces was proportional to the energy density used; the increase in surface roughness caused by laser irradiation did not augment the adhesion of Streptococcus sanguinis; only the use of the energy density of 12.7 J/cm2 favored significantly the adhesion of S. mutans.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos da radiação , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos da radiação , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Streptococcus mutans/fisiologia , Streptococcus/fisiologia , Aderência Bacteriana/fisiologia , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Streptococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Streptococcus/efeitos da radiação , Streptococcus mutans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos da radiação , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos da radiação
18.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 172, 2019 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early childhood caries is a common chronic childhood disease and maternal oral health is a risk factor. Improving the oral health behaviours of pregnant women/young mothers can positively influence the oral health of children and reduce their caries risk. Such preventative strategies have been undertaken by non-dental professionals producing mixed results encompassing various interventions across the perinatal period. However, no comprehensive review of these studies has been undertaken. The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of maternal oral health programs undertaken during the antenatal and/or postnatal period by non-dental health professionals to reduce early childhood caries. METHODS: A systematic search of five databases was undertaken using key search terms. Studies were included if they (a) involved quantitative study designs with a control; (b) were published in English; (c) reported on interventions delivered by non-dental professionals (d) delivered the intervention to expectant mothers or mothers with young infants up to 24 months; (e) measured outcomes when the child was under 5 years; (f) measured changes in oral health outcomes of children clinically and oral health behaviours of mothers or children. No restrictions were placed on the study quality and setting. RESULTS: Nine studies met the inclusion criteria and involved interventions delivered by diverse non-dental professionals across the antenatal (n = 1), postnatal (n = 6) and perinatal period (n = 2). Most studies were of low methodological quality (n = 6). The interventions focussed on oral health education (n = 8), dental referrals (n = 3) and oral health assessments (n = 1). Interventions conducted in either the postnatal or antenatal periods showed meaningful improvements in children's clinical and mother's behavioural oral health outcomes. The outcomes appear to be sustained when a suite of interventions were used along with referral reminders. There were mixed results from interventions across the perinatal period. CONCLUSIONS: Non-dental professionals can promote maternal oral health by providing oral health education, risk assessment and referrals. Combining these interventions could provide a sustained improvement in oral health outcomes for children although current evidence is weak. More high-quality studies are needed to confirm these findings and determine whether the antenatal and/or postnatal period is best suited to deliver these interventions.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Educação em Saúde Bucal , Mães , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Saúde Bucal , Gravidez
19.
Stomatologiia (Mosk) ; 98(3): 80-82, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322600

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to analyze the oral health of school-aged children in Omsk in schools with and without dental service and to assess the efficacy of school dental service for the prevention of oral diseases. In 2016-2017 1103 12 and 15-years old were examined in school with dental service functioning for 15 years and in one with the absence of dental service for the last 21 years. The study revealed lack of preventive approach in school dental service. The main criterion for the assessment of preventive program realization and efficacy should be dental caries reduction and caries-free children rate but not the amount of treated and extracted teeth.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Doenças da Boca , Serviços de Odontologia Escolar , Criança , Assistência Odontológica , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Doenças da Boca/prevenção & controle , Saúde Bucal , Prevalência , Federação Russa , Instituições Acadêmicas
20.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 165, 2019 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Syrian crisis has started eight years ago and has, directly and indirectly, affected all the aspects of the Syrians lives. A lot of new war-related factors contributed to change the socio-economic status, the demographical distribution and the ability to access the public health services. Moreover, the crisis created the biggest displacement crisis both inside and outside Syria. Therefore, it is important to study the prevalence of dental caries and oral health in these specific circumstances in order to build a database to assess and compare future results of preventive programs and to assess health and social needs of the communities affected by war or crisis. The aim of this research is to Study the level of oral health among children during the Syrian crisis, as well as the relation between oral health and socioeconomic status (SES). METHODS: A cross-sectional study to assess the oral health of children in Damascus city by using DMFT index and other dental indices. The data were collected from ten randomly selected schools covering all the areas of Damascus city, and the final sample size was 811 children. RESULTS: DMFT index was used to assess the oral health of the children. The average number was (3.36) among all children; 14% of the sample size had a good oral health, while 86% had at least one decayed, missed, or filled tooth. There was also a strong association between SES of the child and the oral health represented as DMFT Index (P = 0.03), Pearson's correlation test displayed an inverse association between the SES and oral health (P = - 0.074). CONCLUSION: This study highlights the impact of the Syrian crisis on the SES of the Syrian children and their oral health. Bad oral health has been recorded and it has a significant relation with the SES of the children.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Saúde Bucal , Classe Social , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Status Econômico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Higiene Bucal , Prevalência , Síria/epidemiologia
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