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1.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 90(0): e1-e6, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714111

RESUMO

The Coat-A-Count® radioimmunoassay has been long and widely used to determine the concentration of progesterone in serum or plasma of bitches (progRIA), but was discontinued in 2014. The Immulite® 1000 LKPG1 chemiluminescence immunoassay has gained prominence since 2003 to determine the concentration of progesterone in serum of bitches, but the assay changed in 2012 (Immulite® 1000 LKPW1). This study assessed the feasibility of using Immulite® 1000 LKPW1 (progImm) to estimate the time of clinically relevant events during oestrus and compared progRIA and progImm 2 and 3 days after the first or only day of the luteinizing hormone surge (LH1). ProgImm first exceeded 5.1 nmol/L on the same day that progRIA first exceeded 6 nmol/L, a proxy for the occurrence of the LH surge, or the day before in 28 of 31 (90%) of oestrous periods. ProgImm first exceeded 13.6 nmol/L on the same day that progRIA first exceeded 16 nmol/L (a proxy for the day of ovulation) or the day before in 34 of 35 (97%) oestrous periods. ProgImm first exceeded 5.4 nmol/L on LH1 or the day before in 24 of 25 (95%) of oestrous periods. The median of progImm 2 days after LH1 was 1.2 nmol/L lower than the 10.7 nmol/L of progRIA (p = 0.001). The mean of progImm 3 days after LH1 was 2.2 nmol/L lower than the 19.0 nmol/L of progRIA (p 0.001). In conclusion, the days on which progImm first exceeded 5.1 nmol/L, 13.6 nmol/L and 5.4 nmol/L effectively estimate the days on which progRIA reached 6 nmol/L or 16 nmol/L or LH1.


Assuntos
Cães/sangue , Medições Luminescentes/veterinária , Detecção da Ovulação/veterinária , Progesterona/sangue , Radioimunoensaio/veterinária , Animais , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Estro/sangue , Feminino , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Detecção da Ovulação/métodos , Radioimunoensaio/métodos , Reprodução/fisiologia
2.
Can J Vet Res ; 83(4): 267-271, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571726

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess whether concentrations of epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibronectin, and alpha(α)-2-macroglobulin in canine serum remain stable under different storage conditions. Serum was obtained from 10 adult dogs and stored for 7 d at room temperature (RT) and at 4°C and for 1, 3, and 6 mo at -20°C. Bacterial cultures of serum were carried out after 7 d at 4°C and at RT. For each dog and time point, EGF, fibronectin, and α-2-macroglobulin were quantified in duplicate by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Mean concentrations of each factor at each time point were used for statistical analysis. No bacterial growth was observed in any samples. Compared to baseline (232.24 ± 49.47 pg/mL), EGF concentration was significantly lower after 1 wk of storage at 4°C (135.39 ± 27.12 pg/mL, P = 0.006), but not at RT (315.85 ± 79 pg/mL, P = 0.6) or after 1, 3, or 6 mo of storage at -20°C (220.84 ± 41.07 pg/mL, P = 0.7; 220.98 ± 78.26 pg/mL, P = 0.8; 266.06 ± 20.39 pg/mL, P = 0.4, respectively). Compared to baseline, concentrations of fibronectin after 1 wk of storage at 4°C or at RT and 1, 3, or 6 mo of storage at -20°C were not statistically different. Compared to baseline (186.67 ± 45.20 mg/dL), the concentration of α-2-macroglobulin after 1 wk of storage at 4°C was significantly increased (244.61 ± 58.27 mg/dL, P = 0.002), but not at RT (177.09 ± 26.99 mg/dL, P = 0.2). The differences in concentration after 3 and 6 mo of storage at -20°C were significant compared to baseline (243.32 ± 42.64 mg/dL, P = 0.005 and 56.39 ± 21.78 mg/dL, P < 0.0001, respectively), but not after 1 mo of storage at -20°C (136.79 ± 25.61 mg/dL, P = 0.1). One week of storage at RT has little effect on the stability of EGF, fibronectin, and α-2-macroglobulin in canine serum. Measured factors remain stable for 3 mo of storage at -20°C.


Assuntos
Cães/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/sangue , Fibronectinas/sangue , alfa-Macroglobulinas/metabolismo , Animais , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/química , Fibronectinas/química , Manejo de Espécimes , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(11): 995-1000, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644346

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare glucose concentrations in peripheral venous and capillary blood samples collected from dogs before and after consumption of a meal and measured with a veterinary-specific portable blood glucose meter (PBGM). ANIMALS: 12 dogs (96 blood samples). PROCEDURES: A veterinary-specific PBGM was used to measure blood glucose concentrations. Glucose concentrations in capillary blood samples obtained from the carpal pad, medial aspect of a pinna, and oral mucosa were compared with glucose concentrations in blood samples obtained from a lateral saphenous vein. Samples were collected after food was withheld for 12 hours and again 2 hours after consumption of a meal. RESULTS: Location of capillary blood collection had a significant effect on glucose concentrations measured with the PBGM. Glucose concentration in capillary blood collected from the medial aspect of the pinna did not differ significantly from the glucose concentration in peripheral venous blood samples, whereas glucose concentrations in blood samples collected from the carpal pad and oral mucosa differed significantly from the glucose concentration in peripheral venous blood samples. There was no significant difference between preprandial and postprandial blood glucose concentrations. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Glucose concentrations in capillary blood collected from the medial aspect of the pinna of dogs better reflected glucose concentrations in venous blood than concentrations measured in capillary blood collected from the carpal pad or oral mucosa.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/veterinária , Cães/sangue , Animais , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial
4.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(6): 630-634, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate and quantify the effects of mucosal corn syrup and 50% dextrose application on blood glucose concentrations in healthy dogs, to assess the effectiveness of a widely used practice for treatment of hypoglycemia. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: University teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Twelve client-owned dogs that were healthy, >1 year of age, weighing >5 kg, and had normal physical exam and biochemical profiles. INTERVENTIONS: Dogs were fasted overnight for a minimum of 12 hours. Once normal physical exam and biochemical profile were confirmed, an IV catheter was placed in a peripheral vein for serial blood sampling. Each dog served as their own control and received each of 3 treatments, the orders of which were randomized for each dog. Treatments included mucosal application of commercially available corn syrup (Karo light syrup), water (control), and 50% dextrose solution, each at a dose of 1 mL/kg of body weight. Blood glucose was measured using a point-of-care glucometer. Samples were taken immediately prior to each treatment and at 5-, 10-, 15-, 20-, 30-, and 60-minute intervals. RESULTS: All treatments were well tolerated and no adverse events were observed. A statistically significant increase in blood glucose was observed at the 15-, 20-, 30-, and 60-minute time points in the corn syrup and 50% dextrose groups as compared with the control. CONCLUSIONS: A significant effect on the blood glucose concentrations of the treated animals was not observed until 15 minutes after application of concentrated glucose solutions. These findings suggest that, in more severely hypoglycemic patients, parenteral glucose administration may be necessary.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães/sangue , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Xarope de Milho Rico em Frutose/administração & dosagem , Administração através da Mucosa , Animais , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas , Feminino , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Zea mays
5.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(5): 521-527, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the prognostic value of admission hematologic parameters serum/plasma iron, red blood cell distribution width (RDW), and nucleated red blood cells (nRBCs) in dogs presenting with acute traumatic injury. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study (2009-2015). SETTING: University teaching hospital. ANIMALS: One hundred and twenty-nine clinical dogs presenting within 24 hours of acute traumatic injury. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-nine dogs met the inclusion criteria and 109 (84.5%) survived, while 20 (15.5%) died or were euthanized in hospital. Patients with blunt force trauma comprised 79.8% of the patient population; dogs with penetrating trauma comprised 20.2% of cases. Hypoferremia occurred in all nonsurvivors, and the median serum/plasma iron concentration was significantly lower in nonsurvivors than survivors (P = 0.028). Normal or increased serum/plasma iron had 100% specificity and 100% positive predictive value for survival. Red blood cell distribution width was not significantly different between groups (P = 0.417). The presence of nRBCs was significantly associated with nonsurvival (P = 0.030), although the absolute nRBC concentrations were not significantly different (P = 0.070). A multiple logistic regression model found age, type of injury, presence of nRBCs, and serum/plasma iron to be independent predictors of survival with an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.813. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of nRBCs and low serum/plasma iron are associated with mortality in patients with acute trauma; however, red blood cell distribution width was not associated with survival. Absence of hypoferremia was highly associated with a favorable prognosis in this patient population. These parameters may warrant inclusion in trauma scoring systems.


Assuntos
Cães/lesões , Eritroblastos/fisiologia , Ferro/sangue , Ferimentos e Lesões/veterinária , Animais , Cães/sangue , Feminino , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/sangue
6.
J Vet Cardiol ; 24: 58-63, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405555

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a compounded sustained-release procainamide formulation in normal dogs. ANIMALS: Six healthy, purpose-bred mixed-breed dogs participated in the study. METHODS: In phase I, two dogs were administered oral procainamide (30 mg/kg), and plasma was obtained to determine plasma concentration ranges and duration. In phase II, six dogs were administered procainamide (30 mg/kg by mouth every 12 hours) to determine the pharmacokinetics of sustained-release procainamide. Serum procainamide concentration was determined using an immunochemistry assay. RESULTS: No adverse clinical effects were noted in any of the dogs studied. The average maximum serum concentration, average serum concentration, and average minimum serum concentration were 10.17, 7.13, and 3.07 µg/mL, respectively. The average time over a 12-h period during which procainamide concentration exceeded 12 µg/mL was 2.35 h, was between 4 and 12 µg/mL was 7.19 h, and was less than 4 µg/mL was 2.46 h. The average times at maximum concentration and minimum concentration were 18.67 and 12.25 h, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of sustained-release procainamide twice daily achieved targeted plasma concentrations in most dogs. Evaluation of serum trough concentrations should be considered owing to interanimal variability to confirm that serum concentrations are within the reported therapeutic range for an individual patient.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/farmacocinética , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacocinética , Cães/metabolismo , Procainamida/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Antiarrítmicos/administração & dosagem , Antiarrítmicos/sangue , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Cães/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Procainamida/administração & dosagem , Procainamida/sangue , Valores de Referência
7.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 215: 109904, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420068

RESUMO

During immune activation, CD25 is expressed by T cells, and its soluble form (sCD25) is released into the extracellular matrix and the bloodstream. In humans, serum sCD25 concentrations are used as a surrogate marker for autoimmune diseases, malignancies, and transplant rejection. However, a canine-specific assay for the measurement of sCD25 in dog serum has not previously been described. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop and analytically validate a radioimmunoassay to measure sCD25 in canine serum, to establish a reference interval for canine sCD25, and to test the clinical utility of this assay with serum samples for dogs with various diseases. A competitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed and analytically validated. Analytical validation consisted of lower limit of detection (LLOD), dilutional parallelism, spiking recovery, and intra- and inter-assay variability using pooled surplus canine serum samples. A reference interval was established in healthy dogs and serum samples from dogs with various types of neoplasia, IBD, liver disease, suspected pancreatitis, or suspected small intestinal disease and serum samples with an increased C-reactive protein concentration (CRP) were analyzed to test the clinical utility of the assay. LLOD was calculated to be 0.5 ng/mL. The mean (±SD) observed-to-expected ratio (O/E) for serial dilutions was 101.7 ±â€¯14.0%, and the mean (± SD) O/E for spiking recovery was 93.2 ±â€¯4.2%. Coefficients of variation (CVs) for intra-assay variability were ≤12.5% (mean ±â€¯SD: 7.5 ±â€¯4.2%), and inter-assay CVs were ≤15.7% (mean ±â€¯SD: 11 ±â€¯4.4%). A reference interval (RI) for canine sCD25 of 1.2-4.2 ng/mL was established from a population of 112 clinically healthy dogs. Dogs with neoplasia and dogs with suspected small intestinal disease had decreased concentrations of serum sCD25 when compared to healthy dogs (p < 0.0001, respectively). However, the majority of clinical samples used in this study were within the reference interval. Median concentrations of serum sCD25 were 1.9 ng/mL for healthy dogs. Dogs with cancer, IBD, liver disease, suspected pancreatitis, or suspected small intestinal disease, as well as sera with an increased serum CRP concentration, had median serum sCD25 concentrations of 1.6 ng/mL, 2.1 ng/mL, 2.2 ng/mL, 1.7 ng/mL, 1.5 ng/mL, and 1.8 ng/mL, respectively. Thus, the RIA described here is linear, accurate, precise, and reproducible for measuring sCD25 in canine serum. However, this assay shows little clinical utility of sCD25 as a biomarker for dogs with inflammatory, autoimmune, and/or neoplastic conditions.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães/sangue , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/sangue , Radioimunoensaio/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Humanos , Radioimunoensaio/métodos , Valores de Referência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(9): 846-851, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449444

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate coagulation factors in units of leukoreduced (LR) and nonleukoreduced (non-LR) canine fresh-frozen plasma (cFFP). ANIMALS: 8 healthy research dogs. PROCEDURES: In a crossover study, dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups from which blood was collected and either did or did not undergo leukoreduction. After a recovery period of ≥ 28 days, the dogs were switched between protocols. After each collection, blood samples were centrifuged, and cFFP was stored frozen for later comparative analysis of coagulation factors, antithrombin, and protein C activities (reported as comparative percentages of the corresponding activities determined in a canine pooled plasma standard); prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin times; and fibrinogen concentration. RESULTS: There were no significant differences detected between results for LR cFFP, compared with those for non-LR cFFP. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Although there was variation among residual activities of coagulation factors in LR and non-LR cFFP, the variations and differences were considered unlikely to impact the efficacy of LR cFFP transfused for coagulation factor replacement in dogs. However, owing to the small sample size and high variability of results in the present study, additional research with a larger sample size is required for definitive conclusions on the effects of leukoreduction on coagulation factors in cFFP and to develop treatment guidelines for LR cFFP use in dogs with congenital and acquired coagulopathies.


Assuntos
Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/análise , Cães/sangue , Leucócitos , Plasma/química , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Fibrinogênio/análise , Contagem de Leucócitos/veterinária , Masculino , Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial , Distribuição Aleatória
9.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(9): 852-861, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449450

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether passage of whole blood through a microaggregate filter by use of a syringe pump would damage canine erythrocytes. SAMPLE: Blood samples obtained from 8 healthy client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES: Whole blood was passed through a standard microaggregate filter by use of a syringe pump at 3 standard administration rates (12.5, 25, and 50 mL/h). Prefilter and postfilter blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of a simulated transfusion. Variables measured at each time point included erythrocyte osmotic fragility, mean corpuscular fragility, RBC count, hemoglobin concentration, RBC distribution width, and RBC morphology. In-line pressure when blood passed through the microaggregate filter was measured continuously throughout the simulated transfusion. After the simulated transfusion was completed, filters were visually analyzed by use of scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Regardless of administration rate, there was no significant difference in mean corpuscular fragility, RBC count, hemoglobin concentration, or RBC distribution width between prefilter and postfilter samples. Additionally, there were no differences in in-line pressure during the simulated transfusion among administration rates. Echinocytes were the erythrocyte morphological abnormality most commonly observed at the end of the transfusion at administration rates of 12.5 and 25 mL/h. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that regardless of the administration rate, the microaggregate filter did not alter fragility of canine RBCs, but may have altered the morphology. It appeared that the microaggregate filter would not contribute to substantial RBC damage for transfusions performed with a syringe pump.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue/veterinária , Cães/sangue , Eritrócitos/ultraestrutura , Filtros Microporos/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Técnicas In Vitro/veterinária , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Seringas/veterinária
10.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(6): 616-621, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468696

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the administration of a commercially available activated charcoal suspension with sorbitol (ACS) on serum sodium concentrations and hydration status in healthy dogs. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Private referral hospital. ANIMALS: Nine healthy adult dogs. INTERVENTIONS: Dogs were administered 1 mg/kg maropitant (Cerenia; Pfizer Animal Health, New York, NY) intravenously 1 hour prior to charcoal administration. Dogs were administered a single dose of 2 g/kg ACS. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Blood samples and body weights were obtained prior to charcoal administration and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 hours post ACS administration. Venous sodium, potassium, chloride, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, lactate, packed cell volume, and total plasma protein were measured at each time interval. All dogs returned 2-4 weeks after ACS administration for a 12 hour period of water restriction and to serve as their own control group. The same measurements were repeated during water restriction period as following ACS administration. The increase in serum sodium concentration was significantly higher following ACS administration when compared to control period (P = 0.0002). All dogs administered ACS experienced a significant degree of weight loss (P = 0.0371) when compared to the control period. Following administration of ACS, the hematocrit of the dogs administered ACS was found to be significantly increased (P = 0.0001), when compared to the control period. CONCLUSION: Patients that are administered a single dose of ACS are at risk of developing dehydration and secondary hypernatremia as observed in the dogs during the study period. Patients receiving ACS should have electrolytes monitored and would benefit from fluid therapy as previously recommended.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Cães/fisiologia , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sódio/sangue , Sorbitol/farmacologia , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Carvão Vegetal/administração & dosagem , Cloretos , Creatinina/sangue , Cães/sangue , Eletrólitos/sangue , Lactatos , Masculino , Potássio , Estudos Prospectivos , Sorbitol/administração & dosagem
11.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 22(2): 369-376, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269341

RESUMO

Despite many phytochemical and pharmacological investigations, to date, there are no reports concerning the antibabesial activity of extracts of A. millefolium against B. canis. This study was aimed at investigating the biological activities of A. millefolium against the Babesia canis parasite and to identify its chemical ingredients. The water (WE), ethanol (EE) and hexane/acetone (H/AE) extracts of plant aerial parts were screened for total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid compound (TFC), DPPH free radical-scavenging activity and its antibabesial activity assay. In this study, imidocarb diproprionate was used as a positive control. The H/AE and EE extracts were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). In the EE extract, the main compounds were 17.64% methyl octadec-9-ynoate, 16.68% stigmast-5-en-3-ol(3α,24S) and 15.17% hexadecanoic acid. In the H/AE extract, the main compounds were 34.55% 11-decyldocosane, 14.31% N-tetratetracontane, 8.22% ß-caryophyllene, and 7.69% N-nonacosane. Extract of EE contained the highest content of phenolics followed by H/AE and WE. The concentration of flavonoids in EE, H/AE and WE extracts showed that TFC was higher in the EE samples followed by H/AE and WE. The antioxidant activities were highest for AA, followed by EE, WE and H/AE. The antibabesial assay showed that the WE, EE and H/AE extracts of A. millefolium were antagonistic to B. canis. At a 2 mg/mL concentration, it showed 58.7% (± 4.7%), 62.3% (± 5.5%) and 49.3% (± 5.1%) inhibitory rate in an antibabesial assay, respectively. Considering these results, the present findings suggest that A. millefolium extracts may be a potential therapeutic agent and that additional studies including in vivo experiments are essential.


Assuntos
Achillea/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Babesia/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antiprotozoários/química , Compostos de Bifenilo , Cães/sangue , Flavonoides/química , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Picratos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química
12.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 2037-2045, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute hemolytic transfusion reactions because of dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1 sensitization after mismatched transfusions are serious complications. Dog erythrocyte antigen 1 expression varies from negative to weakly to strongly positive. OBJECTIVES: To assess alloimmunization after transfusion of weakly DEA 1+ blood to a DEA 1- dog. ANIMALS: One DEA 1- recipient and 1 weakly DEA 1+ donor, and 106 control dogs. METHODS: Long-term follow-up study. Matched for DEA 3, 4, 5, and 7, Dal, and Kai 1 and 2, weakly DEA 1+ donor packed red blood cells (RBCs) were transfused 3 times (0.45 mL/kg at Day 0, 16, and 37) to a DEA 1- recipient. Alloantibodies against RBCs from donor and 106 controls were determined in recipient's plasma samples using a commercial antiglobulin-enhanced immunochromatographic strip and gel tube crossmatches. Alloantibody titers were determined. RESULTS: The DEA 1- recipient was sensitized after 16 days to ≥1657 days after transfusion to weakly DEA 1+ and otherwise matched RBCs. Strong to moderate crossmatch incompatibilities were observed between recipient's plasma and all 61 DEA 1+ crossmatched controls. Moderate to weak incompatibilities were also observed to DEA 1- controls. Anti-DEA 1 and other alloantibodies were detected over the 4.5 year observation period. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Blood from a weakly DEA 1+ donor induces a strong and durable alloimmunization in a DEA 1- recipient dog. Additional alloantibodies developed against yet to be defined RBC antigens. Those results support the recommendation of typing dogs against DEA 1, considering weakly DEA 1+ as immunogenic, and crossmatching all previously transfused dogs.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos/imunologia , Tipagem e Reações Cruzadas Sanguíneas/veterinária , Transfusão de Sangue/veterinária , Cães/imunologia , Animais , Incompatibilidade de Grupos Sanguíneos/veterinária , Cães/sangue , Eritrócitos/imunologia , Isoanticorpos/imunologia
13.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 42(5): 497-504, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183888

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic interaction between ivermectin (0.4 mg/kg) and praziquantel (10 mg/kg) administered either alone or co-administered to dogs after oral treatment. Twelve healthy cross-bred dogs (weighing 18-21 kg, aged 1-3 years) were allocated randomly into two groups of six dogs (four females, two males) each. In first group, the tablet forms of praziquantel and ivermectin were administered using a crossover design with a 15-day washout period, respectively. Second group received tablet form of ivermectin plus praziquantel. The plasma concentrations of ivermectin and praziquantel were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography using a fluorescence and ultraviolet detector, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters of ivermectin following oral alone-administration were as follows: elimination half-life (t1/2λz ) 110 ± 11.06 hr, area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞ ) 7,805 ± 1,768 hr. ng/ml, maximum concentration (Cmax ) 137 ± 48.09 ng/ml, and time to reach Cmax (Tmax ) 14.0 ± 4.90 hr. The pharmacokinetic parameters of praziquantel following oral alone-administration were as follows: t1/2λz 7.39 ± 3.86 hr, AUC0-∞ 4,301 ± 1,253 hr. ng/ml, Cmax 897 ± 245 ng/ml, and Tmax 5.33 ± 0.82 hr. The pharmacokinetics of ivermectin and praziquantel were not changed, except Tmax of praziquantel in the combined group. In conclusion, the combined formulation of ivermectin and praziquantel can be preferred in the treatment and prevention of diseases caused by susceptible parasites in dogs because no pharmacokinetic interaction was determined between them.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/farmacocinética , Cães/sangue , Ivermectina/farmacocinética , Praziquantel/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Área Sob a Curva , Interações de Medicamentos , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/sangue , Masculino , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Praziquantel/sangue
14.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(4): 399-406, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225690

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare intravenous and intraosseous blood aspirates using point-of-care diagnostic equipment available in veterinary hospitals. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Private referral hospital. ANIMALS: Dogs undergoing a tibial plateau leveling osteotomy or extracapsular anterior cruciate ligament stabilization procedure were enrolled. METHODS: Under general anesthesia, simultaneous 0.5 mL intravenous and intraosseous blood samples were collected from the jugular vein and proximal tibia, respectively. Samples were evaluated in duplicate within 10 minutes of collection and averaged for each of the following parameters: blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose, packed cell volume, total plasma protein (TPP), plasma lactate, sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, glucose, pH, anion gap, pO2, and pCO2 . Normalcy was tested with Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. A Student's t-test and Bland-Altman plot were used to compare intravenous and intraosseous samples. RESULTS: Twelve dogs were recruited into the study. There were statistically significant differences between intravenous and intraosseous samples for sodium (P = 0.0216), chloride (P = 0.0225), BUN (P = 0.014), and potassium (P < 0.0001), respectively. No significant differences were detected for the other parameters evaluated. DISCUSSION: The intraosseous space provides an easily accessible, noncollapsible alternative for assessing blood parameters. Omitting potassium, the statistically significant differences noted between sites was not felt to be clinically significant. Although statistically insignificant, the large difference in hematocrit values indicates that the samples should not be used interchangeably. CONCLUSION: Intraosseous aspirates, excluding potassium and hematocrit, appear to be a reliable alternative for assessing most point-of-care analytes in healthy dogs, although a larger sample size should be investigated. The application of these data in shock patients is unknown.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Cães/sangue , Emergências/veterinária , Testes Imediatos , Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Animais , Gasometria , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Cloretos/sangue , Hematócrito/veterinária , Infusões Intraósseas/métodos , Veias Jugulares , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Projetos Piloto , Potássio/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Vet Clin Pathol ; 48(2): 239-249, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate erythrocyte measurements with ADVIA hematology analyzers require isovolumetric cell sphering in one reaction and hemolysis in another. However, camelid erythrocytes are resistant to sphering and osmotic lysis, and no published evaluation of ADVIA methods for camelids exists. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to demonstrate whether camelid erythrocytes sphere in the ADVIA red blood cell/platelet (RBC/PLT) reagent and lyse in the ADVIA cyanide HGB reagent, and to determine optimal ADVIA settings for camelids. METHODS: Camelid and canine blood were diluted to 1:625 in RBC/PLT reagent and evaluated microscopically for erythrocyte sphering. A camelid sample was incubated with the hemoglobin (HGB) reagent at varying dilutions to evaluate hemolysis. The RBC, hematocrit (HCT), mean cell volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) using three ADVIA species settings (equine, bovine, and caprine) were compared to their respective reference methods: Z2 Coulter impedance counter, packed cell volume, calculated MCV (PCV × 10/Coulter RBC), and calculated MCHC (HGB × 100/PCV). Reference MCV was also compared to MCV calculated using the ADVIA equine RBC count. Comparisons were assessed using Passing-Bablok regression and Bland-Altman difference plots. RESULTS: Camelid erythrocytes did not sphere in the RBC/PLT reagent, but did lyse in the HGB reagent. The ADVIA equine setting RBC count was acceptably close to the Coulter count. Hematocrit, MCV, and MCHC from all settings were significantly different from the reference methods. Mean cell volumes calculated using the equine setting RBC counts were acceptably close to the reference MCV. CONCLUSIONS: Camelid ADVIA erythrogram results should be reported as follows: RBC counts and HGB concentrations using the equine setting, spun PCVs, MCVs calculated using the PCV and equine setting RBC, and MCHCs calculated using the PCV and equine setting HGB.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos/sangue , Testes Hematológicos/instrumentação , Animais , Cães/sangue , Eritrócitos/citologia , Hematócrito/veterinária , Cavalos/sangue , Valores de Referência
16.
J Spec Oper Med ; 19(2): 95-99, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201759

RESUMO

Military working dogs (MWDs) are force multipliers that are exposed to the same risks as their human counterparts on the battlefield. Hemostatic resuscitation using blood products is a cornerstone of damage control resuscitation protocols for both humans and dogs. Canine-specific blood products are in short supply in mature theaters due to logistic and regulatory concerns and are almost nonexistent in austere environments, whereas human blood products are readily available at most surgical facilities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro compatibility of human and canine blood by using standard crossmatching techniques with the canine blood acting as the recipient and the human blood acting as the donor. Blood samples were collected from 20 government-owned canines (GOCs) and 7 healthy human volunteers in addition to washed red blood cells (RBCs) from a commercial blood typing kit. Major and minor crossmatches were conducted as well as a protein denatured crossmatch. All samples in this study showed strong cross-reactivity, with the majority demonstrating profound hemolysis and a minority showing substantial agglutination. Based on the results of this study, transfusion of human blood to an MWD cannot be recommended at this time.


Assuntos
Tipagem e Reações Cruzadas Sanguíneas , Transfusão de Sangue/veterinária , Cães/sangue , Serviço Veterinário Militar , Animais , Tipagem e Reações Cruzadas Sanguíneas/veterinária , Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
17.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 42(5): 505-510, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090076

RESUMO

Medication control in greyhound racing requires information from administration studies that measure drug levels in the urine as well as plasma, with time points that extend into the terminal phase of excretion. To characterize the plasma and the urinary pharmacokinetics of flunixin and enable regulatory advice for greyhound racing in respect of both medication and residue control limits, flunixin meglumine was administered intravenously on one occasion to six different greyhounds at the label dose of 1 mg/kg and the levels of flunixin were measured in plasma for up to 96 hr and in urine for up to 120 hr. Using the standard methodology for medication control, the irrelevant plasma concentration was determined as 1 ng/ml and the irrelevant urine concentration was determined as 30 ng/ml. This information can be used by regulators to determine a screening limit, detection time and a residue limit. The greyhounds with the highest average urine pH had far greater flunixin exposure compared with the greyhounds that had the lowest. This is entirely consistent with the extent of ionization predicted by the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. This variability in the urine pharmacokinetics reduces with time, and at 72 hr postadministration, in the terminal phase, the variability in urine and plasma flunixin concentrations are similar and should not affect medication control.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacocinética , Clonixina/análogos & derivados , Cães/sangue , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/sangue , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/urina , Área Sob a Curva , Clonixina/sangue , Clonixina/química , Clonixina/metabolismo , Clonixina/farmacocinética , Clonixina/urina , Cães/urina , Resíduos de Drogas , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Esportes , Urina/química
18.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(6): 578-585, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140844

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate stability of coagulation factors in canine plasma obtained by use of plasmapheresis and stored over a 36-month period. SAMPLE: Canine plasma obtained by use of plasmapheresis acquired from a commercial blood bank. PROCEDURES: Coagulation testing for fibrinogen concentration and activity of factors II, V, VII, VIII, and IX and von Willebrand factor was performed on canine plasma obtained by use of plasmapheresis. Samples were obtained for testing at 6-month intervals from plasma stored for up to 36 months. RESULTS: A simple mixed linear regression model was created for each analysis. Median value for the fibrinogen concentration was > 150 mg/dL for all time points, except at 467, 650, and 1,015 days of storage. Median value for factor VIII was > 70% only at 650 days. Median value for factor V was > 50% through 650 days. Median value for factors VII and X was > 50% through 833 days, and median value for factors II and VII was > 50% through 1,015 days. Median value for von Willebrand factor was > 50% for the entire study (1,198 days). Median value for factor X was always < 50%. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Coagulation factors degraded over time at variable rates, and all labile factors remained at > 50% activity for longer than 1 year. Plasma collected by plasmapheresis potentially offers prolonged life span of some clotting factors. Plasmapheresis is an acceptable form of canine plasma collection for transfusion purposes, and further studies should be performed to determine all of its benefits.


Assuntos
Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea , Cães/sangue , Plasmaferese/veterinária , Animais , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/metabolismo , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea/veterinária , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Armazenamento de Medicamentos , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Plasma/química , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de von Willebrand/metabolismo
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(5): e0007405, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rickettsia bacteria are responsible for diseases in humans and animals around the world, however few details are available regarding its ecology and circulation among wild animals and human populations at high transmission risk in Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of ticks and Rickettsia spp. in wild boars, corresponding hunting dogs and hunters. METHODS: Serum samples and ticks were collected from 80 free-range wild boars, 170 hunting dogs and 34 hunters from southern and central-western Brazil, from the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes, respectively, between 2016 and 2018. Serum samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescent-antibody assay (IFA) to detect IgG antibodies against Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, Rickettsia bellii, Rickettsia rhipicephali and Rickettsia amblyommatis. Tick species were identified by morphological taxonomic keys, as previously described. A total of 164 ticks including A. sculptum, A. brasiliense and A. aureolatum were tested in PCR assays for Spotted Fever Group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. RESULTS: A total of 58/80 (72.5%) wild boars, 24/170 (14.1%) hunting dogs and 5/34 (14.7%) hunters were positive (titers ≥ 64) to at least one Rickettsia species. A total of 669/1,584 (42.2%) ticks from wild boars were identified as Amblyomma sculptum, 910/1,584 (57.4%) as Amblyomma brasiliense, 4/1,584(0.24%) larvae of Amblyomma spp. and 1/1,584 (0.06%) nymph as Amblyolmma dubitatum. All 9 ticks found on hunting dogs were identified as Amblyomma aureolatum and all 22 ticks on hunters as A. sculptum. No tested tick was positive by standard PCR to SFG Rickettsia spp. CONCLUSIONS: The present study was the concomitant report of wild boar, hunting dog and hunter exposure to SFG rickettsiae agents, performed in two different Brazilian biomes. Wild boar hunting may increase the risk of human exposure and consequently tick-borne disease Wild boars may be carrying and spreading capybara ticks from their original habitats to other ecosystems. Further studies can be required to explore the ability of wild boars to infecting ticks and be part of transmission cycle of Rickettsia spp.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães/sangue , Infecções por Rickettsia/sangue , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Rickettsia/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/sangue , Carrapatos/imunologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/sangue , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Brasil , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rickettsia/classificação , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rickettsia/microbiologia , Sus scrofa/sangue , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Carrapatos/classificação , Carrapatos/microbiologia
20.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(3): 309-313, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066159

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in serum creatinine and chloride concentrations in anesthetized dogs that received 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 670/0.7. DESIGN: Retrospective case series, 2002-2015. SETTING: University veterinary teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Two hundred forty-four client-owned dogs undergoing general anesthesia that received an HES solution. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Medical records of dogs that received an HES solution (6%, 670/0.7) while under general anesthesia during the study period were reviewed. Information obtained from the medical record included patient signalment, reason for anesthesia or diagnosis, body weight, amount of HES solution administered, pre- and postanesthesia creatinine value, pre- and postanesthesia chloride value, and day interval between measurements. Corrected chloride values were used for all statistical analysis. Dogs received a median dose of 6.3 mL/kg hetastarch during anesthesia. Median preanesthesia creatinine and corrected chloride values were 79.5 µmol/L (0.9 mg/dL) (range 8.8-689.5 µmol/L [0.1-7.8 mg/dL]) and 111 mmol/L (111 mEq/L) (range 80-123 mmol/L [80-123 mg/dL]), respectively. Median postanesthesia creatinine was 57.4 µmol/L (0.65 mg/dL) (8.8-716 µmol/L [0.1-8.1 mg/dL]). Median postanesthesia corrected chloride was 115 mmol/L (115 mEq/L) (range 87.5-129.6 mmol/L [87.5-129.6 mEq/L]). Mann-Whitney test analysis revealed a significant decrease in creatinine (Δ Cr 17.7 µmol/L [0.2 mg/dL], P < 0.01) and a significant increase in corrected chloride (Δ Cl 4.1 mmol/L [4.1mEq/L], P < 0.01) between pre- and postanesthesia values. CONCLUSIONS: In a mixed population of hospitalized dogs undergoing general anesthesia that received a median dose of 6 mL/kg of HES, creatinine was lower and chloride was higher in the postanesthetic than in the preanesthetic period. The clinical significance of these changes and the role that HES administration played in them relative to concurrent therapies is unknown.


Assuntos
Cloretos/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Cães/fisiologia , Derivados de Hidroxietil Amido/administração & dosagem , Substitutos do Plasma/administração & dosagem , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/veterinária , Anestesia Geral/veterinária , Animais , Cães/sangue , Feminino , Derivados de Hidroxietil Amido/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Substitutos do Plasma/efeitos adversos , Registros/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos
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