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1.
Pharm Res ; 37(10): 194, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918191

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We characterized three canine P-gp (cP-gp) deficient MDCKII cell lines. Their relevance for identifying efflux transporter substrates and predicting limitation of brain penetration were evaluated. In addition, we discuss how compound selection can be done in drug discovery by using these cell systems. METHOD: hMDR1, hBCRP-transfected, and non-transfected MDCKII ZFN cells (all with knock-down of endogenous cP-gp) were used for measuring permeability and efflux ratios for substrates. The compounds were also tested in MDR1_Caco-2 and BCRP_Caco-2, each with a double knock-out of BCRP/MRP2 or MDR1/MRP2 transporters respectively. Efflux results were compared between the MDCK and Caco-2 models. Furthermore, in vitro MDR1_ZFN efflux data were correlated with in vivo unbound drug brain-to-plasma partition coefficient (Kp,uu). RESULTS: MDR1 and BCRP substrates are correctly classified and robust transporter affinities with control substrates are shown. Cell passage mildly influenced mRNA levels of transfected transporters, but the transporter activity was proven stable for several years. The MDCK and Caco-2 models were in high consensus classifying same efflux substrates. Approx. 80% of enlisted substances were correctly predicted with the MDR1_ZFN model for brain penetration. CONCLUSION: cP-gp deficient MDCKII ZFN models are reliable tools to identify MDR1 and BCRP substrates and useful for predicting efflux liability for brain penetration.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/deficiência , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Farmacocinética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Dibenzocicloeptenos/farmacologia , Dicetopiperazinas/farmacologia , Cães , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/farmacologia , Humanos , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Prazosina/farmacocinética , Quinidina/farmacocinética , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Especificidade por Substrato , Transfecção
2.
J Hematol Oncol ; 13(1): 120, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients diagnosed with COVID-19 may develop a pro-thrombotic state that places them at a dramatically increased lethal risk. Although platelet activation is critical for thrombosis and is responsible for the thrombotic events and cardiovascular complications, the role of platelets in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 remains unclear. METHODS: Using platelets from healthy volunteers, non-COVID-19 and COVID-19 patients, as well as wild-type and hACE2 transgenic mice, we evaluated the changes in platelet and coagulation parameters in COVID-19 patients. We investigated ACE2 expression and direct effect of SARS-CoV-2 virus on platelets by RT-PCR, flow cytometry, Western blot, immunofluorescence, and platelet functional studies in vitro, FeCl3-induced thrombus formation in vivo, and thrombus formation under flow conditions ex vivo. RESULTS: We demonstrated that COVID-19 patients present with increased mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet hyperactivity, which correlated with a decrease in overall platelet count. Detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the blood stream was associated with platelet hyperactivity in critically ill patients. Platelets expressed ACE2, a host cell receptor for SARS-CoV-2, and TMPRSS2, a serine protease for Spike protein priming. SARS-CoV-2 and its Spike protein directly enhanced platelet activation such as platelet aggregation, PAC-1 binding, CD62P expression, α granule secretion, dense granule release, platelet spreading, and clot retraction in vitro, and thereby Spike protein enhanced thrombosis formation in wild-type mice transfused with hACE2 transgenic platelets, but this was not observed in animals transfused with wild-type platelets in vivo. Further, we provided evidence suggesting that the MAPK pathway, downstream of ACE2, mediates the potentiating role of SARS-CoV-2 on platelet activation, and that platelet ACE2 expression decreases following SARS-COV-2 stimulation. SARS-CoV-2 and its Spike protein directly stimulated platelets to facilitate the release of coagulation factors, the secretion of inflammatory factors, and the formation of leukocyte-platelet aggregates. Recombinant human ACE2 protein and anti-Spike monoclonal antibody could inhibit SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein-induced platelet activation. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings uncovered a novel function of SARS-CoV-2 on platelet activation via binding of Spike to ACE2. SARS-CoV-2-induced platelet activation may participate in thrombus formation and inflammatory responses in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Trombose/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Células CACO-2 , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células PC-3 , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Agregação Plaquetária/imunologia , Contagem de Plaquetas , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/sangue , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Trombose/virologia
3.
Mol Cell ; 80(1): 164-174.e4, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877642

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infections are rapidly spreading around the globe. The rapid development of therapies is of major importance. However, our lack of understanding of the molecular processes and host cell signaling events underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection hinders therapy development. We use a SARS-CoV-2 infection system in permissible human cells to study signaling changes by phosphoproteomics. We identify viral protein phosphorylation and define phosphorylation-driven host cell signaling changes upon infection. Growth factor receptor (GFR) signaling and downstream pathways are activated. Drug-protein network analyses revealed GFR signaling as key pathways targetable by approved drugs. The inhibition of GFR downstream signaling by five compounds prevents SARS-CoV-2 replication in cells, assessed by cytopathic effect, viral dsRNA production, and viral RNA release into the supernatant. This study describes host cell signaling events upon SARS-CoV-2 infection and reveals GFR signaling as a central pathway essential for SARS-CoV-2 replication. It provides novel strategies for COVID-19 treatment.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Células CACO-2 , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5217-5226, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801687

RESUMO

Aim: Chronic use of oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is commonly associated with gastric irritation and gastric ulceration. Therefore, the aim of study was to develop a novel oral drug delivery system with minimum gastric effects and improved dissolution rate for aceclofenac (ACF), a model BCS class-II drug. Methods: Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) were formulated to increase the solubility and ultimately the oral bioavailability of ACF. Oleic acid was used as an oil phase, Tween 80 (T80) and Kolliphor EL (KEL) were used as surfactants, whereas, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) and propylene glycol (PG) were employed as co-surfactants. Optimized formulations (F1, F2, F3 and F4) were analyzed for droplet size, poly dispersity index (PDI), cell viability studies, in vitro dissolution in both simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid, ex vivo permeation studies and thermodynamic stability. Results: The optimized formulations showed mean droplet sizes in the range of 111.3 ± 3.2 nm and 470.9 ± 12.52 nm, PDI from 244.6 nm to 389.4 ± 6.51 and zeta-potential from -33 ± 4.86 mV to -38.5 ± 5.15 mV. Cell viability studies support the safety profile of all formulations for oral administration. The in vitro dissolution studies and ex vivo permeation analysis revealed significantly improved drug release ranging from 95.68 ± 0.02% to 98.15 ± 0.71% when compared with control. The thermodynamic stability studies confirmed that all formulations remain active and stable for a longer period. Conclusion: In conclusion, development of oral SEDDS might be a promising tool to improve the dissolution of BCS class-II drugs along with significantly reduced exposure to gastric mucosa.


Assuntos
Diclofenaco/análogos & derivados , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Emulsões/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diclofenaco/administração & dosagem , Diclofenaco/farmacocinética , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Emulsões/administração & dosagem , Excipientes/química , Humanos , Masculino , Nanoestruturas/administração & dosagem , Nanoestruturas/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polissorbatos/química , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacocinética , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Solubilidade , Tensoativos/química
5.
Life Sci ; 258: 118226, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771555

RESUMO

AIM: Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most prevalent cancers throughout the world. Circulating serum-derived microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) can be used as non-invasive biomarkers for CRC diagnosis. This study aimed to identify a panel of six serum exosomal miRNAs as novel diagnostic biomarkers for CRC. MAIN METHODS: Exosomes were isolated and characterized from the conditioned media of the human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HCT-116 and Caco2). Sera were isolated from peripheral blood of 45 CRC and also 45 healthy individuals. The expression levels and diagnostic value of candidate circulating miRNAs (miR-19a, miR-20a, miR-150, miR-143, miR-145, and let-7a) were measured through quantitative real-time PCR. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were applied to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of selected miRNAs. The association of candidate miRNAs and clinicopathological characteristics e.g. tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging and lymph node metastasis (LNM) were further evaluated. KEY FINDINGS: Circulating serum miR-19a, miR-20a, miR-150, and let-7a were significantly up-regulated in CRC patients, while miR-143 and miR-145 showed a significant down-regulation. The higher levels of miR-143 and miR-145 in patients with TNM stage I-II were detected, whereas miR-19a, miR-20a, miR-150, and let-7a were highly expressed in TNM stage III. The expression levels of miR-19a, miR-20a, and miR-150 were positively correlated with LNM status, while the expression levels of miR-143 and miR-145 were lower in patients with LNM. Area under the ROC curves of miR-19a, miR-20a, miR-150, miR-143, miR-145, and let-7a were 0.87, 0.83, 0.75, 0.76, 0.78 and 0.71, respectively. SIGNIFICANCE: We established a panel of six-circulating miRNA signature (i.e. miR-19a, miR-20a, miR-143, miR-145, miR-150, and let-7a) in serum as a non-invasive biomarker for CRC diagnosis. These findings confirm that serum-derived miRNAs have a strong potential to be a diagnostic biomarker for patients with CRC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , MicroRNAs/sangue , MicroRNAs/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Células CACO-2 , Exossomos/genética , Exossomos/metabolismo , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0229477, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822343

RESUMO

The research was conducted in the "logical series" of seven ligands: chromone, flavone, 3-hydroxyflavone, 3,7-dihydroxyflavone, galangin, kaempferol and quercetin. Each subsequent ligand differs from the previous one, among others by an additional hydroxyl group. The studied chromone derivatives are plant secondary metabolites which play an important role in growth, reproduction, and resistance to pathogens. They are important food ingredients with valuable pro-health properties. The studies of the relationships between their molecular structure and biological activity facilitate searching for new chemical compounds with important biological properties not by trial and error, but concerning the impact of specific changes in their structure on the compound properties. Therefore several pectroscopic methods (FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H and 13C NMR) were applied to study the molecular structure of the compounds in the series. Moreover the quantum-chemical calculations at B3LYP/6-311++G** were performed to obtained the theoretical NMR spectra, NBO atomic charge, global reactivity descriptors and thermodynamic parameters. The antioxidant activity of the compounds was tested in the DPPH and FRAP assays and the mechanism of antioxidant activity was discussed based on the results on theoretical calculations. The cytotoxicity of the ligands toward human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma Caco2 cells was estimated and correlated with the lipophilicity of the compounds. The principal component analyses (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to study the dependency between the molecular structure of ligands and their biological activity. The experimental data were related to the theoretical ones. The found regular changes in physicochemical properties correlated well with the systematic changes in antioxidant and biological properties.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromonas/química , Cromonas/farmacologia , Dieta , Células CACO-2 , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4847-4858, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764922

RESUMO

Background: Bisphosphonates have very low bioavailability and cause irritation of the esophagus and stomach. This study was planned to improve the oral bioavailability of ibandronate through the formation of a raft in the stomach. Bisphosphonate-induced irritation of the esophagus and stomach is prevented by the formation of a raft. Materials and Methods: The nanostructured raft was developed through the use of nanosized citrus pectin (NCP). The particle size of NCP was measured by zeta sizer and SEM. The percentage of NCP and the neutralization profile of raft was studied. The ibandronate, polymers, and the developed formulation were characterized by FTIR, XRD, TGA, and DSC. The release of ibandronate was studied in 0.1 N HCl, 0.5 N HCl, 1 N HCl, and simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and a cell viability study was performed using Caco-2 cells. The PPR5 formulation and Bonish 150 mg tablets were selected as test and reference formulations, respectively, for pharmacokinetic study. Twelve healthy albino rats were taken and divided into two groups using a Latin square crossover design, and the blood samples were collected for 24 hours. Results: The SEM image showed that the particle size of NCP was 159 nm. The raft of PPR5 showed 94% NCP and 45 minutes duration of neutralization. The FTIR and XRD showed chemical stability and a uniform distribution of ibandronate in the raft. The TGA and DSC indicated the thermal stability of formulation. The release of 99.87% ibandronate at 20 minutes was observed in the SGF. The values of C max for the reference and test formulations were 493±0.237 ng/mL and 653±0.097 ng/mL, respectively. The AUC(0-t) of the reference and test formulations was 3708.25±3.418 ng/mL.h and 6899.25±3.467 ng/mL.h, respectively. Conclusion: The NCP has been successfully prepared from citrus pectin and has shown effective porous raft formation. The bioavailability of the ibandronate from newly developed PPR5 was higher than the already marketed formulation.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/química , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Ácido Ibandrônico/farmacologia , Ácido Ibandrônico/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Humanos , Ácido Ibandrônico/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pectinas/química , Ratos
8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4877-4898, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753869

RESUMO

Background: Although dynamics and uses of modified nanoparticles (NPs) as orally administered macromolecular drugs have been researched for many years, measures of molecule stability and aspects related to important transport-related mechanisms which have been assessed in vivo remain as relatively under characterized. Thus, our aim was to develop a novel type of oral-based delivery system for insulin and to overcome barriers to studying the stability, transport mechanisms, and efficacy in vivo of the delivery system. Methods: NPs we developed and tested were composed of insulin (INS), dicyandiamide-modified chitosan (DCDA-CS), cell-penetrating octaarginine (r8), and hydrophilic hyaluronic acid (HA) and were physically constructed by electrostatic self-assembly techniques. Results: Compared to free-insulin, levels of HA-DCDA-CS-r8-INS NPs were retained at more desirable measures of biological activity in our study. Further, our assessments of the mechanisms for NPs suggested that there were high measures of cellular uptake that mainly achieved through active transport via lipid rafts and the macropinocytosis pathway. Furthermore, investigations of NPs indicated their involvement in caveolae-mediated transport and in the DCDA-CS-mediated paracellular pathway, which contributed to increasing the efficiency of sequential transportation from the apical to basolateral areas. Accordingly, high efficiency of absorption of NPs in situ for intestinal loop models was realized. Consequently, there was a strong induction of a hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rats of NPs via orally based administrations when compared with measures related to free insulin. Conclusion: Overall, the dynamics underlying and influenced by HA-DCDA-CS-r8-INS may hold great promise for stability of insulin and could help overcome interference by the epithelial barrier, and thus showing a great potential to improve the efficacy of orally related treatments.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Multifuncionais/química , Nanopartículas/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2 , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/síntese química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Impedância Elétrica , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Guanidinas/síntese química , Guanidinas/química , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/síntese química , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Muco/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Ratos , Solubilidade , Suínos
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13093, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753646

RESUMO

A novel coronavirus, named SARS-CoV-2, emerged in 2019 in China and rapidly spread worldwide. As no approved therapeutics exists to treat COVID-19, the disease associated to SARS-Cov-2, there is an urgent need to propose molecules that could quickly enter into clinics. Repurposing of approved drugs is a strategy that can bypass the time-consuming stages of drug development. In this study, we screened the PRESTWICK CHEMICAL LIBRARY composed of 1,520 approved drugs in an infected cell-based assay. The robustness of the screen was assessed by the identification of drugs that already demonstrated in vitro antiviral effect against SARS-CoV-2. Thereby, 90 compounds were identified as positive hits from the screen and were grouped according to their chemical composition and their known therapeutic effect. Then EC50 and CC50 were determined for a subset of 15 compounds from a panel of 23 selected drugs covering the different groups. Eleven compounds such as macrolides antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors, antiarrhythmic agents or CNS drugs emerged showing antiviral potency with 2 < EC50 ≤ 20 µM. By providing new information on molecules inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro, this study provides information for the selection of drugs to be further validated in vivo. Disclaimer: This study corresponds to the early stages of antiviral development and the results do not support by themselves the use of the selected drugs to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Células CACO-2 , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Aprovação de Drogas , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
J Infect ; 81(4): e1-e10, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707230

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Respiratory and intestinal tract are two primary target organs of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, detailed characterization of the host-virus interplay in infected human lung and intestinal epithelial cells is lacking. METHODS: We utilized immunofluorescence assays, flow cytometry, and RT-qPCR to delineate the virological features and the innate immune response of the host cells against SARS-CoV-2 infection in two prototype human cell lines representing the human lung (Calu3) and intestinal (Caco2) epithelium when compared with SARS-CoV. RESULTS: Lung epithelial cells were significantly more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 compared to SARS-CoV. However, SARS-CoV-2 infection induced an attenuated pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines induction and type I and type II IFN responses. A single dose of 10 U/mL interferon-ß (IFNß) pretreatment potently protected both Calu3 and Caco2 against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Interestingly, SARS-CoV-2 was more sensitive to the pretreatment with IFNß and IFN inducer than SARS-CoV in Calu3. CONCLUSIONS: Despite robust infection in both human lung and intestinal epithelial cells, SARS-CoV-2 could attenuate the virus-induced pro-inflammatory response and IFN response. Pre-activation of the type I IFN signaling pathway primed a highly efficient antiviral response in the host against SARS-CoV-2 infection, which could serve as a potential therapeutic and prophylactic maneuver to COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Indutores de Interferon/farmacologia , Interferon beta/farmacologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Mucosa Respiratória/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Pulmão/imunologia , Pandemias , Vírus da SARS/imunologia
11.
Toxicol Lett ; 332: 130-139, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645461

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental contaminant that triggers toxic effects in various tissues such as the kidney, liver, and lung. Cd can also cause abnormal iron metabolism, leading to anemia. Iron homeostasis is regulated by intestinal absorption. However, whether Cd affects the iron absorption pathway is unclear. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between the intestinal iron transporter system and Cd-induced iron deficiency anemia. C57BL/6J female and male mice, 129/Sv female mice, and DBA/2 female mice were given a single oral dose of CdCl2 by gavage. After 3 or 24 h, Cd decreased serum iron concentrations and inhibited the expression of iron transport-related genes in the duodenum. In particular, Cd decreased the levels of divalent metal transporter 1 and ferroportin 1 in the duodenum. In addition, human colon carcinoma Caco-2 cells were treated with CdCl2. After 72 h, Cd decreased the expression of iron transport-related factors in Caco-2 cells with a pattern similar to that seen in the murine duodenum. These findings suggest that Cd inhibits iron absorption through direct suppression of iron transport in duodenal enterocytes and contributes to abnormal iron metabolism.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/induzido quimicamente , Cádmio/toxicidade , Duodeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Duodeno/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico Ativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2 , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Cloreto de Cádmio/toxicidade , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 19376-19387, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719140

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are associated with dysbiosis of the gut microbiome. Emerging evidence suggests that small-molecule metabolites derived from bacterial breakdown of a variety of dietary nutrients confer a wide array of host benefits, including amelioration of inflammation in IBDs. Yet, in many cases, the molecular pathways targeted by these molecules remain unknown. Here, we describe roles for three metabolites-indole-3-ethanol, indole-3-pyruvate, and indole-3-aldehyde-which are derived from gut bacterial metabolism of the essential amino acid tryptophan, in regulating intestinal barrier function. We determined that these metabolites protect against increased gut permeability associated with a mouse model of colitis by maintaining the integrity of the apical junctional complex and its associated actin regulatory proteins, including myosin IIA and ezrin, and that these effects are dependent on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Our studies provide a deeper understanding of how gut microbial metabolites affect host defense mechanisms and identify candidate pathways for prophylactic and therapeutic treatments for IBDs.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Células CACO-2 , Colite Ulcerativa/dietoterapia , Colite Ulcerativa/microbiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Inflamação , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Miosina não Muscular Tipo IIA/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Triptofano/administração & dosagem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236300, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702056

RESUMO

Breadfruit is a traditional staple crop from Pacific islands with the potential to improve worldwide food security and mitigate diabetes. Flour produced from breadfruit is a gluten-free, low glycemic index, nutrient dense and complete protein option for modern foods but basic scientific knowledge of health impacts of a breadfruit-based diet in animals and humans was lacking. We designed a series of studies to provide basic and fundamental data on impacts of a breadfruit-based diet through an in vitro and in vivo model. Cooked breadfruit flour was digested through a multi-stage enzyme digestion model to estimate protein digestibility in comparison to wheat flour. Breadfruit protein was found to be easier to digest than wheat protein in the enzyme digestion model. The flour digestions were applied to Caco-2 cells to test the cytotoxicity and to measure the immunogenicity through cytokine expression. No significant differences were observed for immune factors and cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-γ) on Caco-2 cells between the breadfruit and wheat groups. A breadfruit-based rodent chow was formulated by substitution of all of the wheat in the standard formulation with breadfruit. The diets were isocaloric, nutrient equivalent and used to feed male and female C57BL/6 mice for 21 days. No sign of malnutrition, discomfort, illness or death was observed among the mice because of the diet. The histology and the cytokine expression of the mice ileum from both groups were analyzed and showed similar results. The expression of major bacteria was measured in the colon and showed similar results. Mice fed the breadfruit diet had a significantly higher growth rate and body weight than standard diet fed mice. No negative health outcomes were observed in studies with in vitro or in vivo models and breadfruit flour is a healthy alternative to other starches for modern foods.


Assuntos
Artocarpus/química , Farinha , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Alimentos , Animais , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2 , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dieta , Fezes/química , Humanos , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/patologia , Interleucina-1beta/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Minerais/análise , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo
14.
Life Sci ; 257: 118126, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707053

RESUMO

AIMS: Rab31, a Rab5 subfamily member, has emerged as a modulator of membrane trafficking. Our study serves to clarify the role and mechanism of Rab31 in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) pathogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The differential expression of Rab31 was examined in paired normal and cancerous colonic tissues by quantitative PCR, western blot and immunochemistry. The prognostic significance of Rab31 was analysed by univariate and multivariate survival analyses. We also investigated the effects of Rab31 on tumour growth in vitro. KEY FINDINGS: We observed that Rab31, which is related to histological differentiation in CRC, was markedly overexpressed in CRC cells. Moreover, patients who showed higher Rab31 levels had a shortened survival period relative to those with low Rab31 levels. Rab31 knockdown significantly downregulated cyclin D1, p-mTOR, and p-p70S6K expression. Moreover, the expression of Rab31-induced p-p70S6K was almost inhibited by rapamycin, a well-established inhibitor of mTOR. Similarly, rapamycin also significantly decreased the stimulatory effect of Rab31 on the expression of cyclin D1. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggested that Rab31 enhanced proliferation, promoted cell cycle progression, and inhibited apoptosis of colorectal carcinoma cells through the mTOR pathway.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Idoso , Apoptose , Western Blotting , Células CACO-2 , Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sobrevida , Regulação para Cima
15.
Cell ; 182(3): 685-712.e19, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645325

RESUMO

The causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has infected millions and killed hundreds of thousands of people worldwide, highlighting an urgent need to develop antiviral therapies. Here we present a quantitative mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics survey of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Vero E6 cells, revealing dramatic rewiring of phosphorylation on host and viral proteins. SARS-CoV-2 infection promoted casein kinase II (CK2) and p38 MAPK activation, production of diverse cytokines, and shutdown of mitotic kinases, resulting in cell cycle arrest. Infection also stimulated a marked induction of CK2-containing filopodial protrusions possessing budding viral particles. Eighty-seven drugs and compounds were identified by mapping global phosphorylation profiles to dysregulated kinases and pathways. We found pharmacologic inhibition of the p38, CK2, CDK, AXL, and PIKFYVE kinases to possess antiviral efficacy, representing potential COVID-19 therapies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Células A549 , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Células CACO-2 , Caseína Quinase II/antagonistas & inibidores , Caseína Quinase II/metabolismo , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase/farmacologia , Fosforilação , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Células Vero , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
16.
Toxicon ; 185: 184-187, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673610

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the protective effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus against the toxicity of the Beauvericin on the Caco-2 cell line. After culturing Caco-2 cells and applying different concentrations of Beauvericin and L. acidophilus individually and in combination, cell viability was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at different times. The results indicate the potential risk of Beauvericin to human health and the interventional role of L. acidophilus, which improved cell viability in the presence of Beauvericin.


Assuntos
Depsipeptídeos/toxicidade , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Células CACO-2 , Humanos , Lactobacillus , Probióticos
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235563, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645092

RESUMO

Western blotting has been widely used for investigation of protein expression, posttranslational modifications, and interactions. Because western blotting usually involves heat-denaturation of samples prior to gel loading, clarification of detailed procedures for sample preparation have been omitted or neglected in many publications. We show here the case that even excellent primary antibodies failed to detect a specific protein of interest due to a routine heating practice of protein samples. We performed western blotting for transmembrane iron transporter proteins; SLC11A2 (divalent metal transporter 1, DMT1), SLC40A1 (ferroportin 1, Fpn1), and transferrin receptor-1 (TfR1), along with cytoplasmic iron storage protein ferritin H. Our results in 12 human culture cell lysates indicated that only unheated samples prior to gel loading gave rise to clear resolution of DMT1 protein, while heated samples (95°C, 5min) caused the loss of resolution due to DMT1 protein aggregates. Unheated samples also resulted in better resolution for Fpn1 and TfR1 western blots. Conversely, only heated samples allowed to detect ferritin H, otherwise ferritin polymers failed to get into the gel. Neither different lysis/sample loading buffers nor sonication improved the resolution of DMT1 and Fpn1 western blots. Thus, heating samples most critically affected the outcome of western blotting, suggesting the similar cases for thousands of other transmembrane and heat-sensitive proteins.


Assuntos
Western Blotting/métodos , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/análise , Fracionamento Celular/métodos , Células A549 , Anticorpos/imunologia , Células CACO-2 , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/imunologia , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Limite de Detecção , Células MCF-7
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008462, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anisakis spp. are nematode parasites found in a wide range of marine organisms. Human beings may accidentally become infected, showing the symptoms of anisakiasis and allergic responses. There has been evidence of increased intestinal permeability in A. simplex-sensitized subjects and that specific IgE titres increase in some allergic patients when fishery products are re-introduced into their diet. The aims of this work were to study the effect of A. simplex crude extract on the intestinal integrity and permeability by using Caco-2 cell monolayer. To analyse the capacity of Ani s 4 allergen to cross the epithelial barrier. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cellular bioenergetics, transepithelial electrical resistance, viability, permeability, reactive oxygen species generation and immunofluorescent staining of tight junction proteins were analysed. A. simplex crude extract compromises the Caco-2 cell monolayer integrity in a dose-dependent manner. This effect is detected at 1 hour of culture and integrity is recovered after 24 hours of culture. The epithelial barrier disruption is accompanied by an increase in paracellular permeability and reactive oxygen species production and by a delocalization of occludin and zonula occludens-1. Finally, Ani s 4, a thermostable and resistant to digestion allergen with cystatin activity, is able to cross the epithelial barrier in Caco-2 monolayer and reach a cumulative mean percentage of 22.7% of total concentration in the basolateral side after 24 hours of culture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that A. simplex induces an early and reversible alteration of integrity and permeability of Caco-2 cell monolayer and that an underlying mechanism of this effect would involve the oxidative stress and disruption of epithelial tight junctions. Additionally, it has been shown that Ani s 4 allergen is able to cross the epithelial barrier. These findings could explain the increased intestinal permeability observed in Anisakis-sensitized patients, the changes over time in IgE sensitization to A. simplex allergens, and the specific IgE persistence in Anisakis allergy.


Assuntos
Anisakis/química , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocludina/metabolismo , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/metabolismo , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Sobrevivência Celular , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Transporte Proteico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Extratos de Tecidos
19.
Cell Rep ; 32(1): 107863, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610043

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an unprecedented worldwide health problem that requires concerted and global approaches to stop the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Although SARS-CoV-2 primarily targets lung epithelium cells, there is growing evidence that the intestinal epithelium is also infected. Here, using both colon-derived cell lines and primary non-transformed colon organoids, we engage in the first comprehensive analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle in human intestinal epithelial cells (hIECs). Our results demonstrate that hIECs fully support SARS-CoV-2 infection, replication, and production of infectious de novo virus particles. We found that viral infection elicits an extremely robust intrinsic immune response where interferon-mediated responses are efficient at controlling SARS-CoV-2 replication and de novo virus production. Taken together, our data demonstrate that hIECs are a productive site of SARS-CoV-2 replication and suggest that the enteric phase of SARS-CoV-2 may participate in the pathologies observed in COVID-19 patients by contributing to increasing patient viremia and fueling an exacerbated cytokine response.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colo/virologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Interferons/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Colo/citologia , Colo/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Citocinas/sangue , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/patologia , Replicação Viral/imunologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234719, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colostrum, the milk produced during first few days after birth, is rich in immunoglobulins, antimicrobial peptides & growth factors. Multiple clinical trials using bovine colostrum are ongoing but with no assessment of test product bioactivity. OBJECTIVES: To examine variability of bioactivity between 20 commercial colostrum products, contribution of TGFß and EGFR in mediating effects, heat sensitivity of bioactivity and changes in bioactivity of colostrum milkings in the days following calving. DESIGN: In vitro bioactivity used AGS, RIE-1 and Caco-2 cell proliferation (Alamar blue) and migration (wounded monolayers) assays. Changes in colostrum bioactivity determined following addition of TGFß-neutralising antibody, EGFR blocker (Typhostin) and after heating (40-60°C, 60 min). In vivo bioassay assessed ability of colostrum gavage (2ml, 7mg/ml) to reduce gastric damage (NSAID + restraint) in rats. Milkings from 6 cows, days 0-3 post calving were assessed for bioactivity and growth factor concentrations. RESULT: Six-fold differences in pro-proliferative and migratory activity were seen comparing commercial products. Comparison of most- and least-active samples from in vitro studies showed two- to three-fold differences in ability to reduce gastric injury (86% reduction using most-active vs 48% using least-active, p<0.01). Tyrphostin reduced pro-migratory and proliferative activity by 23% and 55%. TGFß neutralisation reduced migratory activity by 83% but did not affect proliferation Heating colostrum powder to 50°C did not affect immunoactivity of haptoglobin, EGF, TGFß, IgG, IGF-1 or betacellulin but decreased bioactivity by >40%. Milking studies showed high bioactivity during first and second milkings on day 0 but 77% reduction by day 3. Changes in total protein, haptoglobin, EGF, TGFß, IgG and IGF-1 paralleled falls in bioactivity. CONCLUSION: Commercial colostrum products possess widely different bioactivity. Variation in heat exposure and/or proportion of day 0 colostrum content may contribute to this. Assessment of colostrum bioactivity has advantages to growth factor quantitation for quality control.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Colostro/metabolismo , Idoso , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Bovinos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
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