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1.
J Vet Sci ; 21(5): e75, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dental diseases are common in dogs and cats, and accurate measurements of dentoalveolar structure are important for planning of treatment. The information that the comparison computed tomography (CT) with dental radiography (DTR) is not yet reported in veterinary medicine. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the DTR with CT of dentoalveolar structures in healthy dogs and cats, and to evaluate the CT images of 2 different slice thicknesses (0.5 and 1.0 mm). METHODS: We included 6 dogs (2 Maltese and 1 Spitz, Beagle, Pomeranian, mixed, 1 to 8 years, 4 castrated males, and 2 spayed female) and 6 cats (6 domestic short hair,8 months to 3 years, 4 castrated male and 2 spayed female) in this study. We measured the pulp cavity to tooth width ratio (P/T ratio) and periodontal space of maxillary and mandibular canine teeth, maxillary fourth premolar, mandibular first molar, maxillary third premolar and mandibular fourth premolar. RESULTS: P/T ratio and periodontal space in the overall dentition of both dogs and cats were smaller in DTR compared to CT. In addition, CT images at 1.0 mm slice thickness was generally measured to be greater than the images at 0.5 mm slice thickness. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that CT with thin slice thickness provides more accurate information on the dentoalveolar structures. Additional DTR, therefore, may not be required for evaluating dental structure in small-sized dogs and cats.


Assuntos
Gatos/anatomia & histologia , Cães/anatomia & histologia , Radiografia Dentária/veterinária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Alvéolo Dental/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 706-713, June 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098309

RESUMO

The shape of the head is considered the most important criterion in determining the standard breeds of dogs. It is of much significance to study the skull typology of the Ghanaian local dog in order to establish a template of its identification as a breed and to generate data which could be useful in the comparative anatomy of the skulls of dogs. A total of twenty skulls of adult dogs of two age groups were used in this study. 31 parameters were measured and 6 skull indices were calculated on their basis. The group of skulls from older fully grown dogs showed higher values in all parameters. Results of the current study will provide baseline reference data on skull parameters of local dolichocephalic dogs. More importantly, results obtained could be useful in veterinary applied anatomy and clinical practice in areas including forensic medicine, plastic or cosmetic maxillofacial surgery, neurosurgery of the cranium, acupuncture, nerve block and other clinical manipulations involving the head.


La forma de la cabeza se considera el criterio más importante para determinar las razas estándar de perros. Es relevante estudiar la tipología del cráneo del perro local de Ghana para establecer una plantilla de su identificación como raza y generar datos que puedan ser útiles en la anatomía comparativa de los cráneos de perros. En este estudio se utilizaron un total de veinte cráneos de perros adultos de dos grupos de edad. Se midieron 31 parámetros y se calcularon 6 índices de cráneo sobre la base de ellos. El grupo de cráneos de perros mayores completamente desarrollados mostró valores más altos en todos los parámetros. Los resultados del estudio actual proporcionarán datos de referencia sobre los parámetros del cráneo de los perros dolicocefálicos locales. Más importante aún, los resultados obtenidos podrían ser útiles en la anatomía veterinaria aplicada y la práctica clínica en áreas que incluyen medicina forense, cirugía plástica o cosmética maxilofacial, neurocirugía del cráneo, acupuntura, bloqueo nervioso y otras manipulaciones clínicas que involucran la cabeza.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Cães/anatomia & histologia , Gana
3.
Anat Sci Int ; 95(4): 498-507, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356264

RESUMO

Formalin-embalmed cadavers have been extensively used to teach anatomy. Although they ensure the preservation of anatomical structures without microbial contamination, they are considerably rigid and cannot be used to study the joint and muscle movements. Moreover, formalin irritates the eyes and airways and is carcinogenic on chronic exposure. To overcome the disadvantages of formalin-fixed cadavers, we investigated the usefulness of alternative embalming methods using saturated salt solution (SS) and Thiel's solution (TS). We compared the three solutions based on the following parameters: cost of the embalming solution; preservation of anatomical structure, color, flexibility, and texture; and microbial contamination. Convenience of anatomical structure identification and preferences in anatomical laboratory practice were evaluated using questionnaires answered by veterinary undergraduate students. Cost of the embalming solution was the lowest for formalin solution (FS) and most expensive for TS. All cadavers were successfully preserved without significant putrefaction and were useful for teaching veterinary anatomy. Cadavers embalmed with SS or TS were superior in facilitating joint and muscle movement. Compared to FS, the color and texture of muscles and internal organs were similar to those of living animals and there was no irritating and offensive smell in SS and TS cadavers. Students preferred the SS and TS cadavers for their usefulness in identification of anatomical structures, highlighting their usefulness in veterinary anatomy education.


Assuntos
Anatomia Veterinária/educação , Anatomia/educação , Cães/anatomia & histologia , Educação em Veterinária , Embalsamamento/métodos , Animais , Embalsamamento/economia , Formaldeído , Cloreto de Sódio , Soluções/economia
4.
Res Vet Sci ; 131: 117-130, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334156

RESUMO

First references of the endangered autochthonous Majorcan Ca Mè dog date from the 13th century and enhance its skills and adaptability to the orography. Genealogical historical records were traced back to founders. Founder number in the reference population (397), maximum generations traced, and average number of complete generations were 32, 5, and 2.75, respectively. Structure assessment revealed the existence of subpopulations regarding criteria such as owners (402), breeders (55), coat colours (liver, lemon, black and orange) and spotting patterns (piebald, roan, solid colour, tie or star presence). Average inbreeding (F) within colour groups ranged from 6.3-10.4%, for orange and black populations, respectively. F ranged from 9.43-12.22% for roan patterns and star presence, respectively. Tan point markings showed an F coefficient of 5.85%. The study of genetic diversity revealed a slightly different genetic background between subpopulations. Average coancestry between and within coat colours suggested orange and roan traits could be ascribed to the original nuclei, without omitting the high relationships among other subpopulations. Breeding strategy should select breeding pairs holding a relatedness coefficient below 15%. Hence, coat patterns in dog breeds can help preserving the genetic diversity in endangered dogs, even when these are geographically isolated.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Cães/genética , Variação Genética , Pigmentação/genética , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Cães/anatomia & histologia , Patrimônio Genético , Endogamia , Linhagem , Fenótipo
5.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 104, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue may have different metabolic and endocrine functions depending on the region of the body in which it is located. While visceral or intra-abdominal fat has been found to contribute to leptin concentrations, insulin resistance and obesity-related diseases, there are only a few imaging studies documenting the preferential distribution of body fat to either the intra-abdominal or subcutaneous compartments in dogs. This study aimed to determine if CT-measured abdominal fat distributed preferentially to the visceral space (V) relative to the subcutaneous space (SQ), with increasing DXA-determined total body fat percentage; and if ultrasound measurements of the ventral midline subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose thickness (VAT) can be used to estimate the distribution of fat to the subcutaneous and visceral abdominal spaces, in a sample of 22 dogs with variable body condition. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed no statistically significant correlation between visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio (V/SQ) and increasing total body fat percentage (ß = - 0.07, p = 0.733), but strong correlation with age (ß = 0.71 p = 0.002). A substantial amount of variation for the ultrasound visceral adipose thickness to subcutaneous fat thickness (VAT/SAT) could be explained by both CT V/SQ and sex (R2Adjusted = 0.477, p = 0.001), with female dogs having significant lower VAT/SAT ratios compared to the male dogs (p = 0.047). The ultrasound fat measurements appeared moderately reliable, but a larger sample number is required to confirm this. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that dogs with a relatively healthy to slightly overweight body condition score, distribute fat relatively similarly between their peritoneal (visceral) and subcutaneous abdominal compartments with increasing total body fat percentage. However, there was increased fat distribution to the peritoneal space relative to the subcutaneous space with increasing age. Further, abdominal ultrasound may be useful in estimating the ratio of fat distribution to both the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous spaces.


Assuntos
Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Cães/anatomia & histologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/anatomia & histologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Gordura Subcutânea Abdominal/anatomia & histologia , Gordura Subcutânea Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária
6.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 61(3): 302-311, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100910

RESUMO

Quantitative analysis of the normal retrograde urethrogram is well reported in radiography, but studies on CT urethrography are lacking. Recently, a method of retrograde CT urethrography using a power injector was described. The purpose of the current, prospective, analytical study was to quantify the urethral size of five, healthy, intact, male Beagle dogs using retrograde CT urethrography and a power injector. With the injection rate of the power injector set at 0.3 mL/s, 1 mL/kg of diluted contrast medium (15 mg I/mL) was injected, and a CT examination was performed. The state of the initial urethrogram taken was defined as "empty bladder." The same procedures were repeated with the injection of an additional 1 mL/kg of diluted contrast medium until the ureteral reflux was seen (distended bladder). There was a significant difference in volumes between the empty and distended bladder, but the membranous urethra showed the least difference (P = .0044) among the three regions (P < .0001 for the prostatic and penile urethra). Urethral diameters at six sites were measured from sagittal images, and the sites of measurements were adopted from the earlier radiographic studies. The most significant difference in the urethral diameters between the empty and distended bladder occurred at the cranial and middle prostatic urethra (P < .0001). The results of this study can be useful for interpreting the results of retrograde CT urethrography. Care must be taken when narrowing is suspected at the prostatic urethra, and if necessary, further distension of the urinary bladder should be tried.


Assuntos
Cistografia/veterinária , Cães/anatomia & histologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Uretra/diagnóstico por imagem , Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Cistografia/métodos , Cães/fisiologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Uretra/anatomia & histologia , Uretra/fisiologia , Bexiga Urinária/anatomia & histologia , Bexiga Urinária/fisiologia
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 78-82, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056401

RESUMO

Dentro del espectro de conformación del cráneo, se reconocen generalmente tres amplias categorías que se corresponden con el concepto de biotipo cefálico, determinado por el Índice Cefálico. El Estos tres biotipos cefálicos son: el braquiocefálico, mesaticefálico y dolicocefálico, pero están basados en medidas lineales. A fin de revisar esta clasificación en base a su geometría, se estudiaron 53 cráneos de perros adultos, correspondientes a los tres grupos craneométricos descritos: 16 braquicéfalos, 20 mesaticéfalos y 17 dolicocéfalos. Para ello se obtuvieron fotografías en el plano ventral, en las que posteriormente se ubicaron 17 hitos anatómicos que se analizaron mediante técnicas de morfometría geométrica. De estos hitos, 5 correspondían a la zona neurocraneal y el resto al esplacnocráneo. Los tres grupos craneométricos mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ellos tanto por el tamaño como por la forma. Las variables que contribuyeron más a explicar la diferenciación fueron las ubicadas en el margen más lateral de los arcos cigomáticos y en la base de este mismo arco. Las variables esplacnocraneales presentaban una alometría mucho más marcada que las neurocráneos. Puesto que el arco cigomático debe ser considerado como parte del esplacnocráneo, sugerimos que es tan importante el índice cefálico (que tiene en cuenta la máxima anchura de la cabeza) como el facial (que tiene en cuenta la máxima anchura de la cara). La conformación neurocraneal sería mucho más conservativa y por ende el índice craneal, de mucho menor poder discriminatorio entre grupos. El cambio entre tipos se debería a los músculos masetero y temporal, que tienen su inserción en el arco.


Within the wide conformation of skull spectrum, there are generally three recognized broad categories that correspond to the concept of cephalic biotype, determined by the cephalic index. The three cephalic biotypes are: brachiocephalic, mesaticephalic and dolichocephalic, which are based on linear measures. In order to revise this classification based on its geometry, we studied 53 skulls of adult dogs, corresponding to the three craneometric groups previously described: 16 brachycephalic, 20 mesaticephalic and 17 dolichocephalic. Images on ventral plane were obtained and 17 anatomical landmarks were subsequently located and analyzed by means of geometric morphometric techniques. Five of those landmarks corresponded to the neurocraneal area and the rest of the splanchnocranium. The three craneometric groups showed statistically significant differences between them for both size and shape. The variables that contributed to the differentiation between them were located along the edge of the zygomatic arches and on the basis of this arch. Splanchnocranial variables also presented a much more marked allometry than the neurocraneal variables. Since the zygomatic arch should be considered as part of the splanchnocranium, we suggest that the cephalic index (which takes into account the maximum width of the head) is as important as the facial index (which takes into account the maximum width of the face). The neurocraneal index would be much more conservative, and therefore less discriminatory between the groups.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Cefalometria/métodos , Cães/anatomia & histologia , Zigoma/anatomia & histologia , Análise Discriminante , Análise de Componente Principal
8.
J Vet Med Sci ; 82(3): 279-285, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969520

RESUMO

In dogs, reports on thoracic lymph nodes are lacking compared to abdominal lymph nodes. This report analyzed the position, number, size, shape, and homogeneity of thoracic lymph nodes (cranial sternal, cranial mediastinal, tracheobronchial, aortic thoracic, and pulmonary lymph nodes) using thoracic computed tomography (CT) images of 100 dogs without any lesions in the dominated areas of thoracic lymph nodes. The position and number of intrathoracic lymph nodes could be observed in CT, consistent with macroscopic anatomical studies. It was difficult to set a clinical index associated with size using CT scans. Image findings that indicated abnormalities, such as circular shapes and non-uniform, may be routinely found in dogs and may not be considered abnormal on CT scans.


Assuntos
Cães/anatomia & histologia , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Linfonodos/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
9.
J Morphol ; 281(3): 413-419, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994770

RESUMO

A new morphological type of somatosensory organ is described. It is found in the glabrous skin of the dog nose (rhinarium or planum nasale) and situated in dermis papillae. The otherwise thick epidermis forms a thin window above the organ. There are only a few layers of keratinocytes in the window and the corneocytes are much thinner than elsewhere. The organ consists of highly branching cells that wrap naked nerve endings emanating from myelinated nerve fibers originating in the outer dermal nerve plexus. The structure entirely fills the top of the dermal papilla. The intercellular spaces of the organ and its surroundings are occupied by an extended areolar basal lamina.


Assuntos
Cães/anatomia & histologia , Sulco Nasogeniano/anatomia & histologia , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Cruzamento , Epiderme/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Masculino , Terminações Nervosas/fisiologia
10.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 61(3): 279-284, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994816

RESUMO

Nasal septal deviation has been studied in relation to nasal pathology and mass effect in dogs. The purpose of this retrospective, cross-sectional study was to compare the prevalence of nasal septal deviation in dogs with rhinitis, neoplasia, and those without nasal pathology based on the facial index, skull index, and cranial index. Computed tomographic studies of the nasal cavities of dogs performed over a 5-year period were retrospectively reviewed. This study had 233 dogs meeting the inclusion criteria with 135 dogs with no nasal pathology, 63 dogs with nasal neoplasia, and 35 dogs with rhinitis. The prevalence of nasal septal deviation, the angle, maximum distance, and longitudinal extent of deviation were recorded, as well as measurements to calculate the facial index, cranial index, and skull index. The results showed no difference in the prevalence of nasal septal deviation between dogs with nasal pathology and those without. The mean longitudinal extent of deviation and maximum distance of deviation was statistically greater for those with neoplasia compared to those with rhinitis and without nasal pathology. The longitudinal extent of deviation was inversely proportional to the cranial index, facial index, and skull index. The angle of deviation was directly proportional to the facial index and skull index. In conclusion, nasal septal deviation is an anatomic variant in different breeds of dogs with no predilection based on nasal pathology. Nasal septal deviation should be interpreted cautiously in the assessment of canine nasal disease.


Assuntos
Cães/anatomia & histologia , Cavidade Nasal/diagnóstico por imagem , Septo Nasal/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Masculino , Septo Nasal/patologia , Neoplasias Nasais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Nasais/patologia , Neoplasias Nasais/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rinite/diagnóstico por imagem , Rinite/patologia , Rinite/veterinária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
11.
Can J Vet Res ; 84(1): 24-32, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949326

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to document tidal variations in tracheal height during normal respiration in 19 healthy adult (> 1 y old) small-breed dogs (< 10 kg) using fluoroscopy and radiography. Each dog underwent tracheal fluoroscopic examination on inspiration and expiration while in a standing position (F-S) and in right lateral recumbency (F-RL), followed by radiographic projections obtained in right lateral recumbency. The percent variation in tracheal height during maximal inspiration and expiration was determined at 3 different locations [cervical region (CR), thoracic inlet (TI), and intrathoracic (IT) region]. When all imaging procedures and sites of measurement were considered, tracheal height varied during physiologic inspiration and expiration from 0% to 21.1%, with a mean of 4.5%. The mean percent variation in tracheal height was not significantly different among imaging modalities (F-S versus F-RL versus radiography) (P = 0.16) or measurement sites (CR versus TI versus IT) (P = 0.89). The body condition score (BCS) (P = 0.96), age (P = 0.95), and breed (P = 0.19) did not significantly influence the mean percent variation in tracheal height. The average variation in tracheal height during maximal physiological inspiration and expiration is small (< 6%) in most healthy adult small-breed dogs as assessed by fluoroscopy and radiography, although tracheal height may vary by as much as 21.1% in some healthy individuals. Inspiratory and expiratory radiographs acquired in right lateral recumbency provide an accurate assessment of tracheal height as an alternative to fluoroscopy.


Assuntos
Cães/anatomia & histologia , Expiração/fisiologia , Inalação/fisiologia , Traqueia/anatomia & histologia , Traqueia/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Cães/classificação , Cães/fisiologia , Feminino , Fluoroscopia/veterinária , Masculino , Radiografia Torácica/veterinária , Traqueia/fisiologia
12.
Can J Vet Res ; 84(1): 44-51, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31920217

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to explore the mathematical relationships between independent variables (patient morphometrics and treadmill speed) and dependent variables (accelerometer or pedometer output) when evaluating data from accelerometers and pedometers in dogs. Twenty dogs took part in 3 randomized activities, consisting of exercise on a treadmill at 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 m/s for a total distance of 1 km at each speed. Dogs simultaneously wore both an accelerometer and a pedometer. Statistical analysis used multiple regression models to discover the relationships between independent and dependent variables. A formula was developed to predict the distance traveled by a dog based on its morphometrics and activity monitor output. Shoulder height had stronger correlations to accelerometer and pedometer outputs than other morphometric variables. As shoulder height increased, all accelerometer and pedometer outputs decreased. As treadmill speed increased, both accelerometer and pedometer step counts decreased, while accelerometer activity counts increased. According to a formula derived to predict the total distance traveled using patient shoulder height and accelerometer or pedometer output, pedometer steps were the most accurate predictor of distance traveled. Accelerometer steps were less accurate when using the same model. Accelerometer activity counts did not reveal a meaningful predictive formula. The results of this study indicate that patient morphometrics and treadmill speed (as a measure of intensity) influenced accelerometer and pedometer data. The pedometer data more precisely and accurately estimated the distance traveled based on step counts and patient shoulder height. In normal dogs, accelerometer and pedometer steps may reasonably estimate distance traveled.


Assuntos
Cães/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Acelerometria , Animais , Peso Corporal , Intervalos de Confiança , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães/anatomia & histologia , Cães/classificação , Teste de Esforço/veterinária , Osteoartrite/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Análise de Regressão
13.
Exp Eye Res ; 192: 107926, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931002

RESUMO

The objectives of the present work were to assess by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) the changes in thickness of the outer nuclear layer (ONL), the ONL + photoreceptor inner segment (IS), and the retinal thickness, as a function of age in the normal canine retina. OCT retinal scans extending from the edge of the optic nerve head (ONH) along the superior and inferior meridians were captured in both eyes of 17 normal dogs at age ranging from 4 to 119 weeks. The different parameters along the superior and the inferior regions were determined following manual segmentation using the Heidelberg Eye Explorer software. Changes in thickness with age were modeled using one-phase exponential decay models. In vivo OCT imaging results showed no interocular statistically significant differences in ONL, ONL + IS, and retinal thickness at any age. All three parameters were however found to be statistically significantly thicker in the superior vs inferior retina. A rapid thinning of the three layers occurs in both the superior and inferior retina between 4 and 12 weeks of age, before reaching a plateau at around 20 weeks of age. In conclusion, the ONL, ONL + IS, and retinal thickness of the normal canine retina decrease significantly during the first three postnatal months, and is likely attributed to an overall increase in the eye volume and tangential dispersion of the photoreceptor since early photoreceptor developmental cell death is very limited at that age. Establishment of the natural history of ONL, ONL + IS, and retinal thinning will allow a more accurate assessment of the progression of a retinal degenerative condition as well as facilitate the detection of positive rescue effect of novel retinal therapies evaluated in this large animal model.


Assuntos
Cães/anatomia & histologia , Retina/anatomia & histologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Disco Óptico/anatomia & histologia , Disco Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Tamanho do Órgão , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurônios Retinianos/citologia , Segmento Interno das Células Fotorreceptoras da Retina/fisiologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
14.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 61(3): 364-369, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916651

RESUMO

Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging utilizing fluorine-18 labeled fluorodeoxyglucose is a relatively new imaging modality in veterinary medicine that is becoming more common for oncological staging and for musculoskeletal imaging. Thus, it is important to identify the normal variations on PET imaging that may be mistaken for pathology. Variation in standardized uptake values (SUVmax) have been anecdotally identified in the spinal cord of dogs undergoing fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET-CT examinations for oncological staging, with notable increase in SUVmax values identified in the region of the cervical and lumbar spinal intumescences. The aim of this retrospective, analytical study was to compare the SUVmax values at four different locations throughout the spinal cord (C3, C5-T1, T13, and L3-S1) of a group of dogs with no evidence of neurologic disease and compare those findings to histologic specimens from dogs euthanized for unrelated disease. SUVmax values were significantly higher at the cervical and lumbar intumescences in comparison to the control regions (P < .0001 and P < .0001, respectively). Neuronal count and spinal cord gray matter area were also significantly greater at the cervical and lumbar intumescences (neuronal count P = .0025 and P = .0001; area P = .0004 and P = .0009, respectively) while overall neuronal density was lower (P = .003 and P = .028, respectively). We presume the increased SUVmax values at the spinal cord intumescences are the result of overall increased neuron count, increased proportion of gray matter, and increased spinal cord gray matter area. These findings will aid in the interpretation of future PET-CT studies and hopefully prevent the misdiagnosis of spinal cord disease in normal canines.


Assuntos
Cães/anatomia & histologia , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/farmacologia , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/veterinária , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/farmacologia , Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 55(2): 113-126, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782838

RESUMO

Spermatozoa are unique cells because of their morphological and physiological characteristics. They are produced during the process called spermatogenesis. Spermatogenesis consists of three phases: spermatocytogenesis, spermiogenesis and spermiation, during which spermatozoa undergo several changes. Spermatogenesis takes place within the seminiferous tubules containing two types of cells-the germ cells and the Sertoli cells-that alongside the Leydig cells, which play an important role when it comes to normal fertility. Everything is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and specific hormones due to multi-hormonal feedback systems. Spermatozoa possess morphological and physiological features, which are sometimes completely different from what is observed in various somatic cells. What is more, canine spermatozoa have specific characteristics making them special compared to the spermatozoa of other mammalian species. The metabolic energy production, which is crucial for the appropriate functioning of spermatozoa, can be fuelled by different metabolic pathways utilizing different chemical substrates. Inseparable from the oxidative phosphorylation process is the production of reactive oxygen species, which are both essential and toxic to spermatozoa. Furthermore, epididymis is a very important structure, responsible for the transport and maturation of spermatozoa, which are then stored in the last segment of epididymis-the epididymal cauda. Moreover, the retrieval of spermatozoa from the epididymides is crucial for the development of assisted reproduction techniques and sperm cryopreservation methods. The information gained from the research on domestic dogs might be transferred to their wild relatives, especially those species categorized as endangered.


Assuntos
Cães/anatomia & histologia , Cães/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/citologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Animais , Epididimo/fisiologia , Masculino , Espermatogênese/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
16.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 49(2): 196-202, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709577

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to measure the biceps brachii muscle (BBM) attachment to the medial coronoid process (MCP) using computed tomography images and to compare these data between clinically healthy and dogs affected by medial coronoid disease (MCD). Computed tomography was performed in MCD-affected and healthy dogs. Multiplanar reconstruction views were obtained to measure distance (cm) of the BBM attachment point to the MCP. Results showed that the mean BBM attachment point-to-MCP was 1.42 ± 0.23 cm in MCD-affected and 1.27 ± 0.20 cm in healthy dogs, respectively. In dogs with MCD, the BBM attachment point-to-MCP was significantly more abaxial than in clinically healthy dogs (p < .001). The results of this study support the hypothesis that the BBM attachment site is more abaxial to the MCP and therefore may contribute to supraphysiological overload leading to MCD. Albeit more research is necessary, this study proves a relationship between the BBM attachment point and the development of MCD.


Assuntos
Cães/anatomia & histologia , Membro Anterior/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Tendões/anatomia & histologia , Ulna/patologia , Animais , Articulações/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
17.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 47(1): 95-102, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block technique and the anatomical spread of two volumes of methylene blue injection in dog cadavers. STUDY DESIGN: Blinded, prospective, experimental cadaveric study. ANIMALS: A total of eight dog cadavers weighing 8.9 ± 1.6 kg. METHODS: Ultrasound-guided rectus sheath injections were performed bilaterally 1 cm cranial to the umbilicus using 0.25 mL kg-1 (low volume; LV) and 0.50 mL kg-1 (high volume; HV) of 0.5% methylene blue dye. A total of 16 hemiabdomens were injected. The ultrasound image quality of the muscular and fascial plane landmarks and needle visualization were scored using a standardized scale. Cadavers were dissected to determine the distribution of the dye and to assess staining of ventral branches of the spinal nerves. RESULTS: Fewer ventral spinal nerve branches were stained in the LV group than in the HV group, at 2.00 ± 0 and 2.90 ± 0.83, respectively (p < 0.01). Ventral branches of thoracic (T) and lumbar (L) spinal nerves (T10, T11, T12, T13 and L1) were stained 25%, 100%, 75%, 25% and 0% of the time in LV group and 12.5%, 87.5%, 100.0%, 75.0% and 13.0% in HV group. A lesser extent of cranial-caudal dye distribution was observed in the LV group than in the HV group (7.1 ± 1.8 cm and 9.2 ± 1.8 cm, respectively; p = 0.03). There was no significant difference in medial-lateral spread of dye, number of test doses or ultrasound image quality scores between groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The results of this study suggest that, on an anatomical basis, this easily performed block has the potential to provide effective abdominal wall analgesia for the ventral midline. This study supports the potential of the rectus sheath block for abdominal procedures, and further investigations on its clinical efficacy are warranted.


Assuntos
Parede Abdominal/anatomia & histologia , Cães/anatomia & histologia , Azul de Metileno/administração & dosagem , Bloqueio Nervoso/veterinária , Animais , Cadáver , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/veterinária
18.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 47(1): 82-87, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786078

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide ultrasonographic mapping of the axillary region of dogs to facilitate identification of the major branches of the brachial plexus in relation to the axillary artery. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. ANIMALS: A total of two dog cadavers and 50 client-owned, healthy dogs weighing >15 kg. METHODS: In Phase 1, anatomical dissections were performed to identify the relation of the major brachial plexus nerves to the axillary artery. In Phase 2, with the dogs in dorsal recumbency with thoracic limbs flexed naturally, the axillary space was scanned using a linear array probe oriented on the parasagittal plane until the axis transverse to nerves was found. Then, the transducer was rotated to a slight lateral angle approximately 30° to midline. The examination aimed to identify the axillary artery and the musculocutaneous, radial, median and ulnar nerves in addition to determining their position and distribution in four predefined sectors. RESULTS: The musculocutaneous nerve was observed in all animals cranial to the axillary artery. The radial, ulnar and median nerves were distributed around the axillary artery, with >90% on the caudal aspect of the axillary artery (sectors 1 and 2). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Ultrasonography identified the location of the brachial plexus nerves near the studied sectors, providing useful guidance for performing a brachial plexus nerve block.


Assuntos
Axila/anatomia & histologia , Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial/veterinária , Plexo Braquial/anatomia & histologia , Cães/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Artérias/anatomia & histologia , Cadáver , Feminino , Masculino , Nervo Mediano/anatomia & histologia , Nervo Musculocutâneo/anatomia & histologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Nervo Radial/anatomia & histologia , Nervo Ulnar/anatomia & histologia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/veterinária
19.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 61(1): 10-15, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574571

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated evidence that normal reference ranges for radiographic vertebral heart scale values can vary among dog breeds. The purpose of this retrospective, observational study was to determine whether the normal vertebral heart scale values published by Buchanan and Bücheler for lateral radiographs are applicable to the Norwich terrier. Secondary objectives were to determine if clinical signs of respiratory disease, age, sex, weight, body condition score, recumbency, or thoracic depth-to-width ratio had any influence on vertebral heart scale measurements in this breed. The electronic medical record systems of two universities were reviewed and Norwich terriers were included in the study if they had orthogonal thoracic radiographs performed and no historical or radiographic evidence of cardiopulmonary disease. A vertebral heart scale was calculated for each patient. Sixty-one client-owned, Norwich terrier dogs with no clinical signs of cardiovascular disease were evaluated. The vertebral heart scale for Norwich terriers without evidence of cardiac disease (10.6 ± 0.6) was found to be significantly greater than the canine reference value of 9.7 ± 0.5 initially established by Buchanan and Bücheler. No significant correlation was found between clinical signs of respiratory disease, sex, age, thoracic depth-to-width ratio or lateral recumbency, and vertebral heart scale. Norwich terriers with a body condition score ≥6 had a significantly higher vertebral heart scale than those with a body condition score ≤5. Breed-specific ranges and body condition scores need to be considered when interpreting vertebral heart scale values for Norwich terriers.


Assuntos
Cães/anatomia & histologia , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Coração/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 47(1): 88-94, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669142

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the anatomy of the serratus plane in dogs to establish the optimal landmarks for a superficial serratus plane (SSP) block and evaluate ropivacaine-methylene blue solution dispersion with three volumes of injection. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective experimental cadaveric study. ANIMALS: A formaldehyde solution-preserved dog cadaver and 15 frozen/thawed adult dog cadavers. METHODS: The thoracic wall of the formaldehyde-preserved cadaver was dissected. An SSP injection was performed on each hemithorax of the cadavers, with the ultrasound transducer placed over the fourth and fifth ribs, at the level of the shoulder joint. A needle was inserted in-plane in a caudocranial direction until it could be visualized between the serratus ventralis thoracis and latissimus dorsi muscles. Dog cadavers were injected with a ropivacaine-methylene blue solution at 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 mL kg-1 and were dissected to determine the spread of the dye. RESULTS: The thoracic wall muscles identified in the formalinized cadaver were the cutaneous trunci, latissimus dorsi, external abdominal oblique, serratus ventralis thoracis, scalenus, serratus dorsalis cranialis and external intercostal. The nerves identified in the SSP included the lateral cutaneous branches of intercostal nerves, intercostobrachial nerves and long thoracic nerve. The solution was successfully injected at the SSP in 26 of 29 (89.7%) attempts. Dermatomal dye spread, median (range), was 4 (3-6), 4 (2-5) and 5 (4-8) for 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 mL kg-1, respectively, with no significant difference among them. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Injections for an SSP block were easily performed under ultrasound guidance, using the fourth and fifth ribs at the level of the shoulder joint as reference landmarks. An injected volume of 0.3 mL kg-1 may be sufficient for hemithorax analgesia in dogs. Further studies in dogs are required to determine the utility of this technique.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Cães/anatomia & histologia , Azul de Metileno/administração & dosagem , Bloqueio Nervoso/veterinária , Ropivacaina/administração & dosagem , Parede Torácica/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Cadáver , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/veterinária
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