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1.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(9): 5040-5047, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804603

RESUMO

A fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase-positive strain (GSD1FST) was isolated from a faecal sample of a 3 weeks old German Shepherd dog. The closest related taxa to isolate GSD1FST based on results from the EZBioCloud database were Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. animalis ATCC 25527T, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis DSM 10140T and Bifidobacterium anseris LMG 30189T, belonging to the Bifidobacterium pseudolongum phylogenetic group. The resulting 16S rRNA gene identities (compared length of 1454 nucleotides) towards these taxa were 97.30, 97.23 and 97.09 %, respectively. The pairwise similarities of strain GSD1FST using argS, atpA, fusA, hsp60, pyrG, rpsC, thrS and xfp gene fragments to all valid representatives of the B. pseudolongum phylogenetic group were in the concatenated range of 83.08-88.34 %. Phylogenomic analysis based on whole-genome methods such as average nucleotide identity revealed that bifidobacterial strain GSD1FST exhibits close phylogenetic relatedness (88.17 %) to Bifidobacetrium cuniculi LMG 10738T. Genotypic characteristics and phylogenetic analyses based on nine molecular markers, as well as genomic and comparative phenotypic analyses, clearly proved that the evaluated strain should be considered as representing a novel species within the B. pseudolongum phylogenetic group named as Bifidobacterium canis sp. nov. (GSD1FST=DSM 105923T=LMG 30345T=CCM 8806T).


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/classificação , Cães/microbiologia , Filogenia , Aldeído Liases , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Genes Bacterianos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237874, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804973

RESUMO

The characterization of the microbial population of many niches of the organism, as the gastrointestinal tract, is now possible thanks to the use of high-throughput DNA sequencing technique. Several studies in the companion animals field already investigated faecal microbiome in healthy or affected subjects, although the methodologies used in the different laboratories and the limited number of animals recruited in each experiment does not allow a straight comparison among published results. In the present study, we report data collected from several in house researches carried out in healthy dogs, with the aim to seek for a variability of microbial taxa in the faeces, caused by factors such as diet and sex. The database contains 340 samples from 132 dogs, collected serially during dietary intervention studies. The procedure of samples collection, storage, DNA extraction and sequencing, bioinformatic and statistical analysis followed a standardized pipeline. Microbial profiles of faecal samples have been analyzed applying dimensional reduction discriminant analysis followed by random forest analysis to the relative abundances of genera in the feces as variables. The results supported the responsiveness of microbiota at a genera taxonomic level to dietary factor and allowed to cluster dogs according this factor with high accuracy. Also sex factor clustered dogs, with castrated males and spayed females forming a separated group in comparison to intact dogs, strengthening the hypothesis of a bidirectional interaction between microbiota and endocrine status of the host. The findings of the present analysis are promising for a better comprehension of the mechanisms that regulate the connection of the microorganisms living the gastrointestinal tract with the diet and the host. This preliminary study deserves further investigation for the identification of the factors affecting faecal microbiome in dogs.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Cães/microbiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Microbiota , Algoritmos , Animais , Análise Discriminante , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Análise de Componente Principal
3.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 23(1, cont.): e2312, 20200000. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129315

RESUMO

A erliquiose é uma doença riquetsial infecciosa causada por uma bactéria, pertencente ao gênero Ehrlichia, muito comum em cães e considerada uma importante hemoparasitose. Devido sua relevância na população canina e fácil transmissão por meio de carrapatos, mostra-se necessário conhecer melhor os aspectos epidemiológicos desta doença. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de Ehrlichia canis e os aspectos hematológicos em cães de abrigos temporários, de associações de proteção aos animais abandonados, nos municípios de Palotina e Guaíra, no Paraná. No total, 60 cães foram submetidos à coleta de amostras sanguíneas, para realização de hemograma e imunoflourescência indireta para detecção dos anticorpos anti-E. canis. A prevalência encontrada foi de 60% (36/60), não houve correlação positiva com relação ao sexo dos animais, presença de carrapatos ou trombocitopenia. Os dados revelam uma alta prevalência desta doença parasitária em cães de abrigos e a necessidade do estabelecimento de medidas de controle dos agentes transmissores.(AU)


Ehrlichiosis is an infectious ricketsial disease caused by bacteria belonging to the Ehrlichia genus. It is very common in dogs and is considered as an important hemoparasitosis. Due to its relevance in the canine population and its easy transmission through ticks, it is necessary to further understand the epidemiological aspects of the disease. This study aimed at evaluating the prevalence of Ehrlichia canis and the hematological aspects in dogs from temporary shelters and associations for the protection of abandoned animals in the cities of Palotina and Guaíra, in the state of Paraná. Blood samples were collected from 60 dogs for blood count and indirect immunofluorescence testing, and detection of anti-E. canis antibodies. A prevalence of 60% (36/60) was found, with no positive correlation regarding the gender of the animals, presence of ticks, or thrombocytopenia. The data reveal a high prevalence of this parasitic disease in shelter dogs and the need to establish control measures related to the transmitting agents.(AU)


Ehrlichiosis es una enfermedad ricketsial infecciosa causada por una bacteria perteneciente al género Ehrlichia, muy frecuente en perros y considerada una importante hemoparasitaria. Debido a su relevancia en la población canina y fácil transmisión a través de garrapatas, es necesario conocer mejor los aspectos epidemiológicos de esta enfermedad. Este estudio tenía como objetivo evaluar la prevalencia de Ehrlichia canis, así como los aspectos hematológicos para la protección de animales abandonados en los municipios de Palotina y Guaíra, Paraná. Un total de 60 perros fueron sometidos a muestras de sangre para el recuento sanguíneo y la inmunoflourescencia indirecta detección de anticuerpos anti-E canis. La prevalencia encontrada fue del 60% (36/60), sin correlación positiva con la el sexo de los animales, la presencia de garrapatas o trombocitopenia. Los datos revelan una alta prevalencia de esta enfermedad parasitaria en perros refugio y la necesidad de establecer medidas de control para los agentes transmisores.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Prevalência , Ehrlichia canis/patogenicidade , Cães/microbiologia , Abrigo
4.
Chin J Nat Med ; 18(6): 446-459, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503736

RESUMO

Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo (D. officinale) is a famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). A mixture of D. officinale and American ginseng has been shown to enhance cell-mediated immunity, humoral immunity, and monocyte/macrophage functions in mice. Here, the effects of a D. officinale and American ginseng mixture on the structure of gut microbial community in dogs were examined using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The data revealed that while the mixture did not change the diversity of gut microbial community significantly, differences among individuals were significantly reduced. Furthermore, the mixture-responsive operational taxonomic units (OTUs) exhibited a phase-dependent expression pattern. Fifty-five OTUs were found to exhibit a mixture-induced expression pattern, among which one third were short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing genera and the others were probiotic genera included Lactobacillus spp., Sutterella, Alistipes, Anaerovorax, Bilophila, Coprococcus, Gordonibacter, Oscillibacter, among others. By contrast, 36% of the OTUs exhibiting a mixture-repressed expression pattern were disease-associated microorganisms, and six genera, namely Actinomyces, Escherichia/Shigella, Fusobacterium, Slackia, Streptococcus and Solobacterium, were associated with cancer. In addition, five genera were closely associated with diabetes, namely Collinsella, Rothia, Howardella, Slackia and Intestinibacter. Our results indicate that this D. officinale and American ginseng mixture may be used as a prebiotic agent to enhance SCFA-producing genera and prevent gut dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Dendrobium/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Panax/química , Animais , Cães/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
5.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497185

RESUMO

The outer cell wall of yeast is characterized by high levels of ß-glucans and mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS), which have been linked with beneficial effects on intestinal health and immune status in dogs. In this study, a standardized in vitro simulation of the canine gastrointestinal tract (Simulator of the Canine Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem; SCIME) was used to evaluate the effect of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based product, consisting of 27.5% ß-glucans and 22.5% MOS, on the activity (as assessed by measurement of fermentative metabolites) and composition (as assessed by 16S-targeted Illumina sequencing) of canine intestinal microbiota. The S. cerevisiae-based product was tested at three different dosages, i.e., 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/d. A dose-dependent fermentation pattern was observed along the entire length of the colon, as shown by the increased production of the health-related acetate, propionate, and butyrate for the three concentrations tested (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/d). A consistent finding for all three tested concentrations was the increased propionate production (P < 0.05) in the simulated proximal and distal colon. These changes in terms of fermentative metabolites could be linked to specific microbial alterations at the family level, such as the specific stimulation of the propionate-producing families Porphyromonadaceae and Prevotellaceae upon in vitro exposure to the S. cerevisiae-based product. Other consistent changes in community composition upon repeated exposure included the decrease in the Enterobacteriaceae and the Fusobacteriaceae families, which both contain several potentially opportunistic pathogens. Altogether, the generated data support a possible health-promoting role of a product high in ß-glucans and MOS when supplemented to the dogs' diet.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Cães/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mananas/farmacologia , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Animais , Parede Celular/química , Dieta/veterinária , Cães/microbiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fermentação , Fusobactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Fermento Seco/química
6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234313, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516320

RESUMO

The ocular surface microbiome of veterinary species has not been thoroughly characterized using molecular-based techniques, such as next generation sequencing (NGS), as the vast majority of studies have utilized traditional culture-based techniques. To date, there is one pilot study evaluating the ocular surface of healthy dogs using NGS. Furthermore, alterations in the ocular surface microbiome over time and after topical antibiotic treatment are unknown. The objectives of this study were to describe the bacterial composition of the ocular surface microbiome in clinically normal dogs, and to determine if microbial community changes occur over time or following topical antibiotic therapy. Topical neomycin-polymyxin-bacitracin ophthalmic ointment was applied to one eye each of 13 adult dogs three times daily for seven days, while contralateral eyes served as untreated controls. The inferior conjunctival fornix of both eyes was sampled via swabbing at baseline prior to antibiotic therapy (day 0), after 1 week of treatment (day 7), and 4 weeks after discontinuing treatment (day 35). Genomic DNA was extracted from the conjunctival swabs and primers targeting the V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes were used to generate amplicon libraries, which were then sequenced on an Illumina platform. Data were analyzed using Quantitative Insights Into Molecular Ecology (QIIME 2.0). At baseline, the most relatively abundant phyla sequenced were Proteobacteria (49.7%), Actinobacteria (25.5%), Firmicutes (12%), Bacteroidetes (7.5%), and Fusobacteria (1.4%). The most common families detected were Pseudomonadaceae (13.2%), Micrococcaceae (12%), Pasteurellaceae (6.9%), Microbacteriaceae (5.2%), Enterobacteriaceae (3.9%), Neisseriaceae (3.5%), and Corynebacteriaceae (3.3%). Alpha and beta diversity measurements did not differ in both control and treatment eyes over time. This report examines the temporal stability of the canine ocular surface microbiome. The major bacterial taxa on the canine ocular surface remained consistent over time and following topical antibiotic therapy.


Assuntos
Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/genética , Administração Tópica , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Bacitracina/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Túnica Conjuntiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Primers do DNA , Cães/microbiologia , Olho/microbiologia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Masculino , Neomicina/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares , Polimixinas/farmacologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397230

RESUMO

Animal-assisted interventions are widely implemented in different contexts worldwide. Particularly, animal-assisted therapies and animal-assisted activities are often implemented in hospitals, rehabilitation centers, and other health facilities. These interventions bring several benefits to patients but can also expose them to the risk of infection with potentially zoonotic agents. The dog is the main animal species involved used in these interventions. Therefore, we aimed at collecting data regarding the occurrence of the pathogens ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp.) in dogs, in order to draft guidelines concerning the possible monitoring of dogs involved in animal-assisted therapies and animal-assisted activities in healthcare facilities. We performed a literature search using the PRISMA guidelines to examine three databases: PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus. Out of 2604 records found, 52 papers were identified as eligible for inclusion in the review/meta-analysis. Sixteen papers reported data on E. faecium; 16 on S. aureus; nine on K. pneumoniae; four on A. baumannii; eight on P. aeruginosa; and six on Enterobacter spp. This work will contribute to increased awareness to the potential zoonotic risks posed by the involvement of dogs in animal-assisted therapies, and animal-assisted activities in healthcare facilities.


Assuntos
Terapia Assistida com Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Cães/microbiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Acinetobacter baumannii , Animais , Antibacterianos , Enterobacter , Enterococcus faecium , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus , Zoonoses/microbiologia
8.
South Med J ; 113(5): 240-249, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358619

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease with symptoms in humans and animals, ranging from subclinical to serious and fatal. The disease occurs worldwide, but there is limited recognition of the public and animal health risks it poses in the southern United States. A systematic review of the frequency of animal leptospirosis in 17 states and jurisdictions covering the southern continental United States was performed to advance our understanding of the pathogen's distribution and identify transmission patterns that could be targeted for prevention efforts. Fifty-two articles, spanning >100 years, met the analysis criteria. A wide range of techniques were used to measure seroprevalence and isolate the bacteria. The assessment identified exposure to Leptospira spp and Leptospira spp infection among a diverse range of species, spanning 22 animal families within 14 states, suggesting that the pathogen is distributed throughout the southern region. Disease frequency trends were assessed among animals in various habitats (all habitats, nonwild habitats, and wild habitats). The frequency of Leptospira spp detection in animals in wild habitats increased slightly over time (<0.2%/year). We identified reports of 11 human leptospirosis illness clusters and outbreaks in the southern United States. Exposure to potentially contaminated surface waters were documented for at least seven of the events, and interactions with infected or likely infected animals were documented for at least six of the events. This analysis highlights the need for stronger partnerships across the public and animal health fields to enhance diagnostics, surveillance, and reporting. The early identification of leptospirosis in animals may serve as an indicator of environmental contamination and trigger prevention measures, such as vaccinating companion animals and livestock, use of potable water, and the wearing of waterproof protective clothing near water that may be contaminated.


Assuntos
Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Gatos/microbiologia , Bovinos/microbiologia , Cervos/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Humanos , Gado/microbiologia , Mephitidae/microbiologia , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Roedores/microbiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Suínos/microbiologia
9.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 18, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334616

RESUMO

Sweden has a long tradition of monitoring occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in both animals and humans, but there currently is no organised and harmonized monitoring on carriage of Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase (pAmpC), or methicillin-resistant coagulase positive staphylococci e.g. methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) in dogs. The aim of the current study was therefore to determine the prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae and methicillin-resistant coagulase positive staphylococci in healthy dogs in Sweden, and to phenotypically and genotypically characterize any identified isolates. It was shown that 0.9% (95% confident interval 0.3-2.7%) of the dogs (n = 325) carried multi-resistant ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, but that no methicillin-resistant coagulase positive staphylococci could be detected. In conclusion, the occurrence of multi-drug resistant bacteria remains rare among healthy dogs in Sweden. In addition, the ESBL-producing E. coli identified showed genetic characteristics related to those reported from humans.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cefalosporinase/metabolismo , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/classificação , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Genótipo , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Suécia/epidemiologia
10.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 70: 101471, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208190

RESUMO

In this study, the isolation of Acinetobacter baumannii in a dog with clinical bilateral otitis externa is described. Moreover, to investigate the zoonotic potential of the isolate, microbiological examinations on the family members were performed. An A. baumanniistrain was isolated from nasal swab in one of the dog owners. The identity of bacterial strains, either from dog and owner, was confirmed by phenotypic and molecular typing (wgMLST). Furthermore, to assess the pathogenic potential of the isolates a deep characterization of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes was done by Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS). Finally, the susceptibility towards a wide panel of antimicrobials was investigated. In our knowledge, this is the first recorded case of A. baumanniiisolation from canine auricular swabs in Italy. And interestingly, this study underlines the possible spread of this microorganism from human to animal.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/veterinária , Acinetobacter baumannii/classificação , Cães/microbiologia , Otite Externa/microbiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Acinetobacter/transmissão , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nariz/microbiologia , Propriedade , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Zoonoses/microbiologia
11.
Vet Rec ; 187(4): e28, 2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus D2/CSL (CECT 4529) probiotic strain on nutritional status and faecal and microbiological parameters in a group of purebred boxers. METHODS: Forty healthy adult boxer dogs were randomly assigned to a treated (LACTO) group receiving a commercial diet supplemented with L acidophilus D2/CSL (CECT 4529) to a final concentration of 5.0 x 109 colony-forming unit/kg of food, and a control (CTR) group receiving the same diet but without the probiotic (placebo). Nutritional status (body weight, skinfold thickness, body condition score) and faecal quality parameters were analysed. RESULTS: No differences in body weight and skin thickness were found during the whole experimental period. Dogs in the LACTO group showed a significantly higher body condition score than those in the CTR group (4.86±0.55 v 4.65±0.65), and no significant differences were recorded in body weight and skinfold thickness. The LACTO group showed a significantly lower faecal moisture (in per cent) compared with the CTR group (0.67±0.007 v 0.69±0.007). Faecal hardness (in kg) was higher in the LACTO group than in the CTR group (0.86±0.047 v 0.70±0.051), and faecal score also improved in the LACTO group (3.78±0.95 v 4.25±0.91). A significant difference in total Escherichia coli counts as well as in lactobacilli counts between the CTR and LACTO groups was only detected at 28 days. CONCLUSION: Supplementation of L acidophilus D2/CSL (CECT 4529) significantly improved the nutritional status and faecal parameters of dogs.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães/microbiologia , Cães/fisiologia , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(4): 2648-2656, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209168

RESUMO

From a phlegmon in a dog an aerobic and facultatively anaerobic, indole-, oxidase- and catalase-negative, non-motile bacterium was isolated in 2019 in Germany that stained Gram-negative and showed a pleomorphic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming appearance. Based on the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, strain IHIT1603-19T was assigned to the genus Streptobacillus with sequence similarities of 98.6, 98.0, 97.9, 97.1 and 94.4 % to the type strains of Streptobacillus felis, Streptobacillus notomytis, Streptobacillus ratti, Streptobacillus moniliformis and Streptobacillus hongkongensis, respectively. Strain IHIT1603-19T could also clearly be differentiated from other Streptobacillus species by rpoB, groEL and recA gene, nucleotide and amino acid sequence analyses as well as by core genome phylogeny. Regarding DNA-DNA relatedness, strain IHIT1603-19T demonstrated an average nucleotide identity of 83.00 and 82.28 % compared to S. felis 131000547T and S. moniliformis DSM 12112T, respectively. Chemotaxonomic and physiological data of strain IHIT1603-19T were in congruence with other closely related members of the family Leptotrichiaceae, represented by highly similar enzyme profiles and fatty acid patterns. MALDI-TOF MS analysis also proved suitable in unequivocally discriminating strain IHIT1603-19T from all currently described taxa of the genus Streptobacillus. On the basis of these data, we propose the novel species Streptobacillus canis sp. nov. with the type strain IHIT1603-19T (=DSM 110501T=CCUG 74118T=CIP 111795T). The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain is 26.6 mol%, genome size is 1.60 Mbp.


Assuntos
Cães/microbiologia , Filogenia , Streptobacillus/classificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Genes Bacterianos , Alemanha , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Streptobacillus/isolamento & purificação
13.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(7)2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005736

RESUMO

During the course of evolution, dogs and cats have been subjected to extensive domestication, becoming the principal companion animals for humans. For this reason, their health care, including their intestinal microbiota, is considered of considerable importance. However, the canine and feline gut microbiota still represent a largely unexplored research area. In the present work, we profiled the microbiota of 23 feline fecal samples by 16S rRNA gene and bifidobacterial internally transcribed spacer (ITS) approaches and compared this information with previously reported data from 138 canine fecal samples. The obtained data allowed the reconstruction of the core gut microbiota of the above-mentioned samples coupled with their classification into distinct community state types at both genus and species levels, identifying Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, and Prevotella 9 as the main bacterial components of the canine and feline gut microbiota. At the species level, the intestinal bifidobacterial gut communities of dogs and cats differed in terms of both species number and composition, as emphasized by a covariance analysis. Together, our findings show that the intestinal populations of cats and dogs are similar in terms of genus-level taxonomical composition, while at the bifidobacterial species level, clear differences were observed, indicative of host-specific colonization behavior by particular bifidobacterial taxa.IMPORTANCE Currently, domesticated dogs and cats are the most cherished companion animals for humans, and concerns about their health and well-being are therefore important. In this context, the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in maintaining and promoting host health. However, despite the social relevance of domesticated dogs and cats, their intestinal microbial communities are still far from being completely understood. In this study, the taxonomical composition of canine and feline gut microbiota was explored at genus and bifidobacterial species levels, allowing classification of these microbial populations into distinct gut community state types at either of the two investigated taxonomic levels. Furthermore, the reconstruction of core gut microbiota coupled with covariance network analysis based on bifidobacterial internally transcribed spacer (ITS) profiling revealed differences in the bifidobacterial compositions of canine and feline gut microbiota, suggesting that particular bifidobacterial species have developed a selective ability to colonize a specific host.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Gatos/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/análise , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
14.
Microb Ecol ; 79(1): 164-174, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049616

RESUMO

Staphylococci are important opportunistic pathogens in human and veterinary medicine in addition to being part of the normal flora of the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. The rise of antimicrobial resistance amongst staphylococci warrants closer investigation of the diversity of skin commensal organisms-including coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS)-due to their potential as a source of resistance genes. This study is aimed at characterising the commensal staphylococci-including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus species (spp.)-from mucocutaneous sites of dogs and cats from remote New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Pet dogs and cats were recruited from participants in a community companion animal health programme in six communities in western NSW. Three swabs were collected from each animal (anterior nares, oropharynx, and perineum) and from skin lesions or wounds if present and cultured on selective media for Staphylococcus spp. In total, 383 pets (303 dogs, 80 cats) were enrolled. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 67.3% of dogs and 73.8% of cats (494 isolates). The diversity of CoNS was high (20 species) whilst only three coagulase-positive spp. were isolated (S. pseudintermedius, S. aureus, S. intermedius). The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in dogs was high (2.6%) relative to other studies but was only a small proportion of overall commensal staphylococci. No cats carried MRSA and no MRSP was isolated from either species. Dogs were significantly more likely to carry coagulase-positive staphylococci than cats (P < 0.001). Amongst dogs, males and those with skin lesions were more likely to carry S. pseudintermedius. This study highlights important differences in the diversity and patterns of carriage of commensal staphylococci between dogs and cats in remote NSW, Australia.


Assuntos
Gatos/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Meticilina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , New South Wales
15.
Microb Pathog ; 138: 103833, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698052

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a neglected infectious zoonotic disease that affects domestic animals and wildlife as well as humans. Although leptospirosis is known as an endemic disease in Iran, there is no accurate information on the overall prevalence of this disease in humans and animals. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the seroprevalence of leptospirosis among human and domestic and wild animals in Iran. A systematic review of English and Persian articles (since 1998 to December 2017) was conducted using Google Scholar, Medline/PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of science and Iranian databases Iranmedex, Scientific Information Database (SID), Magiran, and IRANDOC. Search terms include leptospirosis, Leptospira, serology, seroprevalence, seroepidemiology, serological, Iran, cow, goat, sheep, camel, dog, cat, equine, donkey, horse, mule and rodent. In Eventually 66 articles were selected to analyze based on inclusion criteria. Seroprevalence of leptospirosis in human was 27.84% (95% CI: 13.22-22.47) and 19.71% (95% CI: 6.78-32.65%) based on ELISA and MAT, respectively. The pooled prevalence of leptospirosis in cow, sheep, goat and camel was 26.62% (95% CI: 18.76-34.48), 17.38% (95% CI: 13.32-21.43), 12.18% (95% CI: 9.96-14.41) and 22.68% (95% CI: 18.97-26.40), respectively. The prevalence of leptospirosis in horse, donkey, and mule was 19.99% (95% CI: 13.32-26.68), 40.59% (95% CI: 33.20-47.97) and 9.10% (95% CI: 2.90-15.30), respectively. The prevalence in dog and cat were estimated 14.63% (95% CI: 3.49-25.77) and 14.44% (95% CI: 3.25-25.65), respectively. The prevalence of seropositivity in rodents was estimated 20.96% (95% CI: 10.62-31.30). This study is a very comprehensive report on the status of leptospirosis in Iran. Based on our results, leptospirosis has considerable seroprevalence among human and animals in Iran. This high seroprevalence of leptospirosis showed should be given more attention for this disease in Iran and thus health measures must be taken to diagnosis, control and prevent it.


Assuntos
Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Gatos/microbiologia , Bovinos/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Cabras/microbiologia , Cavalos/microbiologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Roedores/microbiologia , Ovinos/microbiologia , Suínos/microbiologia
16.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 70: 101376, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703937

RESUMO

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is considered a primary pathogen of canine skin and soft tissue infections, and the rapid emergence of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius worldwide is a major issue. In the current study, genotypic and phenotypic correlates associated with S. pseudintermedius causing canine otitis externa were evaluated using 41 S. pseudintermedius strains isolated from dogs with otitis externa (n = 26) and healthy dogs (n = 15). The S. pseudintermedius strains were subjected to a comparative analysis of (i) genotypes (multilocus sequence typing, agr, and spa types), (ii) methicillin resistance and SCCmec types, (iii) multidrug resistance (MDR), (iv) biofilm formation, and (v) susceptibility to canine cathelicidin (K9CATH). A high degree of genetic diversity was observed in both groups of S. pseudintermedius strains, regardless of methicillin resistance. Almost all methicillin-resistant strains (>95%) harbored SCCmec V and displayed MDR. Although there was no difference in biofilm formation, S. pseudintermedius strains derived from otitis externa exhibited enhanced resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptide (K9CATH) compared with strains from healthy dogs. The high degree of heterogeneity in MLST, agr, and spa types prevented the identification of correlations between any specific genotype and virulence phenotype in otitis externa caused by S. pseudintermedius, These findings provide an important basis for monitoring and treating canine skin and soft tissue infections in Korea.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Otite Externa/microbiologia , Fenótipo , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cães/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Variação Genética , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Virulência
17.
J Anim Sci ; 98(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768533

RESUMO

Whereas a wide variety of in vitro models have been developed and validated to assess the effect of specific food ingredients on the human gut microbiome, such models have only been developed and applied to a limited extent for companion animals. Since the use of pre- and probiotics to improve gut health is an emerging research topic in the field of companion animals and as dogs are often used as laboratory animals in developing and testing of pharmaceuticals, the current study aimed to establish an adequate canine in vitro model. This consisted of a four-stage reactor composed of a stomach and small intestinal compartment followed by a proximal and distal colon. This semi-continuous gastrointestinal tract model allowed a long-term, region-dependent, and pH-controlled simulation of the colon-associated microbial community of dogs. Upon reaching a functional steady state, the simulated canine microbial community composition proved to be representative of the in vivo situation. Indeed, the predominant bacterial phyla present in the in vitro proximal and distal colon corresponded with the main bacterial phyla detected in the fecal material of the dogs, resulting in an average community composition along the simulated canine gastrointestinal tract of 50.5% Firmicutes, 34.5% Bacteroidetes, 7.4% Fusobacteria, 4.9% Actinobacteria, and 2.7% Proteobacteria. A parallel in vivo-in vitro comparison assessing the effects of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on the canine microbial community composition showed a consistent stimulation of Lactobacillus concentrations in the in vivo fecal samples as well as in the in vitro canine gut model. Furthermore, the in vitro platform provided additional insights about the prebiotic effect of FOS supplementation of dogs, such as a reduced abundance of Megamonas spp. which are only present in very low abundance in in vivo fecal samples, indicating an interesting application potential of the developed canine in vitro model in research related to gastrointestinal health of dogs.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Cães/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Probióticos/análise , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia
19.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478234

RESUMO

Due to the increase in the number of companion animal breeders in Japan, there are more opportunities for companion animals to come into contact with humans than before. Therefore, we investigated the bacterial flora adhering to the skin of dogs and the bacterial flora was analyzed for the presence of zoonotic bacteria that infect humans from companion animals. With the cooperation of students enrolled in the Department of Medical Technology and Science, Faculty of Fukuoka Health Care, International University of Health and Welfare. 39 samples were collected from the abdomen, back and paws of 13 healthy dogs using sterile swabs by the scraping method. The isolation culture was carried out only for facultative anaerobic bacteria to obligate aerobic bacteria and Bacterial identification was determined by MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA gene analysis. Among the identified strains were Pasteurella canis, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Staphylococcus intermedius, which were difficult to detect in humans. The overall ratio of detected bacteria was 35% for coagulasenegative staphylococci, 14% for coagulase-positive staphylococci, 5% for Enterobacteriaceae, and 45% for natural environment. In the future, it is expected that extended-spectrum ß-lactamase producing bacteria and drug-resistant bacteria such as Carbapenem-resistant enterobacterales will also be transmitted to humans through contact with companion animals.


Assuntos
Cães/microbiologia , Pele/microbiologia , Animais , Japão , Pasteurella/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus intermedius/isolamento & purificação
20.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 36(5): 667-669, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859810

RESUMO

Pasteurella species are known to be one of the most frequently isolated in oral microbiota of domestic and wild animals, because of that, they are associated with skin and soft tissues infections secondary to bites and scratches. Systemic infections are uncommon, but are associated with dissemination from localized infections and some risks factors related to immunosuppression. We report a case of Pasteurella multocida bacteremia in an 88 years old patient, associated with food sharing with his dog; a bacteremia mechanism never described before in the medical literature.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Infecções por Pasteurella/microbiologia , Pasteurella multocida/isolamento & purificação , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/imunologia , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Masculino , Infecções por Pasteurella/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pasteurella/imunologia , Pasteurella multocida/patogenicidade
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