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1.
Am J Dent ; 34(1): 49-53, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544989

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the antimicrobial effect of treating dentin caries lesions with silver diamine fluoride (SDF) in different concentrations and chlorhexidine (CHX). METHODS: Children aged 7-10 years presenting one occlusal dentin carious lesion in primary molars were selected, totaling 40 teeth. The sample was randomly divided into four groups: (G1) 38%-SDF + potassium iodide (KI); (G2) 30%-SDF; (G3) 2%-CHX; and (G4) control group. After cleaning the cavity up to firm dentin, a sample of dentin from the pulp wall was collected; the cavity was then treated with the antimicrobial agent tested and, immediately after, another dentin sample was collected. Cavities were restored with high viscosity glass ionomer cement. Microorganisms were counted, and species from the Streptococcus genus were analyzed for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Shapiro-Wilk and Levene's tests were used to assess normality and homogeneity, respectively. Student's t-test, two-way ANOVA, and Bonferroni post-test were applied for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: For the overall microorganisms count, it was observed that G1 and G2 presented a statistically lower number of microorganisms following treatment in comparison to G3 and G4 (P< 0.05). When analyzing the Streptococcus spp. and Enterococcus sp. separately, a statistical reduction in the microorganism count before and after the treatment was observed for all groups (P< 0.05), excluding the control group. Among the species tested, S. mutans were the least susceptible to SDF treatments compared to the other species. The treatments with SDF were more effective in reducing microorganisms when compared to CHX. Similarly, the susceptibility of Streptococcus to CHX was lower than that observed for SDF. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: In cases where the dental professional decides to apply an antimicrobial agent prior to the placement of a restoration, silver diamine fluoride proved to be more effective than chlorhexidine, slowing the progression of carious lesions, and possibly preventing future restorative interventions thus improving children's quality of life. It is important to note that clinicians should consider the type of restorative material that will be used due to the possibility that the use of SDF may influence adhesion of the subsequent restoration.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Qualidade de Vida , Criança , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Dentina , Fluoretos Tópicos , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro , Humanos , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário , Dente Decíduo
2.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 19(1): 93-99, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511823

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Preschool children with early childhood caries (ECC) frequently exhibit extreme dental anxiety and fear, posing a considerable challenge to paediatric dentists for their treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) treatment on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of uncooperative preschool children using an Arabic version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (A-ECOHIS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pre-validated A-ECOHIS was used to assess the sensitivity and responsiveness. Fiftyone children, uncooperative with conventional dental care, underwent SDF treatment; their mothers answered the A-ECOHIS before and 4 weeks after treatment. Based on the global transition rating (GTR), the mothers rated their child's oral health condition following SDF treatment. RESULTS: SDF effectively arrested caries after 4 weeks in all children. There was a statistically significant reduction in mean scores of the total A-ECOHIS, child impact scale and family impact scores at follow-up (Wilcoxon signedrank test; p ˂ 0.001). There were statistically significant changes in the mean GTR of children's oral health. CONCLUSIONS: A-ECOHIS was sensitive and responsive to SDF treatment. SDF statistically significantly improved the OHRQoL of uncooperative preschool children.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Qualidade de Vida , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Medo , Fluoretos Tópicos , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Estudos Prospectivos , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário , Compostos de Prata , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 35, 2021 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is a minimally-invasive preventive service used in the U.S. to avert and arrest caries since 2014. No studies document survival outcomes based in real world delivery. We analyzed 12-month survival outcomes of SDF applied independently or concurrently with other restorative procedures among a population receiving community dental care. METHODS: We analyzed data on SDF applications from de-identified dental claims on Oregon Health Plan patients served by Advantage Dental in 2016, who had been seen in 2015 (patient n = 2269; teeth n = 7787). We compared survival rates of SDF alone, SDF applied with a sedative filling, and SDF with a same-day restoration. Failure was defined as a restoration or extraction of the tooth 7 to 365 days after initial application. Survival was defined as a patient returning 180 or more days after application whose tooth did not have a restoration or extraction. Differences were assessed through Wilcoxon equality of survivor function tests and log-rank equality of survivor tests to compare failure rates, Cox Proportional Hazards models to assess factors associated with survival of SDF, and Kaplan-Meier survival estimate to calculate the probability of survival over time. RESULTS: SDF alone had an overall survival rate of 76%. SDF placed with sedative filling and with a same-day restoration had survival rates of 50% and 84% respectively, likely reflecting treatment intent. SDF alone survived exceptionally well on primary cuspids, permanent molars, and permanent bicuspids and among patients aged 10 to 20 years, with modest variation across caries risk assessment categories. A single annual application of SDF was successful in 75% of cases. Among SDF failures on permanent dentition, more than two-thirds of teeth received a minor restoration. CONCLUSION: SDF is a minimally invasive non-aerosolizing option that prevented non-cavitated lesions and arrested early decay among community dentistry patients when applied independently or concurrently with restorative procedures. Professional organizations, policy makers, providers, and payors should broaden optional SDF use by informing clinical guidelines, reimbursement policies, and treatment decisions. Future research should address clinical, social, service delivery, workforce, and economic outcomes using diverse population-based samples, and the mechanisms underlying single application success and caries prevention potential.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Clínicas Odontológicas , Adolescente , Adulto , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos Tópicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Oregon , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário , Compostos de Prata/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
4.
Arch Oral Biol ; 122: 105022, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418434

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive review of the use of antimicrobial peptides for the prevention and treatment of dental caries. The study included publications in the English language that addressed the use of antimicrobial peptides in the prevention and treatment of caries. These publications were also searchable on PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, the Collection of Anti-Microbial Peptides and the Antimicrobial Peptide Database. A total of 3,436 publications were identified, and 67 publications were included. Eight publications reported seven natural human antimicrobial peptides as bactericidal to Streptococcus mutans. Fifty-nine publications reported 43 synthetic antimicrobial peptides developed to mimic natural antimicrobial peptides, fusing peptides with functional sequences and implementing new designs. The 43 synthetic antimicrobial peptides were effective against Streptococcus mutans, and nine peptides specifically targeted Streptococcus mutans. Ten antimicrobial peptides had an affinity for hydroxyapatite to prevent bacterial adhesion. Six antimicrobial peptides were also antifungal. Four antimicrobial peptides promoted remineralisation or prevented the demineralisation of teeth by binding calcium to hydroxyapatite. In conclusion, this study identified 67 works in the literature that reported seven natural and 43 synthetic antimicrobial peptides for the prevention and treatment of caries. Most of the antimicrobial peptides were bactericidal, and some prevented bacterial adhesion. A few antimicrobial peptides displayed remineralising properties with hydroxyapatite.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cárie Dentária , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/uso terapêutico , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Durapatita , Humanos , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Remineralização Dentária
5.
Prog Orthod ; 22(1): 4, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the most unfavorable side effects of fixed orthodontic treatment is white spot lesions (WSLs). Although the most important approach is prevention of WSLs, it is also essential to evaluate the efficacy of the remineralization agents. However, there is no concurrence in the literature with respect to the remineralization process of these agents. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different fluoride varnishes, enamel matrix protein, and self-assembling peptide derivatives with varying chemical compositions on remineralization of artificially created WSLs in vitro using quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). METHODS: Artificial WSLs were created on bovine enamel samples using acidic buffer solution (pH 5, 10 days). Specimens were randomly allocated to six groups (n = 10/group): (1) Emdogain (Straumann, Basel, Switzerland), (2) Curodont Repair (Credentis AG, Switzerland), (3) Duraphat (Colgate-Palmolive, New York, NY), (4) Clinpro XT (3 M ESPE, Pymble, New South Wales, Australia), (5) Enamel Pro Varnish (Premier Dental Products, PA, USA), and (6) control (untreated). The agents were applied to the WSLs according to the manufacturers' instructions. Fluorescence loss (ΔF), lesion area (area), and impact (ΔQ) values of enamel surfaces were quantified by QLF-D BiluminatorTM (Inspektor-Pro, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) at baseline and after 7, 14, and 21 days of application of the respective materials. RESULTS: ΔF value presented a significantly decreasing trend throughout the 21 days for all groups except the Duraphat and Enamel Pro varnishes. The changes between 14th and 21st days of the Clinpro XT varnish application were significantly higher than Emdogain, Curodont, and Enamel Pro. The Curodont group showed higher lesion area changes between the first and second week in comparison to the Emdogain, Clinpro XT, and Enamel Pro groups, whereas Clinpro XT assured the highest reduction from the second to the third week of the observation period. CONCLUSIONS: The fluorescence loss was significantly reduced with enamel matrix protein, self-assembling peptide, and light-curable fluoride varnishes in the analysis for 21 days. Curodont and Clinpro XT were effective in diminishing the fluorescence loss and lesion area compared to the Duraphat, Enamel Pro fluoride varnishes, and Emdogain in different time points.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Fluoretos Tópicos , Animais , Cariostáticos , Bovinos , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Peptídeos , Fluoreto de Sódio , Suíça , Remineralização Dentária
6.
Arch Oral Biol ; 122: 105001, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316658

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of combination of treatments with fluoridated toothpastes supplemented with sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (MI Paste Plus®), on the remineralization of dental enamel. DESIGN: Enamel blocks with artificial caries were randomly allocated into six groups (n = 12), according to the toothpastes: 1) without F-TMP-MI Paste Plus® (Placebo); 2) 1100 ppm F (1100 F), 3) MI Paste Plus®, 4) 1100 F + MI Paste Plus® (1100 F-MI Paste Plus®), 5) 1100 F + 3% TMP (1100 F-TMP) and 6) 1100 F-TMP + MI Paste Plus® (1100 F-TMP-MI Paste Plus®). Blocks were treated 2×/day with slurries of toothpastes (1 min). Furthermore, groups 4 and 6 received the application of MI Paste Plus® for 3 min. After pH cycling, the percentage of surface hardness recovery (%SHR); integrated loss of subsurface hardness (ΔKHN); profile analysis and lesion depth subsurface through polarized light microscopy (PLM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (LSCM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) concentrations in the enamel were determined. The data were analyzed by ANOVA (1-criterion) and Student-Newman-Keuls test (p < 0.001). RESULTS: 1100 F-TMP-MI Paste Plus® group showed the best results of %SHR, ΔKHN and PLM (p < 0.001). F concentration was similar between the 1100 F, 1100 F-MI Paste Plus®, and 1100 F-TMP-MI Paste Plus® groups (p > 0.001). 1100 F-TMP-MI Paste Plus® group showed the highest concentration of Ca and P in the enamel (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The association of 1100 F-TMP and MI Paste Plus® led to a significant increase in the remineralization of initial carious lesions.


Assuntos
Fosfatos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Polifosfatos/farmacologia , Remineralização Dentária , Caseínas/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Fosfopeptídeos/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Cremes Dentais/farmacologia
7.
Arch Oral Biol ; 122: 105024, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352361

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (a-PDT) with Rose Bengal and blue light LED on bacteria that initiate and promote dental caries. DESIGN: Colony forming units of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Lactobacillus salivarius under planktonic and biofilm conditions were counted after a-PDT treatment using Rose Bengal and blue light LED. In addition, cariogenic bacteria from saliva and dental plaques from ten volunteers were used for evaluation of a-PDT treatment. RESULTS: We found that a-PDT using Rose Bengal at > 10 µg/mL had antimicrobial effects on oral Gram-positive S. mutans, S. sobrinus, S. sanguinis, and L. salivarius under both planktonic and biofilm conditions. The effect was also observed for cariogenic bacteria that formed biofilms containing water-insoluble glucans, through which the bacteria are firmly attached to the tooth surface. Moreover, a-PDT led to a marked reduction in cariogenic bacteria in saliva and dental plaques. CONCLUSION: a-PDT could be a useful approach for controlling dental caries in dental surgery.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Fotoquimioterapia , Rosa Bengala/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos da radiação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos da radiação , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239775, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036019

RESUMO

In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial activities of the essential oils (EOs) of Thymus serrulatus and Thymus schimperi collected from Ofla (Ofl), Alamata (Ala), Yilmana Densa (Yil), Tarmaer (Tar), Butajira (Buta), and Bale (Bal) in Ethiopia against cariogenic bacteria (Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus) isolated from human teeth. Inhibition zones (IZs), minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were measures of the antibacterial activity. Significant bacterial inhibitions resulted in a dose-and EO-dependent manner. At 128 µl/mL, IZs against S. mutans were 37.33 mm (Tar), 36.00 mm (Bal), 33.67 mm (Yil), 33.33 mm (Ofl), 30.00 (Ala), and 29.67 mm (Buta) and IZs against Lactobacillus were 31.00 mm (Tar), 30.67 mm (Yil), 27.67 (Bal), 27.00 (Buta), 26.67 (Ofl), and 21.33 (Ala). The respective inhibition zones due to 3% DMSO (negative control) and 3% H2O2 (positive control) were 0.00 mm/30.00 mm against S. mutans and 0.00 mm/29.00 mm against Lactobacillus. At 128 µl/mL dose, all the EOs resulted in significantly higher inhibition zones than that of 3% H2O2 against S. mutans and Lactobacillus.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Thymus (Planta)/química , Etiópia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos
9.
Eur Arch Paediatr Dent ; 21(6): 629-646, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006116

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness of topical fluoride-antibacterial agent combined therapy versus topical fluoride monotherapy in preventing dental caries among 1- to 16-year-old children. METHODS: PubMed, EbscoHost, Scopus, Web of Science and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for randomised controlled trials. The trials should have assessed the caries-preventive effectiveness of topical fluoride-antibacterial agent (Povidone Iodine/Chlorhexidine/Xylitol/Triclosan/Cetylpyridinium Chloride) combined therapy versus topical fluoride monotherapy among children. Out of 3475 records that were screened, full text of 41 articles was assessed for potential inclusion. Sixteen trials that fulfilled the eligibility criteria were subjected to qualitative synthesis. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. Continuous data from nine trials were pooled using Inverse Variance test in meta-analysis function of Review Manager (version 5.4). GRADE approach was used to analyse the certainty of evidence. Statistical heterogeneity was quantified using the I2 statistic. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: With respect to the caries increment, combined therapy showed superior caries-preventive effectiveness than topical fluoride monotherapy [SMD - 0.12, 95% CI (- 0.2 to - 0.04), p = 0.004; (I2 = 20%, p = 0.29)]. No significant difference was noted between the two groups for the post-intervention salivary S mutans count [SMD - 0.11, 95% CI (- 0.33 to 0.1), p = 0.3; (I2 = 0%, p = 0.77)]. CONCLUSION: The pooled analysis indicates towards an added benefit of topical fluoride-antibacterial agent combined therapy over topical fluoride monotherapy in preventing dental caries incidence among children. However, the results may be interpreted with caution since the evidence generated is of low certainty and is driven by two studies on Xylitol, thus it demands further good quality trials.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Fluoretos Tópicos , Adolescente , Antibacterianos , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Xilitol
10.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(7): 733-740, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020355

RESUMO

AIM: Phytomedicine has been commonly practiced as a form of traditional medicine in various cultures for the treatment of oral diseases. Recently, it has gained importance as an alternative to conventional treatment. Several extracts of plants and fruits have been recently evaluated for their potential activity against microorganisms involved in the development of dental caries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and antiadherent effect of the crude organic extract (COE) and three partitions (aqueous, butanolic, and chloroformic) of Psidium guajava (guava) leaves on a cariogenic biofilm model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Guava leaves were obtained from the mountains of northern Peru, where they grow wild and free of pesticides. The antimicrobial activity of the COEs and partitions against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus gordonii was determined by measuring the inhibition halos, while the effect on biofilm adhesion was determined by measuring the optical density using spectrophotometry. RESULTS: An antibacterial effect of the COE and chloroformic partition against S. gordonii (p < 0.05) was found, as was a significant effect on biofilm adherence, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.78 mg/mL, which was maintained throughout the 7 days of evaluation. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the COEs and their chloroformic partition have antimicrobial and antibiotic effects against this strain of S. gordonii, making them of particular interest for evaluation as a promising alternative for the prevention of dental caries. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: By knowing the antimicrobial effect of Psidium guajava, this substance can be effectively used in products aimed to prevent dental caries and periodontal disease.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Psidium , Biofilmes , Humanos , Peru , Folhas de Planta
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22352, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has transformed the highly infectious virus to a stable chronic condition, with the advent of Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The longterm effects of HAART on the oral health of children are understudied. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of lopinavir-ritonavir and lamivudine on oral health indicators (dental caries, gingivitis, tooth eruption, and oral health related quality of life) in 5 to 7 year old HIV-1 exposed uninfected children from the ANRS 12174 trial. METHODS: This study used data collected in 2017 among children aged 5 to 7 years from the Ugandan site of the ANRS 12174 randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00640263) implemented between 2009 and 2012 in Mbale district, Eastern Uganda. The intervention was lopinavir-ritonavir or lamuvudine treatment to prevent vertical HIV-1 transmission. One hundred thirty-seven and 139 children were randomized to receive lopinavir-ritonavir or lamivudine treatment at day 7 postpartum to compare efficacy of prevention of vertical HIV-1 transmission. At follow up, the children underwent oral examination using the World Health Organization methods for field conditions. The oral health related quality of life was assessed using the early childhood oral health impact scale. Negative binomial and logistic regression were used for the analysis of data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dental caries, gingivitis, tooth eruption, and oral health related quality of life) in 5 to 7 year old HIV-1 exposed uninfected children. RESULTS: The prevalence of dental caries was 48% in the study sample: 49% in the lopinavir-ritonavir arm and 48% in the lamivudine treatment group. The corresponding mean decayed missing filled teeth and standard deviation was 1.7 (2.4) and 2.3 (3.7) The mean number (standard deviation) of erupted permanent teeth was 3.8 (3.7) and 4.6 (3.9) teeth in the lopinavir- and lamivudine group, respectively. The prevalence of reported impacts on oral health was 7% in the lopinavir-ritonavir and 18% in the lamivudine group. Gingivitis had a prevalence of 7% in the lopinavir-ritonavir and 14% lamivudine treatment group. The regression analysis revealed 70% less reported impacts on oral health in lopinavir-ritonavir group than the lamivudine treatment group with an incidence rate ratio of 0.3 (95% confidence interval: 0.1-0.9). CONCLUSIONS: HIV exposed uninfected infants in the lopinavir-ritonavir group reported less impacts on oral health than the lamivudine treatment group. Dental caries, gingivitis, and tooth eruption were not significantly affected by the treatment lopinavir-ritonavir or lamivudine. TRIAL REGISTRATION CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00640263.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Lamivudina/farmacologia , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/farmacologia , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Ritonavir/farmacologia , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Erupção Dentária/efeitos dos fármacos , Uganda/epidemiologia
12.
Arch Oral Biol ; 117: 104781, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the anti-caries efficacy of three fluoride compounds at increasing maturation of a microcosm biofilm. DESIGN: Microcosm biofilm, obtained from saliva collected from three donors (IRB #1406440799), was grown on enamel samples (n = 18/group) for 24-h (Brain Heart Infusion; 0.2 % sucrose). Then, pH cycling model started. Three maturations were explored (4d, 8d, and 12d). The pH cycling consisted of daily 2 × 5 min treatments (NaF, SnF2, AmF: 287.5 ppm F, and de-ionized water [DIW]), 4 × 10 min remineralization (BHI, no sucrose, pH 7.0), and 3 × 2:15 h demineralization (BHI, 1% sucrose, pH 4.5). We analyzed the enamel (surface microhardness [VHNchange], integrated mineral loss [ΔZ], lesion depth [L]), and the biofilm (viability [log10 CFU/mL], lactic acid production [LDH], and exopolysaccharide [EPS] amount). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA (p = 0.05). RESULTS: The interaction between tested variables was significant for VHNchange, viability, LDH, EPS (p = 0.0354, p = 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001), but not for L (p = 0.2412) or ΔZ (p = 0.6811). LDH and EPS analyses exhibited more tolerance of mature biofilm against NaF (LDH and EPS p < 0.0001); NaF-treated groups demonstrated significantly lower results than the control in the 12d group. The effect of SnF2 and AmF continued over time. VHNchange, L, and ΔZ: The effect of SnF2 and AmF was higher than NaF and DIW. L and ΔZ did not result in significant differences over time (all treatments). Within each maturation, fluoride compounds demonstrated statistically significantly lower L and ΔZ values than DIW. CONCLUSIONS: Biofilm's maturation may influence the selection of fluoride compounds to achieve an optimum cariostatic effect.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Desmineralização do Dente , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Minerais , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Remineralização Dentária
13.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(6): 783-791, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525112

RESUMO

Background: Microorganisms in the mouth are protected from negative environmental conditions by forming biofilms; however, the use of anti-plaque agents in children is not preferred due to toxic side effects. Green tea has been reported to have anti-microbial and anti-dental caries properties. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the ability of green tea extract to prevent the formation of biofilm on the teeth of children using space maintainers. Methods: Bacteria were isolated from samples obtained from children aged between 8 and 10 years. The micro-titer plate method and Congo red agar were used to assay biofilm formation. Green tea leaves were obtained from Rize, Turkey. Methanol, hexane and distilled water were used for preparing the extracts. The effects of green tea extract and chlorhexidine on biofilm formation were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Results: Presence of S. mutans 3,3, S. anginosus 2.1.b, S. dysgalactie 6.1.4.1, and E. faecium 10.2. was measured in the biofilm samples. The extracts showed a bacteriostatic effect on the test bacteria, and among the green tea extracts, the methanol extract was found to exhibit the highest efficacy against biofilm formation by S. mutans 3.3. Conclusion: Green tea extract showed good efficacy in controlling bacterial growth, and is recommended as a better-tasting alternative for daily oral hygiene due to a lack of known side effects.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Braquetes Ortodônticos/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Chá/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Metanol , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Boca , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Solventes/química , Streptococcus mutans/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus mutans/fisiologia , Turquia
14.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 160, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of silver-formulation as microbicide to arrest dentinal caries is gaining popularity. The primary objective of the present appraisal was to systematically review the clinical (in vivo) applications and antimicrobial potential of silver-containing formulations in arresting dentinal caries. Our secondary aim was to sum up the available in vitro applications of silver-containing formulations against cariogenic microbes isolated from dentine lesions. METHODS: Ovid MEDLINE, EBSCO host, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases was searched between January 2009-May 2019. RESULTS: In vivo: We observed conflicting evidence of antimicrobial efficacy of SDF on a diverse array of microbial taxa present in carious dentine of primary and permanent teeth. Moreover, there is insufficient evidence on the application of AgNP-fluoride as an effective microbicidal against cariogens of dentine lesions. In vitro: We found a good evidence of microbicidal efficacy of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) on selective cariogenic microbes in human dentine model. Additionally, a good evidence was noted of in vitro application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a useful microbicidal against S. mutans adhesion, growth and subsequent biofilm formation in human dentine models. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, in vitro evidence indicates the promising antimicrobial potential of silver-based formulations (SDF and nanosilver) against the predominant cariogenic flora, particularly from dentine lesions. Post-treatment clinical data of either the bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects of SDF or nanosilver are sparse. Furthermore, the current understanding of the specific size, concentration, antimicrobial mechanisms, and toxicological aspects of nano-silver compounds is inadequate to draw firm conclusions on their clinical utility.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Fluoretos Tópicos , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata , Compostos de Prata , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Arch Oral Biol ; 116: 104762, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474211

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Rhodiola rosea extract (RE) on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation and the relevant mechanism of its action. METHODS: The effect of RE on the biofilm formation and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) synthesis of S. mutans was assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), crystal violet staining and CFU counting method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to observe the surface morphology of S. mutans biofilms formed on glass coverslips and dental enamel. To study the relevant mechanism, quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) and zymogram assay were applied to measure the expression of virulence genes and the enzymatic activity of glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) under the treatment of RE. The CCK-8 assay was also performed on macrophages (RAWs) and human oral keratinocytes (HOKs) in order to evaluate its biocompatibility. RESULTS: As a result, RE inhibited the biofilm formation and EPS synthesis of S. mutans. RE also suppressed the expression of gtf genes and quorum sensing (QS) system as well as the enzymatic activity of Gtf proteins. Moreover, RE exhibited a good biocompatibility to human cells. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the evidence for RE as a novel anti-biofilm agent for clinical use.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Cárie Dentária , Rhodiola , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/genética , Virulência
16.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 2829-2839, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32368057

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the remineralizing and staining effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) solution with polyethylene glycol-coated silver nanoparticles (PEG-AgNPs) on artificial dentine caries. Materials and Methods: Demineralized human dentine blocks were allocated to three groups. The blocks in group 1 underwent a topical application of a 12% silver diamine fluoride (SDF, 14,150 ppm fluoride) solution. The blocks in group 2 received a topical application of a 2.5% NaF (11,310 ppm fluoride) with PEG-AgNPs (400 ppm silver). The blocks in group 3 received deionized water. All blocks were subjected to pH cycling for 8 days. The surface morphology and cross-sectional features were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The color parameters, crystal characteristics, lesion depth, and collagen degradation of the blocks were assessed using digital spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-computed tomography, and spectrophotometry with a hydroxyproline assay, respectively. Results: The SEM showed that dentine collagen was exposed in group 3 but not in groups 1 and 2. The mean lesion depths in groups 1 to 3 were 118±7 µm, 121±14 µm, and 339±20 µm, respectively (groups1,2<3; p<0.001). The data indicated that fluoridated PEG-AgNPs introduced no significant color effect on dentine, but SDF caused distinct discoloration. The XRD indicated that silver chloride was formed in group 1, and fluorapatite was detected in groups 1 and 2. The concentration of hydroxyproline liberated from collagen was significantly less in groups 1 and 2 than in group 3. Conclusion: The use of NaF solution with PEG-AgNPs can remineralize artificial dentine caries and inhibit collagen degradation without causing significant tooth staining.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Remineralização Dentária/métodos , Colágeno , Cor , Dentina/metabolismo , Dentina/patologia , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Fluoretos Tópicos/química , Fluoretos Tópicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Hidroxiprolina/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Dente Serotino/efeitos dos fármacos , Dente Serotino/patologia , Dente Serotino/ultraestrutura , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/farmacologia , Prata , Compostos de Prata/química , Compostos de Prata/farmacologia , Fluoreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Difração de Raios X , Microtomografia por Raio-X
17.
Clin Oral Investig ; 24(6): 2129-2136, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356211

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the antibacterial activity of fluoride varnishes containing different agents in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 92 children with S-ECC. Patients who completed dental treatment under general anaesthesia were included in the study. Patients were divided randomly into four groups: 5% sodium fluoride (SF) control group (n = 23), 5% SF with tricalcium phosphate (TCP) (n = 23), 5% SF with xylitol-coated calcium and phosphate (CXP) (n = 23) and 5% SF with casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) (n = 23). Saliva mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli (LB) levels were evaluated by taking saliva samples at baseline (T0), 1 month (T1) and 3 months (T2) after treatment. RESULTS: All groups showed a significant decrease in MS and LB levels at T1 (P < 0.05) except the CXP group. Only the TCP group exhibited significantly decrease MS and LB levels indicating less than 105 CFU at both T1 and T2 compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Fluoride varnish with TCP provided significantly more reduction in MS and LB levels than other fluoride varnishes. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Fluoride varnish with TCP had a significant antibacterial effect against cariogenic bacteria until the end of the third month. Long lasting antibacterial effect provides additional advantage for reducing bacteria levels in children. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03625310.


Assuntos
Cariostáticos , Cárie Dentária , Fluoretos Tópicos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos Tópicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Saliva , Fluoreto de Sódio
18.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3181-3191, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440117

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this concise review is to summarize the use of silver nanomaterials for caries prevention. Methods: Two researchers independently performed a literature search of publications in English using Embase, Medline, PubMed, and Scopus databases. The keywords used were (silver nanoparticles OR AgNPs OR nano silver OR nano-silver) AND (caries OR tooth decay OR remineralisation OR remineralization). They screened the title and abstract to identify potentially eligible publications. They then retrieved the full texts of the identified publications to select original research reporting silver nanomaterials for caries prevention. Results: The search identified 376 publications, and 66 articles were included in this study. The silver nanomaterials studied were categorized as resin with silver nanoparticles (n=31), silver nanoparticles (n=21), glass ionomer cement with silver nanoparticles (n=7), and nano silver fluoride (n=7). Most (59/66, 89%) studies investigated the antibacterial properties, and they all found that silver nanomaterials inhibited the adhesion and growth of cariogenic bacteria, mainly Streptococcus mutans. Although silver nanomaterials were used as anti-caries agents, only 11 (11/66, 17%) studies reported the effects of nanomaterials on the mineral content of teeth. Eight of them are laboratory studies, and they found that silver nanomaterials prevented the demineralization of enamel and dentin under an acid or cariogenic biofilm challenge. The remaining three are clinical trials that reported that silver nanomaterials prevented and arrested caries in children. Conclusion: Silver nanoparticles have been used alone or with resin, glass ionomer, or fluoride for caries prevention. Silver nanomaterials inhibit the adhesion and growth of cariogenic bacteria. They also impede the demineralization of enamel and dentin.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Nanoestruturas/uso terapêutico , Prata/uso terapêutico , Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Prata/farmacologia
19.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3207-3215, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440119

RESUMO

Objectives: The first objective of this study was to prepare sodium fluoride (NaF) solution with various concentrations of polyethylene glycol-coated silver nanoparticles (PEG-AgNPs). The second objective was to study the antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and the tooth-staining effect of the solution. Methods: PEG-AgNPs were prepared via the one-step chemical reduction of silver acetate with thiolated polyethylene glycol. The PEG-AgNPs were characterized with ultraviolet-visible spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) for the PEG-AgNPs against Streptococcus mutans and human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) were determined. The staining effect on dentin and enamel for the 2.5% NaF solutions with PEG-AgNPs at 12,800, 6400, 1600, and 400 ppm was investigated using digital spectrophotometry. The IC50 of the fluoridated silver nanoparticles against Streptococcus mutans were measured. Results: The PEG-AgNPs have an average diameter of 2.56±0.43 nm and showed excellent stability at high ionic strength (2.5% NaF) for 18 months. The IC50 of PEG-AgNPs against Streptococcus mutans was found to be 21.16±1.08 ppm silver, which was half of IC50 against HGF-1 cells (42.36±1.12 ppm), providing a working range to kill bacteria with no harm to human cells. The formulations with different concentrations of PEG-AgNPs showed no significant staining of teeth. Combining PEG-AgNPs with NaF significantly expanded the therapeutic window against Streptococcus mutans by reducing its IC50. Conclusion: A biocompatible solution of NaF with PEG-AgNPs was developed. Because it has antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and no tooth-staining effect, it can be used as an anti-caries agent.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Fluoretos/síntese química , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/uso terapêutico , Coloração e Rotulagem , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Gengiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Prata/farmacologia , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 151, 2020 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanism of action of silver diammine fluoride (SDF) on plaque micro-ecology is seldom studied. This study investigated micro-ecological changes in dental plaque on extensive caries of deciduous teeth after topical SDF treatment. METHODS: Deciduous teeth with extensive caries freshly removed from school children were collected in clinic. Unstimulated saliva collection and initial plaque sampling were done before tooth extraction, then each caries was topically treated with 38% SDF in vitro. After intervention, each tooth was stored respectively in artificial saliva at 37 °C. Repeated plaque collections were done at 24 h and 1 week post-intervention. Post-intervention micro-ecological changes including microbial diversity, microbial metabolism function as well as species correlations were analyzed and compared after pyrosequencing of the DNA from the plaque sample using Illumina MiSeq platform. RESULTS: After SDF application, microbial diversity decreased (P > 0.05), although not statistically significant. Microbial community composition post-intervention was noticeably different from that of supragingival and pre-intervention plaque as well as saliva. At 1 week post-intervention, the relative content of Pseudomonas, Fusobacterium and Pseudoramibacter were higher than before, while most of the other bacteria were reduced, although the changes were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The inter-microbial associations became more complex, much more positive associations among survived bacteria were observed than negative ones. COG function classification diagram showed carbohydrate transportation and metabolic functions in the plaque were significantly reduced at 24 h and 1 week post-intervention. CONCLUSIONS: SDF has extensive antimicrobial effect on dental plaque, which may reduce carbohydrate metabolism in dental plaque and help promote new balance of the plaque flora.


Assuntos
Amônia/uso terapêutico , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Fluoretos Tópicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Prata/uso terapêutico , Criança , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Humanos , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário , Dente Decíduo
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