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1.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 50(1): 135-153, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635915

RESUMO

Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) is a biologically friendly approach to fracture reduction and stabilization that is applicable to many radius and ulna fractures in small animals. An appropriate knowledge of the anatomy of the antebrachium and careful preoperative planning are essential. This article describes the MIPO technique, which entails stabilization of the fractured radius with a bone plate and screws that are applied without performing an extensive open surgical approach. This technique results in good outcomes, including a rapid time to union and return of function.


Assuntos
Gatos/cirurgia , Cães/cirurgia , Membro Anterior/cirurgia , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/veterinária , Fraturas Ósseas/veterinária , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/veterinária , Animais , Gatos/lesões , Cães/lesões , Membro Anterior/lesões , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia
2.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 50(1): 123-134, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635917

RESUMO

A thorough knowledge of humeral anatomy is critical to performing minimally invasive techniques. Fluoroscopy, when available, is invaluable in optimizing fracture repair with minimally invasive techniques. Minimally invasive approaches decrease morbidity and allow an earlier return to function. Minimally invasive fracture repair is performed using implant systems similar to open approaches.


Assuntos
Gatos/cirurgia , Cães/cirurgia , Membro Anterior/cirurgia , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/veterinária , Fraturas Ósseas/veterinária , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/veterinária , Animais , Gatos/lesões , Cães/lesões , Membro Anterior/lesões , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia
3.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 50(1): 101-121, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653537

RESUMO

This article describes the technique of percutaneous pinning in dogs and cats. Only acute fractures evaluated within the first 48 hours after trauma are selected for percutaneous pinning. Reduction is performed with careful manipulation of the fracture to minimize the trauma to the growth plate. After ensuring the fracture is reduced anatomically, smooth pins of appropriate size are inserted through stab incisions or through large-gauge needles. Depending on the anatomic location, the pins are cut flush with the bone or bent over. The main advantages of this technique are the minimal surgical trauma and lower perioperative morbidity.


Assuntos
Pinos Ortopédicos/veterinária , Gatos/cirurgia , Cães/cirurgia , Fraturas Ósseas/veterinária , Animais , Gatos/lesões , Cães/lesões , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos
4.
Aust Vet J ; 97(12): 490-498, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective is to study the correlations between physical examination and stifle radiography findings and severity of arthroscopic cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) fibre damage in dogs with cruciate rupture (CR). DESIGN: Design Prospective clinical study. METHODS: Twenty-nine client-owned dogs with CR underwent physical examination, stifle radiography and arthroscopy, and the findings were recorded. Initial examination was repeated after sedation and after general anaesthesia. The Spearman rank correlations of examination variables with diagnostic imaging were examined. RESULTS: Overall, cranial tibial translation assessed by the tibial compression test in extension showed correlation with arthroscopic CrCL fibre damage (P < 0.05). Correlations between severity of cranial drawer laxity and arthroscopic CrCL fibre damage were not significant. Under general anaesthesia, stifle laxity tests were positively correlated with lameness severity grade (SR ≥ 0.41, P < 0.05). Meniscal damage was correlated with pain on the internal rotation of the tibia (SR = 0.42, P < 0.05) and severity of radiographic osteophytosis (SR = 0.53, P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Detection and estimation of severity of cranial tibial translation enable the diagnosis of CR and also the inference of the severity of CrCL fibre rupture, particularly with the tibial compression test in extension. Severity of joint laxity is best assessed under general anaesthesia. Such knowledge should reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and may enhance early diagnosis and treatment of dogs with CR over time.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/veterinária , Cães/lesões , Coxeadura Animal/diagnóstico por imagem , Exame Físico/veterinária , Animais , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Artroscopia/veterinária , Feminino , Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Masculino , Exame Físico/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(5): 521-527, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the prognostic value of admission hematologic parameters serum/plasma iron, red blood cell distribution width (RDW), and nucleated red blood cells (nRBCs) in dogs presenting with acute traumatic injury. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study (2009-2015). SETTING: University teaching hospital. ANIMALS: One hundred and twenty-nine clinical dogs presenting within 24 hours of acute traumatic injury. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-nine dogs met the inclusion criteria and 109 (84.5%) survived, while 20 (15.5%) died or were euthanized in hospital. Patients with blunt force trauma comprised 79.8% of the patient population; dogs with penetrating trauma comprised 20.2% of cases. Hypoferremia occurred in all nonsurvivors, and the median serum/plasma iron concentration was significantly lower in nonsurvivors than survivors (P = 0.028). Normal or increased serum/plasma iron had 100% specificity and 100% positive predictive value for survival. Red blood cell distribution width was not significantly different between groups (P = 0.417). The presence of nRBCs was significantly associated with nonsurvival (P = 0.030), although the absolute nRBC concentrations were not significantly different (P = 0.070). A multiple logistic regression model found age, type of injury, presence of nRBCs, and serum/plasma iron to be independent predictors of survival with an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.813. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of nRBCs and low serum/plasma iron are associated with mortality in patients with acute trauma; however, red blood cell distribution width was not associated with survival. Absence of hypoferremia was highly associated with a favorable prognosis in this patient population. These parameters may warrant inclusion in trauma scoring systems.


Assuntos
Cães/lesões , Eritroblastos/fisiologia , Ferro/sangue , Ferimentos e Lesões/veterinária , Animais , Cães/sangue , Feminino , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/sangue
6.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(5): 578-584, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of iso-osmolar doses of 18% mannitol and 3% sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions in decreasing intracranial pressure (ICP) in animals with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). DESIGN: Prospective uncontrolled interventional study. SETTING: Veterinary university teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Two cats and 1 dog with TBI with a modified Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤8 after hemodynamic stabilization, and with brain magnetic resonance imaging changes suggestive of intracranial hypertension. INTERVENTIONS: Animals were surgically instrumented for direct ICP measurement, then randomly treated with iso-osmolar doses of 18% mannitol or 3% NaCl. Direct ICP and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were recorded both before treatment and for 120 minutes following drug administration. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Direct ICP and CPP were recorded both before treatment and at 5 additional time points following administration over the subsequent 120 minutes. Case 1 received 3% NaCl without any response to therapy; refractory posttraumatic hypertension was suspected. Case 2 was treated with 3% NaCl; ICP decreased by 40.7% and CPP increased by 15%; however, these effects were transient. Case 3 received 18% mannitol, and ICP decreased by 19% and CPP increased to normal. However, there was a rebound increase in ICP that was higher than pretreatment values, and CPP decreased slightly before it gradually increased to normal values towards the end of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Both mannitol and hypertonic saline decrease ICP and improve CPP, but the effect observed in this pilot study suggests that there might be differences in the duration of these effects. Appropriately designed studies in a larger and homogeneous population are warranted to further investigate these findings.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos/lesões , Diuréticos Osmóticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães/lesões , Hemorragias Intracranianas/veterinária , Manitol/uso terapêutico , Solução Salina Hipertônica/uso terapêutico , Animais , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico por imagem , Diuréticos Osmóticos/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Hemorragias Intracranianas/tratamento farmacológico , Pressão Intracraniana , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Masculino , Manitol/administração & dosagem , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Solução Salina Hipertônica/administração & dosagem
7.
Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol ; 32(4): 341-350, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319432

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the outcome and complications of surgical stabilization following fracture of the supraglenoid tubercle in dogs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from three referral centres (Queen Mother Hospital for Animals, Michigan State University and Veterinary Referral Hospital Hallam) were reviewed retrospectively for cases of supraglenoid tubercle fracture (n = 12). RESULTS: Overall success rate was 9/12. Major complication rate was 2/12 and minor complication rate was 9/12. All fractures that had major complications were comminuted. Methods of stabilization included pin and tension band wire (n = 5), lag screw (n = 2), plate fixation (n = 2), fragment removal (n = 2) and conservative management (n = 1). CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Good outcomes can be achieved following fractures of the supraglenoid tubercle, although cases with comminution have a higher complication rate. Further research into the optimal method of fixation and postoperative management is required.


Assuntos
Cães/lesões , Cães/cirurgia , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/veterinária , Fraturas Ósseas/veterinária , Escápula/lesões , Animais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escápula/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 60(5): 575-585, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357247

RESUMO

Fluorine-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) provides physiologic images of tissues based on their glucose metabolism. The combination of FDG PET and CT (FDG PET-CT) has been utilized in human musculoskeletal imaging to localize soft tissue lesions, however, this modality has not been thoroughly investigated for the diagnosis of canine lameness. This prospective, descriptive study evaluated FDG PET-CT findings in 25 client-owned dogs with inconclusive origin of thoracic or pelvic limb lameness (thoracic limb n = 15/25, 60%; pelvic limb n = 6/25, 24%; and combination of both limbs n = 4/25, 16%). We hypothesized that FDG PET-CT would aid the detection of soft tissue lesions not visible with other imaging modalities. Combined FDG PET-CT detected soft tissue lesions in 40% (n = 10/25) and osteoarthritis in 64% (n = 16/25) of the patients. FDG PET detected more soft tissue lesions than contrast-enhanced CT (n = 15/15, 100% and n = 12/15, 80%, respectively), while CT identified more osteoarthritis lesions than FDG PET (n = 26/26, 100% and n = 18/26, 69%, respectively). The three imaging-diagnoses based on the FDG PET component included the following: flexor carpi ulnaris muscle tear, psoas major myopathy, and tarsal desmopathy. No diagnosis for the lameness was obtained in three dogs. Findings supported FDG PET-CT as a useful adjunct imaging modality for detection of certain soft tissue injuries of the musculoskeletal system. Combined FDG PET-CT should be considered for cases where the cause of lameness is thought to be of soft tissue origin and cannot be diagnosed by conventional means.


Assuntos
Cães/lesões , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/administração & dosagem , Coxeadura Animal/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/veterinária , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Membro Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Membro Anterior/patologia , Membro Posterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Membro Posterior/patologia , Coxeadura Animal/patologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
N Z Vet J ; 67(5): 270-276, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234729

RESUMO

AIMS: To report the clinical outcomes and complications after the use of 3.5 mm/2.7 mm locking compression plates (LCP) with additional internal fixation for pancarpal arthrodesis (PCA) in dogs. METHODS: This was a retrospective study using medical records from a single orthopaedic referral hospital between December 2015 and April 2018. The inclusion criteria were the use of a dorsally applied LCP for PCA in dogs with a minimum follow-up period of 12 months. Additional crossed 2.7 or 3.5 mm cortical screws or Kirschner wires were placed in all limbs to further stabilise the joints. A light dressing without external coaptation was applied postoperatively to all limbs. Postoperative lameness assessment was recorded at the last clinical evaluation. RESULTS: Twelve dogs with 13 arthrodesed limbs were included, with carpal hyperextension injury being the most common indication for surgery (4/13; 31%). One dog was recorded with a minor complication, which was a metacarpal fracture distal to the bone plate. Major complications were observed in 4/13 (31%) limbs, with surgical site infection being recorded in all four limbs and screw loosening in one limb. No implant failure was reported. At the final clinical evaluation (43-437 days after surgery), none or mechanical lameness was recorded in 9/13 (69%) limbs, mild lameness in 3/13 (23%) limbs, and moderate lameness in one 1/13 (8%) limb. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Locking plate and screw fixation with additional internal fixation resulted in comparable complication and infection rates in canine PCA to previous published studies using hybrid dynamic compression plates. No implant failure was reported for any of the limbs despite the use of a light dressing without external coaptation.


Assuntos
Artrodese/veterinária , Ossos do Carpo/cirurgia , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Coxeadura Animal/cirurgia , Animais , Artrodese/métodos , Placas Ósseas , Parafusos Ósseos , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Cães/lesões , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Fraturas Ósseas/veterinária , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/veterinária , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
10.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 34(4): 422-427, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244449

RESUMO

Three states and one county now allow Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers to transport injured law enforcement K9s (LEK9s) as long as no human needs the ambulance at the time. Several other states either have pending legislation or are in discussions about this topic. As additional states ponder these laws, it is likely that the EMS transport of LEK9s will become legal in many states. In the wake of this legislation, a significant void was created. Currently, there are no published protocols for the safe transport of LEK9s by EMS providers. Additionally, the transport destination for these LEK9s is unlikely to be programmed into vehicle Global Positioning Systems. The authors of this report convened a Joint Task Force on Working Dog Care, consisting of veterinarians, EMS directors, EMS physicians, and LEK9 handlers, who met to develop a protocol for LEK9s being transported to a veterinary facility. The protocol covers the logistics of getting the LEK9 into the ambulance (eg, when the handler is or is not available), appropriate restraint, and the importance of prior arrangements with a veterinary emergency facility. A LEK9 hand-off form and a Transport Policy Form are provided, downloadable, and customizable for each EMS provider. This protocol provides essential information on safety and transport logistics for injured LEK9s. The hope is that this protocol will assist EMS providers to streamline the transport of an injured LEK9 to an appropriate veterinary facility.


Assuntos
Cães/lesões , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Guias como Assunto/normas , Transportes/legislação & jurisprudência , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Animais , Emergências , Hospitais Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Illinois , Aplicação da Lei , Estados Unidos
11.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 34(4): 428-437, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244452

RESUMO

This document is a resource for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) treating an injured law enforcement K9 (LEK9) in the field and/or during transport by ambulance to a veterinary hospital. A Joint Task Force on Working Dog Care was created, which included veterinarians, EMS directors, EMS physicians, and canine handlers, who met to develop a treatment protocol for injured LEK9s. The protocol covers many major life-threatening injuries that LEK9s may sustain in the line of duty, and also discusses personnel safety and necessary equipment. This protocol may help train EMS providers to save the life of an injured LEK9.


Assuntos
Cães/lesões , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/normas , Guias como Assunto , Transportes/legislação & jurisprudência , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Animais , Hospitais Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Illinois , Aplicação da Lei , Estados Unidos
12.
Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol ; 32(5): 401-407, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216586

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the use of locking compression plates (LCP) in Y-T humeral condyle fractures and to evaluate their clinical outcome. METHODS: This study involved a retrospective review, including clinical, radiographical and canine brief pain inventory outcome evaluation. RESULTS: Eighteen consecutive dogs met the inclusion criteria, and 15/18 were considered to have humeral intracondylar fissure. Twelve of 18 dogs had simple fractures, and the remaining six had comminuted fractures. Postoperative radiographs revealed accurate intracondylar reconstruction (articular step defect [ASD] < 1 mm) in 17/18 of patients. Short-term outcome was considered fully functional in 9/13 and acceptable in 3/13 patients. Complications were diagnosed in 2/13; infection in one with resolution after antibiotic treatment, and one case of implant failure. Nine of 18 owners provided postoperative questionnaire responses (median 25; range: 14-52 months) and 8/9 clients perceived the treatment to have resulted in an excellent overall outcome. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Repair of Y-T humeral fractures with LCP allowed for hybrid fixation and monocortical screw placement in distal fracture fragments. There was no significant ASD at the intracondylar fracture line in most cases. ASD using combined medial and lateral approaches depends upon the accuracy of supracondylar reduction, particularly on the side that is reduced and stabilized first, and the use of locking screws may have been influential in minimizing primary loss of reduction, potentially maintaining the initial fragment reduction.


Assuntos
Placas Ósseas/veterinária , Cães/lesões , Fraturas do Úmero/veterinária , Animais , Placas Ósseas/efeitos adversos , Cães/cirurgia , Feminino , Fraturas do Úmero/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Úmero/cirurgia , Masculino , Radiografia/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(3): 321-325, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe acute compartment syndrome (CS) of the muscles of mastication in a working dog associated with a traumatic training event. CASE SUMMARY: A 2.5-year-old male Belgian Malinois was evaluated for acute blindness, severe diffuse swelling of the head, and inability to close the jaw following a traumatic incident during a bite training drill. During the exercise, the maxillary canine teeth were locked on a bite sleeve. Magnetic resonance imaging of the head and ocular system identified diffuse muscle swelling and hyperintensity, most severe in the muscles of mastication. Ocular abnormalities were not identified. Rhabdomyolysis, CS, and indirect optic nerve injury were supported by measurement of increased intramuscular pressure. Bilateral decompressive fasciotomies over the masseter and temporalis muscles resulted in immediate and marked resolution of the swelling and jaw movement. Blindness, however, did not resolve. NEW OR UNIQUE INFORMATION PROVIDED: CS involving the muscles of mastication may occur as a complication of bite training and may result in irreversible and even life-threatening complications. Emergent decompressive fasciotomy is indicated to reverse swelling; however, visual deficits may not resolve.


Assuntos
Síndromes Compartimentais/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães/lesões , Músculo Masseter/lesões , Rabdomiólise/veterinária , Animais , Síndromes Compartimentais/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndromes Compartimentais/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Eletromiografia/veterinária , Fasciotomia/veterinária , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Rabdomiólise/diagnóstico por imagem , Rabdomiólise/fisiopatologia
14.
Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol ; 32(3): 200-206, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In human medicine, fractures of the second cervical vertebra have been studied elaborately and categorized in detail. This is not the case in veterinary medicine where clinical decisions are often based on old studies focusing on the cervical spine in general. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical features, fracture types, therapeutic options and outcome of dogs and cats with a fractured axis. STUDY DESIGN: The present study was a multi-institutional retrospective case series. RESULTS: Crossbreeds and Labrador Retrievers were the most represented dog breeds. Median age was 2 years. Motor vehicle accident was the most common inciting cause, followed by frontal collision. The most common neurological deficits ranged from cervical pain with or without mild ataxia (22/68) to tetraparesis (28/68) and tetraplegia (11/68). Concerning treatment, 37 of 69 patients underwent surgical fracture stabilization, 27/69 received conservative therapy and 5/69 were immediately euthanatized. Of all treated cases, 52/58 showed ambulatory recovery (23/25 of the conservatively treated and 29/33 of the surgically treated cases), whereby in 40/52 cases full recovery without persisting signs was achieved. CONCLUSIONS: Fractures of the axis commonly occur in young dogs. In many cases, neurological deficits are relatively mild. Generally, animals with a fractured axis have a very good prognosis for functional recovery. The risk of perioperative mortality is considerably lower than previously reported.


Assuntos
Gatos/lesões , Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Cães/lesões , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/veterinária , Acidentes de Trânsito , Animais , Gatos/cirurgia , Cães/cirurgia , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/etiologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(3): 301-308, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the utility of advanced imaging in dogs with traumatic atlantoaxial subluxation (TAAS), and to report the presentation, treatment, and outcome for these dogs. DESIGN: Retrospective study (2009-2016). SETTING: University teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Eight dogs diagnosed with TAAS with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), or both. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Eight dogs met criteria for inclusion. Of these, 6 were male, median age was 4 years (range, 1.5-11 years), and median body weight was 4.9 kg (range, 3.0-25.0 kg). On presentation, 6/8 (75%) dogs were nonambulatory tetraparetic and the most common injury was trauma inflicted by another animal 5/8 (62.5%). Diagnosis of TAAS was made using a combination of imaging modalities including vertebral column radiographs in 7/8 (87.5%) (of which 71.4% were suspicious for TAAS), CT in 7/8 (87.5%), and MRI in 7/8 (87.5%). In 7/8 (87.5%) dogs, CT and/or MRI offered additional information regarding the extent of injuries. Vertebral fractures were identified in 62.5% (5/8) of dogs. The majority of dogs underwent surgical repair (7/8 [87.5%]). The most common complication was aspiration pneumonia (3/8 [37.5%]). All 8 dogs survived to discharge. At the time of discharge, 4/8 (50%) were ambulatory tetraparetic. The 4 dogs that were nonambulatory tetraparetic at discharge progressed to being ambulatory within 2 months of surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Although TAAS is an uncommon occurrence it should be considered a differential for any trauma patient that is presenting with signs of a cranial cervical myelopathy. CT and MRI have been shown to be useful to identify the extent of injuries and to facilitate surgical planning. With appropriate care, these dogs can have an excellent prognosis.


Assuntos
Articulação Atlantoaxial/lesões , Cães/lesões , Luxações Articulares/veterinária , Animais , Articulação Atlantoaxial/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Luxações Articulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
16.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(5): 461-468, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034268

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate recovery of limb function by use of gait force analysis after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) in dogs with unilateral cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) rupture. ANIMALS: 19 dogs with unilateral CrCL rupture treated with TPLO. PROCEDURES: Force plate gait analysis was performed before and 1, 2, 4, and 7 months after TPLO. Ground reaction forces (GRFs; which comprised peak vertical force [PVF], vertical impulse [VI], peak braking force, braking impulse, peak propulsion force [PPF], and propulsion impulse), time to switching from braking to propulsion, and vector magnitude at PVF in the forelimbs and hind limbs were evaluated. RESULTS: GRFs in the affected hind limb were significantly lower than in the contralateral hind limb before TPLO. These variables, except for PPF, were not significantly different 7 months after TPLO. Time to the switching point in the affected hind limb was significantly less from before to 2 months after TPLO. Vector magnitude at PVF had a similar pattern as PVF and VI during the recovery process. The PVF in the ipsilateral forelimb was significantly higher than in the contralateral forelimb before TPLO. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A similar pattern was detected between PVF or VI and craniocaudal force during recovery of dogs that underwent TPLO. Rupture of he CrCl resulted in a decrease in GRFs in the affected hind limb as well as in the switching point and PVF of limbs. However, weight distribution for the craniocaudal force was normalized before PVF or VI. Vector magnitude at PVF might be effectively evaluated by combining vertical force and craniocaudal force.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/veterinária , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Cães/lesões , Extremidades/fisiologia , Análise da Marcha/veterinária , Osteotomia/veterinária , Animais , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Cães/cirurgia , Feminino , Membro Anterior , Análise da Marcha/métodos , Membro Posterior , Masculino , Ruptura/veterinária , Tíbia/cirurgia
17.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(5): 469-479, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034275

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare joint stability and ultimate strength among 4 prosthetic ligament constructs for repair of tarsal medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury in dogs. SAMPLE: 13 canine cadavers (26 hind limbs). PROCEDURES: Each limb was stripped of all soft tissues except those associated with the tarsal joint and assigned to 1 of 4 prosthetic ligament constructs. The AN construct consisted of 3 bone anchors connected with monofilament nylon suture. The AU construct consisted of low-profile suture anchors connected with multifilament ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) suture. The TN and TU constructs involved the creation of 3 bone tunnels and use of nylon or UHMWPE suture, respectively. Each limb underwent biomechanical testing before and after MCL transection and before and after cyclic range-of-motion testing following completion of the assigned construct. Tarsal joint stability (extent of laxity) was assessed with the joint in each of 3 positions (75°, 135°, and 165°). After completion of biomechanical testing, each limb was tested to failure to determine the ultimate strength of the construct. RESULTS: Relative to intact tarsal joints, joint laxity was significantly increased following completion of all 4 constructs. Construct type was not associated with the magnitude of change in joint laxity. Ultimate strength was greatest for the UHMWPE-suture constructs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicated that all 4 constructs effectively stabilized MCL-deficient tarsal joints. Implants used for the TU, TN, and AU constructs had a lower profile than those used for the AN construct, which may be clinically advantageous. In vivo studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Membros Artificiais/veterinária , Ligamentos Colaterais/lesões , Ligamentos Colaterais/cirurgia , Cães/lesões , Cães/cirurgia , Técnicas de Sutura/veterinária , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cadáver , Instabilidade Articular , Polietilenos , Âncoras de Sutura/veterinária , Suturas/veterinária
18.
Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol ; 32(4): 324-331, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the prevalence and to identify the risk factors associated with postoperative tibial tuberosity fracture following a triple tibial osteotomy. This article also evaluates the outcome of these patients treated conservatively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of 100 dogs (113 limbs) that underwent triple tibial osteotomy procedure were evaluated. Information obtained included signalment, preoperative, immediate postoperative and 6-week postoperative radiographic findings, intraoperative and postoperative complications. Long-term outcome was assessed using an owner questionnaire. RESULTS: Postoperative tibial tuberosity fracture was identified in 25/113 stifles. The only variable associated with the presence or absence of postoperative tibial tuberosity fracture within 6 weeks of surgery was postoperative cortical hinge width (CHW) or an indexed value of CHW to tibial width (TW). Using either a cut-off value of CHW of ≥ 5.5 mm or a cut-off value of CHW/TW of ≥ 0.21, only 1/27 stifle in our study developed tibial tuberosity fracture. Long-term owner evaluation of outcome was considered excellent or good in 65/70 stifles. CONCLUSION: A narrow CHW at the distal cortical attachment of the tibial crest had a strong association with the development of postoperative tibial tuberosity fracture. No other patient or surgical variables were associated with tibial tuberosity fracture. Patients that developed tibial tuberosity fracture and were conservatively managed did not have a worse clinical outcome than patients that did not develop tibial tuberosity fracture.


Assuntos
Cães/lesões , Cães/cirurgia , Osteotomia/veterinária , Joelho de Quadrúpedes/cirurgia , Fraturas da Tíbia/veterinária , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Masculino , Osteotomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/veterinária , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tíbia/cirurgia , Fraturas da Tíbia/cirurgia
19.
J Vet Sci ; 20(2): e10, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944533

RESUMO

Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence used for evaluating traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although SWI is being increasingly used in veterinary medicine, there are no systematic studies regarding its use. We aimed to evaluate TBI lesions by using conventional MRI and SWI in 11 dogs and determine the correlation between clinical status and conventional MRI or SWI findings. The modified Glasgow coma scale (MGCS) at presentation and a previously used MRI grading system (MRGr; grades 1-6) were used to evaluate the brain lesions, and correlations between MGCS score and each MRGr were assessed. Conventional MRI revealed 23 lesions in 11 dogs with variable MGCS scores (range: 11-17). SWI showed comparable findings for all of the lesions except for subdural hemorrhage, and it revealed additional lesions in four dogs. The median MRGr was 2 on both conventional MRI and SWI. The MRGr of the conventional MRI assessments and the MGCS scores showed a significant negative correlation (r = -0.685). In conclusion, SWI had better TBI lesion-detection ability, but conventional MRI had a better correlation with early clinical status and subdural hemorrhage. Thus, a combination of conventional MRI and SWI examinations can improve TBI diagnosis in dogs.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/veterinária , Cães/lesões , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow/veterinária , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Neuroimagem/veterinária
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 76, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dacryocystitis is an inflammation of the lacrimal drainage system. One of the most common causes of dacryocystitis in dogs is due to plant-based foreign bodies typically located in the lacrimal sac. The aim of this case series was to describe an ultrasonography-guided technique for dogs with plant-based foreign bodies in the lacrimal sac, as both a diagnostic and therapeutic tool. CASE PRESENTATION: Four dogs with clinically suspected plant-based foreign body in the lacrimal sac (with a total of five eyes affected) were evaluated by ultrasound with a multifrequency (8-14 MHz) linear probe. Under general anesthesia, the foreign body was removed using Hartmann alligator forceps inserted thorough the upper puncta. Ultrasound was used to guide the forceps in grasping the foreign body. Ultrasound was positive in four out of five lacrimal sac diseases. All identified foreign bodies were successfully removed by the ultrasonography-guided technique. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that ultrasound is a fast, non-invasive, and inexpensive method for the assessment of dacryocystitis due to foreign bodies in dogs. Ultrasound is also useful not only for identification, but also in the non-invasive removal of the foreign body from the lacrimal sac. To the best of authors' knowledge, this is the first study to describe the sonographic approach to the palpebral medial cantus as an initial diagnostic step in canine dacriocystitis.


Assuntos
Dacriocistite/veterinária , Cães/lesões , Corpos Estranhos/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Animais , Dacriocistite/diagnóstico por imagem , Dacriocistite/cirurgia , Cães/cirurgia , Feminino , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpos Estranhos/cirurgia , Masculino , Ducto Nasolacrimal/diagnóstico por imagem , Ducto Nasolacrimal/cirurgia , Estruturas Vegetais
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