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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(46): e23243, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study uses a method of systematic evaluation to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of heated humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC) as an initial ventilation method in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) scientifically. In the field of evidence-based medicine, this study provides a theoretical reference and basis for choosing appropriate initial non-invasive ventilation methods in the treatment of NRDS, thereby providing assistance for clinical treatment. METHODS: The main electronic network databases were searched by computer, including 4 Chinese databases: CNKI, WangFang Data, CQVIP, SinoMed and 3 English databases: PubMed, The Cochrane Library and EMBASE, the time range of retrieval from the beginning of each database to September 1, 2020. The content involves all the published randomized controlled trials on the effectiveness of HHHFNC compared with NCPAP as an initial ventilation method in the treatment of NRDS. Using a search method that combines medical subject words and free words. Based on the Cochrane risk bias assessment tool, 2 researchers independently screen the literature, and then extract the data we needed in the literature, and cross-check. If it is difficult to decide whether to include literature, then turning to a third researcher for help and making a final decision after discussion, and using RevMan 5.3 and STATA 13.0 to analyze the relative data. RESULTS: Based on the method of meta-analysis, this study analyzes the pre-determined outcome indicators through scientific statistical analysis, and compares the effectiveness and safety of HHHFNC compared with NCPAP as an initial ventilation method in the treatment of NRDS. All results will be published in peer-reviewed high-quality professional academic journals. CONCLUSION: Based on evidence-based medicine, this study will obtain the establishing evidence of comparison that the clinical effectiveness and safety of HHHFNC compared with NCPAP as an initial ventilation method in the treatment of NRDS through the existing data and data, which provides the evidence support of evidence-based medicine in the treatment of NRDS. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: September 17, 2020. osf.io/f6at4 (https://osf.io/f6at4).


Assuntos
Cânula/normas , Protocolos Clínicos , Umidificadores/normas , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Metanálise como Assunto , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Ventilação não Invasiva/normas , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Oxigenoterapia/normas , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
2.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 82, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postextubation high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is used as a support therapy in high-risk patients in ICU. This study aimed to determine the effects of HFNC therapy on lung recruitment and overdistension assessed by electrical impedance tomography (EIT). METHODS: Twenty-four patients who received HFNC within 24 h after extubation were prospectively enrolled in this study. EIT was used to monitor regional lung ventilation distributions at baseline (conventional oxygen therapy) and three flow rate levels of HFNC therapy (20, 40, and 60 L/min). Change of end-expiratory lung impedance (ΔEELI), regional recruitment (recruited-pixels) and overdistension (overdistended-pixels), and lung strain change were determined by EIT. EIT images were equally divided into four ventral-to-dorsal horizontal regions of interest (ROIs 1, 2, 3, and 4). "Overdistension-by HFNC" due to HFNC is defined as an increase of overdistened-pixels > 10 than baseline. Patients were divided into two groups: (1) high potential of recruitment (HPR), recruited-pixels > 10 pixels at 60 L/min than baseline, and (2) low potential of recruitment (LPR), recruited-pixels < 10 pixels at 60 L/min than baseline. RESULTS: When the flow rate gradually increased from baseline to 60 L/min, a significant and consistent increasing trend of global ΔEELI (%) (p < 0.0001), recruited-pixels (p < 0.001), and overdistended-pixels (p = 0.101) was observed. Moreover, the increase of ΔEELI was mainly distributed in ROI2 (p = 0.001) and ROI3 (p < 0.0001). The HPR group (13/24 patients) had significantly higher recruited-pixels than the LPR group (11/24 patients) at 20, 40, and 60 L/min. There were no significant differences in PaO2/FiO2, ΔEELI (%), and overdistention pixels between the two groups. The HPR group had 13 patients in which no one had "overdistension-by HFNC", and the LPR group had 11 patients in which 4 patients had "overdistension-by HFNC" (0/13 vs. 4/11, p = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Using EIT could identify diverse effects of HFNC on lung regional ventilation in postextubation situations. Further study is required to validate using "HFNC effect" based on lung recruitment and overdistension by EIT in clinical practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was retrospectively registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (no. NCT04245241).


Assuntos
Extubação/instrumentação , Cânula/normas , Oxigenoterapia/normas , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Extubação/métodos , Extubação/estatística & dados numéricos , Gasometria/métodos , Cânula/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Ventilação não Invasiva/normas , Ventilação não Invasiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Oxigenoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(12): e19525, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) at defined time points during preoxygenation and to compare high-flow heated humidified nasal oxygenation with standard preoxygenation using oxygen insufflation via a facemask for at least 5 minutes, before intubation during induction of general anesthesia. METHODS: This randomized, single-blinded, prospective study will be conducted in patients undergoing head and neck surgery. After standard monitoring, the artery catheter at the radial artery or dorsalis pedis artery will be placed and arterial blood gas analysis (ABGA) for baseline values will be performed simultaneously. Each group will be subjected to 1 of 2 preoxygenation methods (high-flow nasal cannula or simple facemask) for 5 minutes, and ABGA will be performed twice. After confirming intubation, we will start mechanical ventilation and check the vital signs and perform the final ABGA. DISCUSSION: This trial aims to examine the trajectory of PaO2 levels during the whole preoxygenation procedure and after intubation. We hypothesize that preoxygenation with the high-flow nasal cannula will be superior to that with the face mask. STUDY REGISTRATION: This trial was registered with the Clinical Trial Registry (NCT03896906; ClinicalTrials.gov).


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/tendências , Monitorização Transcutânea dos Gases Sanguíneos/métodos , Cabeça/cirurgia , Oxigenação Hiperbárica/tendências , Pescoço/cirurgia , Gasometria , Cânula/normas , Cânula/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Máscaras/normas , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Ventilação não Invasiva/instrumentação , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Oxigênio/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Artéria Radial/cirurgia , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular/normas
4.
J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs ; 47(2): 111-116, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084101

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to measure the incidence and severity of nasal septum injury in premature infants receiving continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) via a noninvasive thin-walled cannula, and to evaluate the effect of a polyvinyl chloride foam barrier dressing in reducing these injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review, comparison cohort study. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: The sample comprised 235 neonates with a gestational age of 28 weeks or younger. Their mean gestational age was 26 weeks (range 22-28 weeks) and mean birth weight was 840 g (range 430-1320 g). The study setting was a level 4, regional neonatal intensive care unit housed in a 200-bed freestanding children's hospital located in the Northeastern United States. METHODS: Data were collected during 3 periods. During all 3 data collection periods, we used a soft, thin-walled nasal cannula, with a relatively short, binasal prong interphase and small diameter tubing connected to a ventilator circuit capable of transmitting positive airway pressure in neonates. During data collection periods 1 and 3, we used a polyvinyl foam barrier dressing as a preventive intervention against nasal skin damage; specifically, we placed a precut barrier on the prongs to protect the nasal skin. One side of the barrier foam has an adhesive surface, which was placed against the prongs. Study period 2 differed; during this period neonates were treated with the nasal cannula without the foam barrier based on manufacturer experience suggesting the foam barrier is not needed for prevention of skin damage. Pressure injuries (PIs) that occurred during each study period were staged according to National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel definitions. RESULTS: Eighty neonates were evaluated during study period 1 (thin-walled nasal cannula plus foam barrier). We evaluated 27 neonates during period 2 (thin-walled nasal cannula and no foam barrier) and 128 were evaluated during study period 3 (thin-walled nasal cannula plus foam barrier). Six neonates (7%) developed PIs during period 1, and 2 (1.5%) developed during study period 3. All were stage 1 and 2 PIs, no full-thickness injuries, also referred to as columella necrosis developed during use of the thin-walled nasal cannula in combination with the foam barrier dressings. In contrast, 13 PIs (48%) of neonates managed during data collection period 2 (thin-walled nasal cannula with no foam barrier) developed PI, and 40% experienced stage 3 PI or columella necrosis. This difference reflects a 6-fold increase in nasal injury occurred when nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) was administered without use of the protective barrier dressing. CONCLUSION: We found clinically relevant difference in the occurrences of nasal PI in neonates managed with NCPAP; occurrences of stage 3 PI were 6-fold higher when a thin-walled cannula was used without a protective foam barrier dressing.


Assuntos
Cânula/efeitos adversos , Nariz/lesões , Lesão por Pressão/etiologia , Cânula/normas , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Septo Nasal/irrigação sanguínea , Septo Nasal/lesões , Septo Nasal/fisiopatologia , Ventilação não Invasiva/instrumentação , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Nariz/irrigação sanguínea , Nariz/fisiopatologia , Lesão por Pressão/epidemiologia , Lesão por Pressão/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 28, 2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that prone positioning (PP) can increase PaO2/FiO2 and reduce mortality in moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The aim of our study was to determine whether the early use of PP combined with non-invasive ventilation (NIV) or high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) can avoid the need for intubation in moderate to severe ARDS patients. METHODS: This prospective observational cohort study was performed in two teaching hospitals. Non-intubated moderate to severe ARDS patients were included and were placed in PP with NIV or with HFNC. The efficacy in improving oxygenation with four support methods-HFNC, HFNC+PP, NIV, NIV+PP-were evaluated by blood gas analysis. The primary outcome was the rate of intubation. RESULTS: Between January 2018 and April 2019, 20 ARDS patients were enrolled. The main causes of ARDS were pneumonia due to influenza (9 cases, 45%) and other viruses (2 cases, 10%). Ten cases were moderate ARDS and 10 cases were severe. Eleven patients avoided intubation (success group), and 9 patients were intubated (failure group). All 7 patients with a PaO2/FiO2 < 100 mmHg on NIV required intubation. PaO2/FiO2 in HFNC+PP were significantly higher in the success group than in the failure group (125 ± 41 mmHg vs 119 ± 19 mmHg, P = 0.043). PaO2/FiO2 demonstrated an upward trend in patients with all four support strategies: HFNC < HFNC+PP ≤ NIV < NIV+PP. The average duration for PP was 2 h twice daily. CONCLUSIONS: Early application of PP with HFNC, especially in patients with moderate ARDS and baseline SpO2 > 95%, may help avoid intubation. The PP was well tolerated, and the efficacy on PaO2/FiO2 of the four support strategies was HFNC < HFNC+PP ≤ NIV < NIV+PP. Severe ARDS patients were not appropriate candidates for HFNC/NIV+PP. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR, ChiCTR1900023564. Registered 1 June 2019 (retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Cânula/normas , Posicionamento do Paciente/normas , /fisiopatologia , Adulto , Cânula/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Posicionamento do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Segurança do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Decúbito Ventral/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Respiratória/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/prevenção & controle
6.
Int J Artif Organs ; 42(12): 704-710, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190608

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent advances to make cardiopulmonary bypass more physiological include the use of kinetic-assisted venous drainage but without a venous reservoir. Despite manipulation of intravascular volume and patient positioning, arterial flow is frequently reduced. Negative venous line pressures can be generated, which may elicit gaseous microemboli. We investigated the influence of venous cannula design on venous return and negative venous line pressures. METHODS: In a single-centre, single-surgeon, prospective, randomized, double-blind trial, 48 patients undergoing isolated coronary artery, aortic valve or combined coronary artery and aortic valve surgery, with a minimally invasive circuit, were randomized to a conventional two-stage (2S) or three-stage venous cannula (3S), or to a three-stage venous cannula with additional 'fenestrated' ridges (F3S). Blood flow, venous line pressures and gaseous microemboli number and size were measured. RESULTS: The pump flow achieved was the same between groups, but in each case fell below the target range of 2.2-2.4 L min-1 m-2. The three-stage cannula recorded significantly lower negative pressure than the other cannulae. The total count and volume of gaseous emboli detected with the F3S cannulae was very high in some cases, with wide heterogeneity. DISCUSSION: The low negative pressures recorded with three-stage cannula, despite having a larger drainage orifice area, suggest that negative pressure may be more influenced by lumen diameter and vena cava collapse rather than drainage hole size. The additional fenestrations resulted in flow characteristics and negative pressures similar to the larger two-stage cannula but are associated with generation of gaseous microemboli.


Assuntos
Cânula/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Venoso Central , Embolia Aérea , Desenho de Equipamento , Circulação Extracorpórea , Veias Cavas , Idoso , Cânula/classificação , Cânula/normas , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Venoso Central/instrumentação , Cateterismo Venoso Central/métodos , Método Duplo-Cego , Embolia Aérea/diagnóstico , Embolia Aérea/etiologia , Embolia Aérea/prevenção & controle , Circulação Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Circulação Extracorpórea/instrumentação , Circulação Extracorpórea/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pressão Venosa
7.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 180, 2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy in patients after planned extubation remains inconclusive. We aimed to perform a rigorous and comprehensive systematic meta-analysis to robustly quantify the benefits of HFNC for patients after planned extubation by investigating postextubation respiratory failure and other outcomes. METHOD: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library from inception to August 2018. Two researchers screened studies and collected the data independently. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and crossover studies were included. The main outcome was postextubation respiratory failure. RESULTS: Ten studies (seven RCTs and three crossover studies; HFNC group: 856 patients; Conventional oxygen therapy (COT) group: 852 patients) were included. Compared with COT, HFNC may significantly reduce postextubation respiratory failure (RR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.41, 0.92; z = 2.38; P = 0.02) and respiratory rates (standardized mean differences (SMD), - 0.70; 95% CI, - 1.16, - 0.25; z = 3.03; P = 0.002) and increase PaO2 (SMD, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.04, 0.56; z = 2.23; P = 0.03). There were no significant differences in reintubation rate, length of ICU and hospital stay, comfort score, PaCO2, mortality in ICU and hospital, and severe adverse events between HFNC and COT group. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis demonstrated that compared with COT, HFNC may significantly reduce postextubation respiratory failure and respiratory rates, increase PaO2, and be safely administered in patients after planned extubation. Further large-scale, multicenter studies are needed to confirm our results.


Assuntos
Cânula/normas , Oxigenoterapia/instrumentação , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Extubação/métodos , Humanos , Ventilação não Invasiva/instrumentação , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Ventilação não Invasiva/normas , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Recidiva , Desmame do Respirador/métodos
8.
Intensive Care Med ; 45(5): 563-572, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This systematic review and meta-analysis summarizes the safety and efficacy of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science. We identified randomized controlled trials that compared HFNC to conventional oxygen therapy. We pooled data and report summary estimates of effect using relative risk for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference or standardized mean difference for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals. We assessed risk of bias of included studies using the Cochrane tool and certainty in pooled effect estimates using GRADE methods. RESULTS: We included 9 RCTs (n = 2093 patients). We found no difference in mortality in patients treated with HFNC (relative risk [RR] 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67-1.31, moderate certainty) compared to conventional oxygen therapy. We found a decreased risk of requiring intubation (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74-0.99) or escalation of oxygen therapy (defined as crossover to HFNC in the control group, or initiation of non-invasive ventilation or invasive mechanical ventilation in either group) favouring HFNC-treated patients (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.51-0.98), although certainty in both outcomes was low due to imprecision and issues related to risk of bias. HFNC had no effect on intensive care unit length of stay (mean difference [MD] 1.38 days more, 95% CI 0.90 days fewer to 3.66 days more, low certainty), hospital length of stay (MD 0.85 days fewer, 95% CI 2.07 days fewer to 0.37 days more, moderate certainty), patient reported comfort (SMD 0.12 lower, 95% CI 0.61 lower to 0.37 higher, very low certainty) or patient reported dyspnea (standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.16 lower, 95% CI 1.10 lower to 1.42 higher, low certainty). Complications of treatment were variably reported amongst included studies, but little harm was associated with HFNC use. CONCLUSION: In patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, HFNC may decrease the need for tracheal intubation without impacting mortality.


Assuntos
Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Cânula/normas , Humanos , Hipóxia/terapia , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Oxigenoterapia/instrumentação , Oxigenoterapia/normas , Insuficiência Respiratória/classificação , Insuficiência Respiratória/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Braz J Cardiovasc Surg ; 33(5): 435-442, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517250

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the results of four mock femoral venous cannulas and the hydrodynamical superiority of one of them, which is the completely punched (CP) model, upon the other three. METHODS: Four simulated femoral venous cannulas (single-stage, two-stage, multi-stage, and CP model) were designed from a 1/4" x 1/16" x 68 cm polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing line for testing. Holes on the PVC tubes were opened by a 5 mm aortic punch. In order to evaluate the cannulas' drainage performance, gelofusine was used as fluid. The fluid was drained for 60 seconds by gravitation and then measured for each model separately. RESULTS: Mean drained volumes of single-stage, two-stage, and multi-stage cannulas were 2.483, 2.561, and 2.603 mL, respectively. However, the CP cannula provided us a mean drained volume of 2.988 mL. There were significant differences among the variables of the CP cannula and the other three mock cannulas concerning the drained fluid flow (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: In our study, the measured mean volumes showed us that more drainage surface area provides better fluid drainage.


Assuntos
Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Cânula/normas , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/instrumentação , Cateterismo/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Teste de Materiais/métodos
10.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(5): 435-442, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-977452

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: To report the results of four mock femoral venous cannulas and the hydrodynamical superiority of one of them, which is the completely punched (CP) model, upon the other three. Methods: Four simulated femoral venous cannulas (single-stage, two-stage, multi-stage, and CP model) were designed from a 1/4" x 1/16" x 68 cm polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing line for testing. Holes on the PVC tubes were opened by a 5 mm aortic punch. In order to evaluate the cannulas' drainage performance, gelofusine was used as fluid. The fluid was drained for 60 seconds by gravitation and then measured for each model separately. Results: Mean drained volumes of single-stage, two-stage, and multi-stage cannulas were 2.483, 2.561, and 2.603 mL, respectively. However, the CP cannula provided us a mean drained volume of 2.988 mL. There were significant differences among the variables of the CP cannula and the other three mock cannulas concerning the drained fluid flow (P<0.01). Conclusion: In our study, the measured mean volumes showed us that more drainage surface area provides better fluid drainage.


Assuntos
Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Teste de Materiais/métodos , Cateterismo/instrumentação , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Cânula/normas
11.
Crit Care ; 22(1): 180, 2018 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The physiological effects of high-flow nasal cannula O2 therapy (HFNC) have been evaluated mainly in patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure. In this study, we compared the effects of HFNC and conventional low-flow O2 therapy on the neuroventilatory drive and work of breathing postextubation in patients with a background of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who had received mechanical ventilation for hypercapnic respiratory failure. METHODS: This was a single center, unblinded, cross-over study on 14 postextubation COPD patients who were recovering from an episode of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure of various etiologies. After extubation, each patient received two 1-h periods of HFNC (HFNC1 and HFNC2) alternated with 1 h of conventional low-flow O2 therapy via a face mask. The inspiratory fraction of oxygen was titrated to achieve an arterial O2 saturation target of 88-92%. Gas exchange, breathing pattern, neuroventilatory drive (electrical diaphragmatic activity (EAdi)) and work of breathing (inspiratory trans-diaphragmatic pressure-time product per minute (PTPDI/min)) were recorded. RESULTS: EAdi peak increased from a mean (±SD) of 15.4 ± 6.4 to 23.6 ± 10.5 µV switching from HFNC1 to conventional O2, and then returned to 15.2 ± 6.4 µV during HFNC2 (conventional O2: p < 0.05 versus HFNC1 and HFNC2). Similarly, the PTPDI/min increased from 135 ± 60 to 211 ± 70 cmH2O/s/min, and then decreased again during HFNC2 to 132 ± 56 (conventional O2: p < 0.05 versus HFNC1 and HFNC2). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with COPD, the application of HFNC postextubation significantly decreased the neuroventilatory drive and work of breathing compared with conventional O2 therapy.


Assuntos
Extubação/métodos , Cânula/normas , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Trabalho Respiratório/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Extubação/normas , Análise de Variância , Cânula/tendências , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Ventilação não Invasiva/normas , Oxigenoterapia/normas , Desmame do Respirador/métodos , Desmame do Respirador/normas
12.
Braz J Cardiovasc Surg ; 33(3): 224-232, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30043914

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hemodilution is a concern in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Using a smaller dual tubing rather than a single larger inner diameter (ID) tubing in the venous limb to decrease prime volume has been a standard practice. The purpose of this study is to evaluate these tubing options. METHODS: Four different CPB circuits primed with blood (hematocrit 30%) were investigated. Two setups were used with two circuits for each one. In Setup I, a neonatal oxygenator was connected to dual 3/16" ID venous limbs (Circuit A) or to a single 1/4" ID venous limb (Circuit B); and in Setup II, a pediatric oxygenator was connected to dual 1/4" ID venous limbs (Circuit C) or a single 3/8" ID venous limb (Circuit D). Trials were conducted at arterial flow rates of 500 ml/min up to 1500 ml/min (Setup I) and up to 3000 ml/min (Setup II), at 36°C and 28°C. RESULTS: Circuit B exhibited a higher venous flow rate than Circuit A, and Circuit D exhibited a higher venous flow rate than Circuit C, at both temperatures. Flow resistance was significantly higher in Circuits A and C than in Circuits B (P<0.001) and D (P<0.001), respectively. CONCLUSION: A single 1/4" venous limb is better than dual 3/16" venous limbs at all flow rates, up to 1500 ml/min. Moreover, a single 3/8" venous limb is better than dual 1/4" venous limbs, up to 3000 ml/min. Our findings strongly suggest a revision of perfusion practice to include single venous limb circuits for CPB.


Assuntos
Cânula/normas , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/instrumentação , Oxigenadores/normas , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Segurança de Equipamentos , Hemodiluição , Humanos , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Pediatria/instrumentação , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Pressão Venosa/fisiologia
13.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(3): 224-232, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-958406

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: Hemodilution is a concern in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Using a smaller dual tubing rather than a single larger inner diameter (ID) tubing in the venous limb to decrease prime volume has been a standard practice. The purpose of this study is to evaluate these tubing options. Methods: Four different CPB circuits primed with blood (hematocrit 30%) were investigated. Two setups were used with two circuits for each one. In Setup I, a neonatal oxygenator was connected to dual 3/16" ID venous limbs (Circuit A) or to a single 1/4" ID venous limb (Circuit B); and in Setup II, a pediatric oxygenator was connected to dual 1/4" ID venous limbs (Circuit C) or a single 3/8" ID venous limb (Circuit D). Trials were conducted at arterial flow rates of 500 ml/min up to 1500 ml/min (Setup I) and up to 3000 ml/min (Setup II), at 36°C and 28°C. Results: Circuit B exhibited a higher venous flow rate than Circuit A, and Circuit D exhibited a higher venous flow rate than Circuit C, at both temperatures. Flow resistance was significantly higher in Circuits A and C than in Circuits B (P<0.001) and D (P<0.001), respectively. Conclusion: A single 1/4" venous limb is better than dual 3/16" venous limbs at all flow rates, up to 1500 ml/min. Moreover, a single 3/8" venous limb is better than dual 1/4" venous limbs, up to 3000 ml/min. Our findings strongly suggest a revision of perfusion practice to include single venous limb circuits for CPB.


Assuntos
Humanos , Oxigenadores/normas , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/instrumentação , Cânula/normas , Pediatria/instrumentação , Padrões de Referência , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Pressão Venosa/fisiologia , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Desenho de Equipamento , Segurança de Equipamentos , Hemodiluição , Modelos Cardiovasculares
14.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 35(8): 566-572, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29757925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Capnography via a CO2/O2 nasal cannula is commonly used for respiratory monitoring during sedation. However, signal disturbances are frequently encountered, especially in young children. OBJECTIVE: Sampling ports placed closer to the trachea have been shown to result in improved signal quality. In a manikin model of a 6-month-old infant we compared capnography from a modified Guedel airway with a CO2 port located at the tip with that from a CO2/O2 nasal cannula. DESIGN: A comparison study using an artificial model of a breathing 6-month-old infant. SETTING: Department of Paediatrics, Inselspital Bern, Switzerland, from March 2016 to June 2016. MATERIAL: Modified CO2/O2 Guedel airway. INTERVENTIONS: Capnography using a modified CO2/O2 Guedel airway or a CO2/O2 nasal cannula was performed for tidal volumes of 20 to 80 ml (in steps of 20 ml), respiratory rates of 20 to 60 min (in steps of 10 min) and with different O2 flows (0 to 2 l min, in steps of 0.5 l). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of differences between tracheal and device CO2. Secondary outcomes included the effect of various respiratory settings and O2 flows on the CO2 difference. RESULTS: The tracheal to device CO2 difference was significantly smaller when using a modified CO2/O2 Guedel airway vs. a CO2/O2 nasal cannula: Mean ±â€ŠSD, 16.8 ±â€Š4.9 vs. 24.1 ±â€Š5.9 mmHg, P less than 0.0001. An O2 flow of 0.5 to 2 l min did not influence the tracheal to device CO2 difference with the modified CO2/O2 Guedel airway in contrast to the CO2/O2 nasal cannula where there were significant differences (P < 0.0001). The effect of various tidal volumes and respiratory rates proved to be similar in both devices. CONCLUSION: Capnography traces derived from a sample port at the tip of a modified CO2/O2 Guedel airway were more accurate than those obtained from a CO2/O2 nasal cannula. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.


Assuntos
Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/normas , Cânula/normas , Capnografia/normas , Dióxido de Carbono , Manequins , Oxigênio , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Capnografia/métodos , Dióxido de Carbono/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Lactente , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem
15.
Crit Care ; 22(1): 120, 2018 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29743098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) delivers up to 60 l/min of humidified air/oxygen blend at a temperature close to that of the human body. In this study, we tested whether higher temperature and flow decrease patient comfort. In more severe patients, instead, we hypothesized that higher flow might be associated with improved comfort. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, cross-over study was performed on 40 acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) patients (PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 300 + pulmonary infiltrates + exclusion of cardiogenic edema) supported by HFNC. The primary outcome was the assessment of patient comfort during HFNC delivery at increasing flow and temperature. Two flows (30 and 60 l/min), each combined with two temperatures (31 and 37 °C), were randomly applied for 20 min (four steps per patient), leaving clinical FiO2 unchanged. Toward the end of each step, the following were recorded: comfort by Visual Numerical Scale ranging between 1 (extreme discomfort) and 5 (very comfortable), together with respiratory parameters. A subgroup of more severe patients was defined by clinical FiO2 ≥ 45%. RESULTS: Patient comfort was reported as significantly higher during steps at the lower temperature (31 °C) in comparison to 37 °C, with the HFNC set at both 30 and 60 l/min (p < 0.0001). Higher flow, however, was not associated with poorer comfort. In the subgroup of patients with clinical FiO2 ≥ 45%, both lower temperature (31 °C) and higher HFNC flow (60 l/min) led to higher comfort (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: HFNC temperature seems to significantly impact the comfort of AHRF patients: for equal flow, lower temperature could be more comfortable. Higher flow does not decrease patient comfort; at variance, it improves comfort in the more severely hypoxemic patient.


Assuntos
Cânula/normas , Conforto do Paciente/normas , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Temperatura , Adulto , Idoso , Cânula/efeitos adversos , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipóxia/psicologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/efeitos adversos , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Oxigenoterapia/psicologia , Oxigenoterapia/normas , Estudos Prospectivos , Escala Visual Analógica
16.
Innovations (Phila) ; 13(2): 104-107, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29677020

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Inadequate peripheral venous drainage during minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) is a challenge and cannot always be solved with increased vacuum or increased centrifugal pump speed. The present study was designed to assess the benefit of virtually wall-less transfemoral venous cannulas during MICS. METHODS: Transfemoral venous cannulation with virtually wall-less cannulas (3/8″ 24F 530-630-mm ST) was performed in 10 consecutive patients (59 ± 10 years, 8 males, 2 females) undergoing MICS for mitral (6), aortic (3), and other (4) procedures (combinations possible). Before transfemoral insertion of wall-less cannulas, a guidewire was positioned in the superior vena cava under echocardiographic control. The wall-less cannula was then fed over the wire and connected to a minimal extracorporeal system. Vacuum assist was used to reach a target flow of 2.4 l/min per m with augmented venous drainage at less than -80 mm Hg. RESULTS: Wall-less venous cannulas measuring either 630 mm (n = 8) in length or 530 mm (n = 2) were successfully implanted in all patients. For a body size of 173 ± 11 cm and a body weight of 78 ± 26 kg, the calculated body surface area was 1.94 ± 0.32 m. As a result, the estimated target flow was 4.66 ± 0.78 l/min, whereas the achieved flow accounted for 4.98 ± 0.69 l/min (107% of target) at a vacuum level of 21.3 ± 16.4 mm Hg. Excellent exposure and "dry" intracardiac surgical field resulted. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of virtually wall-less venous cannulas designed for augmented peripheral venous drainage was tested in MICS and provided excellent flows at minimal vacuum levels, confirming an increased performance over traditional thin wall cannulas. Superior results can be expected for routine use.


Assuntos
Cânula/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/instrumentação , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/instrumentação , Drenagem/instrumentação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/instrumentação , Idoso , Cânula/estatística & dados numéricos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Cateterismo , Drenagem/métodos , Ecocardiografia , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Veia Femoral/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Vácuo , Veia Cava Superior/cirurgia
17.
Innovations (Phila) ; 13(2): 97-103, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29697598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Leg ischemia is a serious complication of femoral artery cannulation. The primary aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of a novel bidirectional femoral arterial cannula (Sorin Group USA, a wholly owned subsidiary of LivaNova PLC, Arvada, CO USA) that provides both antegrade and retrograde flow, in patients undergoing peripheral cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass during cardiac surgery. METHODS: Patients undergoing routine cardiac surgery requiring femoral artery cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass were identified preoperatively. Informed written consent was obtained in all cases. Bidirectional cannula insertion used either a surgical cut-down and wire through needle approach or a percutaneous technique. Flow in the superficial femoral artery was assessed using Doppler ultrasound after commencement of cardiopulmonary bypass. Lower limb perfusion was assessed using reflectance near-infrared spectroscopy to measure regional oxygen saturations in the cannulated limb during cardiopulmonary bypass. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (median age = 61.3 years, range = 26-79 years, 10 males, 5 females) underwent femoral arterial cannulation using the novel bidirectional femoral cannula between August 2016 and May 2017. Fourteen cannulae were inserted directly into the femoral artery via a surgical cut-down and wire through needle technique. One bidirectional cannula was inserted using a percutaneous insertion technique. Indications included minimally invasive mitral and aortic valve surgery, thoracic aortic aneurysm repair, and redo cardiac surgery. The median duration of cardiopulmonary bypass was 129 minutes (range = 53-228 minutes). The cannula was inserted and positioned without difficulty in 14 of 15 patients. Incorrect sizing and arterial spasm prevented correct cannula positioning in one patient. Antegrade flow in the superficial femoral artery was observed on Doppler ultrasound in 12 of 12 patients in which this was performed. Continuous stable distal perfusion was demonstrated in the cannulated limb in 14 of 15 patients. No procedural complications occurred in the immediate or convalescent postoperative period. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that in patients undergoing femoral arterial cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass during cardiac surgery, the use of a novel bidirectional cannula is safe and easy to insert and provides stable distal perfusion of the cannulated limb. Use of the device should largely obviate the need to insert a separate downstream perfusion cannula or use other techniques to protect against lower limb ischemia. Further research on a larger scale and in different patient populations is now warranted.


Assuntos
Cânula/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Cateterismo Periférico/métodos , Artéria Femoral/cirurgia , Perfusão/instrumentação , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/estatística & dados numéricos , Cateterismo Periférico/efeitos adversos , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Artéria Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Isquemia/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/patologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Ultrassonografia Doppler
18.
Crit Care ; 22(1): 71, 2018 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29558988

RESUMO

This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2018. Other selected articles can be found online at https://www.biomedcentral.com/collections/annualupdate2018 . Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from http://www.springer.com/series/8901 .


Assuntos
Cânula/normas , Oxigenoterapia/normas , Adulto , Humanos , Oxigênio/farmacologia , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Oxigenoterapia/instrumentação , Oxigenoterapia/métodos
19.
Crit Care ; 21(1): 184, 2017 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28701227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-flow nasal cannula oxygen (HFNC) is a relatively new therapy used in adults with respiratory failure. Whether it is superior to conventional oxygen therapy (COT) or to noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether HFNC was superior to either COT or NIV in adult acute respiratory failure patients. METHODS: A review of the literature was conducted from the electronic databases from inception up to 20 October 2016. Only randomized clinical trials comparing HFNC with COT or HFNC with NIV were included. The intubation rate was the primary outcome; secondary outcomes included the mechanical ventilation rate, the rate of escalation of respiratory support and mortality. RESULTS: Eleven studies that enrolled 3459 patients (HFNC, n = 1681) were included. There were eight studies comparing HFNC with COT, two comparing HFNC with NIV, and one comparing all three. HFNC was associated with a significant reduction in intubation rate (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.79, P = 0.002), mechanical ventilation rate (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.97, P = 0.04) and the rate of escalation of respiratory support (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.67, P < 0.0001) when compared to COT. There was no difference in mortality between HFNC and COT utilization (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.53, P = 0.96). When HFNC was compared to NIV, there was no difference in the intubation rate (OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.66 to 1.39, P = 0.84), the rate of escalation of respiratory support (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.28, P = 0.97) or mortality (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.68, P = 0.65). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to COT, HFNC reduced the rate of intubation, mechanical ventilation and the escalation of respiratory support. When compared to NIV, HFNC showed no better outcomes. Large-scale randomized controlled trials are necessary to prove our findings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews on May 25, 2016 registration no. CRD42016039581 .


Assuntos
Cânula/normas , Ventilação não Invasiva/normas , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Cânula/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Razão de Chances , Oxigênio/farmacologia , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
Crit Care ; 21(1): 62, 2017 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28320436

RESUMO

This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2017. Other selected articles can be found online at http://ccforum.com/series/annualupdate2017 . Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from http://www.springer.com/series/8901 .


Assuntos
Cânula/normas , Cânula/tendências , Oxigenoterapia/normas , Medicina de Emergência/tendências , Humanos , Oxigenoterapia/tendências
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