Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 12.035
Filtrar
1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1164: 207-224, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576551

RESUMO

Prostate cancers have a justified reputation as one of the most heterogeneous human tumours. Indeed, there are some who consider that advanced and castration-resistant prostate cancers are incurable, as a direct result of this heterogeneity. However, tumour heterogeneity can be defined in different ways. To a clinician, prostate cancer is a number of different diseases, the treatments for which remain equally heterogeneous and uncertain. To the pathologist, the histopathological appearances of the tumours are notoriously heterogeneous. Indeed, the genius of Donald Gleason in the 1960s was to devise a classification system designed to take into account the heterogeneity of the tumours both individually and in the whole prostate context. To the cell biologist, a prostate tumour consists of multiple epithelial cell types, inter-mingled with various fibroblasts, neuroendocrine cells, endothelial cells, macrophages and lymphocytes, all of which interact to influence treatment responses in a patient-specific manner. Finally, genetic analyses of prostate cancers have been compromised by the variable gene rearrangements and paucity of activating mutations observed, even in large numbers of patient tumours with consistent clinical diagnoses and/or outcomes. Research into familial susceptibility has even generated the least tractable outcome of such studies: the genetic loci are of low penetrance and are of course heterogeneous. By fractionating the tumour (and patient-matched non-malignant tissues) heterogeneity can be resolved, revealing homogeneous markers of patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais , Neoplasias da Próstata , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia
3.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 21(7): 471-474, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microvascular damage, clinically expressed by Raynaud's phenomenon, is generally the first symptom of the disease and the injured vascular cells, both endothelial and perivascular, may transdifferentiate to myofibroblasts, thus leading to collagen deposition in the tissue and consequent fibrosis. Systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma) is complex disease characterized by autoimmunity, vasculopathy, and fibrosis. It has been shown that microvascular damage may be the first symptom of SSc. Injured endothelial cells and pericytes may transdifferentiate into myofibroblasts, the cells responsible for fibrosis and collagen deposition in the tissue. Based on these factors, the process of myofibroblast generation may link two pivotal events of SSc: microvascular damage and fibrosis. Understanding the development, differentiation, and function of myofibroblasts is therefore crucial to individuate early pathogenetic events and develop new therapeutic target for SSc, a condition in which no disease-modifying agents are available. The aim of this review was to discuss the possible origins of myofibroblasts in SSc, highlighting the process of endothelial mesenchymal transition and pericytes to myofibroblast transition and to show how these events may contribute to pathogenesis of the disease.


Assuntos
Miofibroblastos/citologia , Doença de Raynaud/fisiopatologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Fibrose/patologia , Humanos , Pericitos/citologia
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1161: 149-167, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562629

RESUMO

Inflammation is a common underlying factor in a diversity of ocular diseases, ranging from macular degeneration, autoimmune uveitis, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and microbial infection. In addition to the variety of known cellular mediators of inflammation, such as cytokines, chemokines and lipid mediators, there is now considerable evidence that sphingolipid metabolites also play a central role in the regulation of inflammatory pathways. Various sphingolipid metabolites, such as ceramide (Cer), ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P), sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), and lactosylceramide (LacCer) can contribute to ocular inflammatory diseases through multiple pathways. For example, inflammation generates Cer from sphingomyelins (SM) in the plasma membrane, which induces death receptor ligand formation and leads to apoptosis of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) and photoreceptor cells. Inflammatory stress by reactive oxygen species leads to LacCer accumulation and S1P secretion and induces proliferation of retinal endothelial cells and eventual formation of new vessels. In sphingolipid/lysosomal storage disorders, sphingolipid metabolites accumulate in lysosomes and can cause ocular disorders that have an inflammatory etiology. Sphingolipid metabolites activate complement factors in the immune-response mediated pathogenesis of macular degeneration. These examples highlight the integral association between sphingolipids and inflammation in ocular diseases.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias , Inflamação , Esfingolipídeos , Apoptose , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Oftalmopatias/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 391-406, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468417

RESUMO

Heat stress is an environmental factor that causes severe economic loss to the current intensive breeding industry and induces huge impact on the long-term growth in livestock and poultry industry. Many animal experiments confirmed that heat stress is a major cause of heat stroke death, which is due to severe damage to endothelial cells. In order to provide a theoretical basis for the treatment or mitigation of heat stress related diseases in broilers, the effect of taurine on injury and apoptosis of aortic endothelial cells in broilers under heat stress was investigated in the present study. Ten days healthy broilers were sacrificed, then aortic tissue was used to isolate and cultivate primary broiler aortic endothelial cells. The third to the fifth generations of cells were used in the experiment. The cells were randomly divided into five groups, including control group (C), heat stress group (HS), low taurine (HS+LTau) group, mild taurine (HS+MTau) group and high taurine (HS+HTau) group. Cells in all groups were cultivated for 24 h in cell incubator (37 °C, 5% CO2). Then the heat stress group cells were cultivated in a 43 °C thermostatic water bath for 6 h under heat stress, and then re-incubated under 37 °C for 1 h. The results showed that compared with the control group, expression levels of Bax, Caspase-9, Caspase-3, Cyt-c, P53 and other pro-apoptosis factors in HS groups were significantly increased (P < 0.05), while expression levels of anti-apoptosis factor Bcl-2 showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05). Compared with HS group, expression levels of Bcl-2 in endothelial cells were significantly increased by taurine administration (P < 0.05), while expression of Bax, Caspase-9, Caspase-3, Cyt-c and P53 were significantly increased by taurine (P < 0.05). In summary, the present data indicated that taurine could protect against injury and apoptosis of aortic endothelial cells under heat stress by inhibiting the activation of mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathways.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta/citologia , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Distribuição Aleatória
6.
Cornea ; 38(9): 1137-1141, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394553

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The prospective case series aimed to examine the agreement between the use of a slit-scanning contact specular microscope and a noncontact specular microscope in corneal endothelial cell (CEC) analysis and to evaluate the differences between the central and peripheral regions in normal corneas. METHODS: After confirming normal corneal endothelium with slit-lamp microscopy, CEC images of 56 eyes of 56 cataractous patients were analyzed in the central and 4 peripheral regions using a slit-scanning contact specular microscope. A noncontact specular microscope was used for the analysis in the central region. The endothelial cell density (ECD), the percentage of hexagonal shape cells (HEX), and the coefficient of variation (CV) in the central region were compared. Differences between central and peripheral CECs were also evaluated. RESULTS: The mean ECD was 2778 cell/mm and was not different from the results using the noncontact specular microscope (2736 cell/mm, P = 0.051). There was a significant correlation (P < 0.001, R = 0.72). The analysis of HEX resulted in larger values with the slit-scanning contact microscope (53.13% vs. 48.89%, P < 0.001), whereas there was no difference in the CV (38.48 vs. 38.04, P = 0.56). On comparing the central and peripheral regions, there was no significant difference in the ECD, whereas significant differences were found in the superior region in the HEX and CV (P < 0.001) and in the nasal region in CV (P = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of ECD with the use of the slit-scanning contact specular microscope did not differ from the noncontact specular microscope, and the results demonstrated no difference between the central and peripheral ECD.


Assuntos
Catarata/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Epitélio Posterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Microscopia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Contagem de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Microscopia com Lâmpada de Fenda
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1165: 145-163, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399965

RESUMO

Renal fibrosis has been regarded as the common pathway of end-stage renal failure. Understanding the fundamental mechanism that leads to renal fibrosis is essential for developing better therapeutic options for chronic kidney diseases. So far, the main abstractions are on the injury of tubular epithelial cells, activation of interstitial cells, expression of chemotactic factor and adhesion molecule, infiltration of inflammatory cells and homeostasis of ECM. However, emerging studies revealed that endothelial cells (ECs) might happen to endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) dependent and/or independent endothelial dysfunction, which were supposed to accelerate renal fibrosis and are identified as new mechanisms for the proliferation of myofibroblasts as well. In this chapter, we are about to interpret the role of ECs in renal fibrosis and analyze the related molecules and pathways of both EndMT and EndMT independent endothelial dysfunction.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/citologia , Rim/patologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fibrose , Humanos , Miofibroblastos/citologia
8.
Nature ; 571(7764): 205-210, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270459

RESUMO

The mammalian brain contains neurogenic niches that comprise neural stem cells and other cell types. Neurogenic niches become less functional with age, but how they change during ageing remains unclear. Here we perform single-cell RNA sequencing of young and old neurogenic niches in mice. The analysis of 14,685 single-cell transcriptomes reveals a decrease in activated neural stem cells, changes in endothelial cells and microglia, and an infiltration of T cells in old neurogenic niches. T cells in old brains are clonally expanded and are generally distinct from those in old blood, which suggests that they may experience specific antigens. T cells in old brains also express interferon-γ, and the subset of neural stem cells that has a high interferon response shows decreased proliferation in vivo. We find that T cells can inhibit the proliferation of neural stem cells in co-cultures and in vivo, in part by secreting interferon-γ. Our study reveals an interaction between T cells and neural stem cells in old brains, opening potential avenues through which to counteract age-related decline in brain function.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/citologia , Movimento Celular , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Neurogênese , Análise de Célula Única , Nicho de Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Animais , Sangue , Proliferação de Células , Células Clonais/citologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/citologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
9.
Gene ; 711: 143948, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255737

RESUMO

The incidence of atherosclerosis is greatly increased, which becomes the leading cause for the death and disability worldwide. Endothelial cells dysfunction plays a substantial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. MicroRNA-148a-3p (miR-148a-3p) and circular RNA 0003575 (circ_0003575) modulated lipid metabolism and proliferative function of endothelial cells, respectively. However, the role of them in modulation of endothelial cell function and progression of atherosclerosis remains unknown. Endothelial cells were isolated from the aorta of Apoe-/- mice. miR-148a-3p in atherosclerosis patients and healthy controls were measured by qRT-PCR. Overexpression and knockdown of miR-148a-3p in endothelial cells were established. The proliferation, migration and apoptosis of endothelial cells were measured by MTT, Transwell, and fluorescence microscope, respectively. Online software (miRWalk 2.0 and RegRNA2.0) and databases (miRWalk, miRanda, RNA22, and Targetscan) were used to predict potential target genes of miR-148a-3p and circ_0003575. The expression of target genes was detected through western blotting. The expression of miR-148a-3p was significantly upregulated in patients with atherosclerosis as relative to healthy people. Overexpression of miR-148a-3p exhibited stimulatory effects on endothelial cell proliferation and migration and inhibited programmed cell death. Six intersection target genes, c-MAF, FOXO4, FOXO3, MITF, ETV7, and CRX, were predicted between miR-148a-3p and circ_0003575. The opposite effects of circ_0003575 and miR-148a-3p on the expression of FOXO4 and FOXO3, which are essential for lipid metabolism. We demonstrate that miR-148a-3p suppresses FOXO4 and FOXO3 expression via interruption of circ_0003575 function, which in turn impairs the proliferative and migratory function of endothelial cells, eventually exacerbating the atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/deficiência , Aterosclerose/genética , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Apoptose , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Camundongos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
10.
Chem Biol Interact ; 311: 108773, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351048

RESUMO

Hemangioma (HA) is tumor formed by hyper-proliferation of vascular endothelial cells. However, the potential effects of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) on the progression of HA are not well illustrated. Our present study revealed that MEHP exposure can significantly increase the in vitro proliferation of hemangioma-derived endothelial cells (HemECs). MEHP treatment can activate yes-associated protein (YAP), a key effector of Hippo pathway, by inhibiting its phosphorylation. The dephosphorylation of YAP induced by MEHP can promote the nuclear accumulation of YAP. Knockdown of YAP or its inhibitor can block MEHP triggered cell proliferation. MEHP can increase the levels of precursor and mature mRNA of YAP in HemECs. As well, MEHP extended the half-life of YAP protein. Mechanistically, MEHP can decrease the phosphorylation of YAP via suppressing the activity of large tumor suppressor kinase 1/2 (LATS1/2) to inhibit it induced degradation of YAP. Further, MEHP increased the expression of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1), which can bind to the promoter of YAP to initiate its transcription. Collectively, we revealed that Hippo-YAP signal is involved in MEHP-induced proliferation of HA cells.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dietilexilftalato/análogos & derivados , Hemangioma/patologia , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Dietilexilftalato/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Hemangioma/metabolismo , Humanos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Estabilidade Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1089-1098, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235908

RESUMO

Pericytes are positioned between brain capillary endothelial cells, astrocytes and neurons. They degenerate in multiple neurological disorders. However, their role in the pathogenesis of these disorders remains debatable. Here we generate an inducible pericyte-specific Cre line and cross pericyte-specific Cre mice with iDTR mice carrying Cre-dependent human diphtheria toxin receptor. After pericyte ablation with diphtheria toxin, mice showed acute blood-brain barrier breakdown, severe loss of blood flow, and a rapid neuron loss that was associated with loss of pericyte-derived pleiotrophin (PTN), a neurotrophic growth factor. Intracerebroventricular PTN infusions prevented neuron loss in pericyte-ablated mice despite persistent circulatory changes. Silencing of pericyte-derived Ptn rendered neurons vulnerable to ischemic and excitotoxic injury. Our data demonstrate a rapid neurodegeneration cascade that links pericyte loss to acute circulatory collapse and loss of PTN neurotrophic support. These findings may have implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of neurological disorders that are associated with pericyte loss and/or neurovascular dysfunction.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/fisiologia , Citocinas/fisiologia , Degeneração Neural/fisiopatologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/fisiologia , Neurônios/patologia , Pericitos/fisiologia , Choque/fisiopatologia , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Capilares/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Transporte/uso terapêutico , Células Cultivadas , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Citocinas/deficiência , Citocinas/uso terapêutico , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Feminino , Genes Reporter , Infusões Intraventriculares , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Degeneração Neural/tratamento farmacológico , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Choque/metabolismo , Choque/patologia
12.
Life Sci ; 232: 116598, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247209

RESUMO

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are a rare cell population in adult bone marrow, mobilized peripheral blood, and umbilical cord blood possessing self-renewal and differentiation capability into a full spectrum of blood cells. Bone marrow HSC transplantation has been considered as an ideal option for certain disorders treatment including hematologic diseases, leukemia, immunodeficiency, bone marrow failure syndrome, genetic defects such as thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, autoimmune disease, and certain solid cancers. Ex vivo proliferation of these cells prior to transplantation has been proposed as a potential solution against limited number of stem cells. In such culture process, MSCs have also been shown to exhibit high capacity for secretion of soluble mediators contributing to the principle biological and therapeutic activities of HSCs. In addition, endothelial cells have been introduced to bridge the blood and sub tissues in the bone marrow, as well as, HSCs regeneration induction and survival. Cell culture in the laboratory environment requires cell growth strict control to protect against contamination, symmetrical cell division and optimal conditions for maximum yield. In this regard, microfluidic systems provide culture and analysis capabilities in micro volume scales. Moreover, two-dimensional cultures cannot fully demonstrate extracellular matrix found in different tissues and organs as an abstract representation of three dimensional cell structure. Microfluidic systems can also strongly describe the effects of physical factors such as temperature and pressure on cell behavior.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Sangue Fetal/citologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia
13.
Cornea ; 38(9): 1175-1181, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169610

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate if the peripheral corneal endothelium that is discarded after the preparation of preloaded Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) grafts for transplantation could be successfully used for corneal endothelial cell culture. METHODS: Complete Descemet membrane-endothelial complex (11.00 mm) was peeled from research-grade tissues (n = 15). The periphery (2.75 mm) of clinical-grade tissues (n = 15) deemed for preloaded DMEK transplants was gently peeled and preserved for 48 hours in tissue culture media, followed by centrifugation at 1000 rpm for 5 minutes. After enzymatic digestion, the cells from each group were plated in 2 different wells of an 8-well chamber slide. Media were refreshed and the confluence rate was monitored every alternate day. Live/dead staining and the expression of ZO-1, Tag1A3, Tag2A12, and Ki-67 markers were used to assess the viability, morphology, tight-junctions, cell area, and number of proliferative cells. The Wilcoxon and Student's t test were applied, where P < 0.05 was deemed statistically significant. RESULTS: Average endothelial cell density at confluence was 2,352 cells/mm2 from complete endothelium and 2,510 cells/mm from peripheral endothelium (P = 0.0351). The confluence rate (%), hexagonality (%), polymorphism (%), cell area (µm), and Ki-67 positivity (%) did not differ between both groups (P > 0.05). All the antibodies were expressed in both groups at confluence. CONCLUSIONS: The discarded peripheral endothelial cells obtained after preparing a preloaded DMEK graft for clinical application has a huge reservoir of healthy endothelial cells having proliferative potential. Using these discarded tissue pieces from donor tissues will significantly increase the primary source of healthy donor endothelial cells for regenerative treatments, which are otherwise difficult to obtain.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Ceratoplastia Endotelial com Remoção da Lâmina Limitante Posterior , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Epitélio Posterior/citologia , Doadores de Tecidos , Contagem de Células , Lâmina Limitante Posterior/cirurgia , Humanos
14.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 84(4): 358-369, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228927

RESUMO

Cytoplasmic actin structures are essential components of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. According to the classic concepts, actin structures perform contractile and motor functions, ensuring the possibility of cell shape changes during cell spreading, polarization, and movement both in vitro and in vivo, from the early embryogenesis stages and throughout the life of a multicellular organism. Intracellular organization of actin structures, their biochemical composition, and dynamic properties play a key role in the realization of specific cellular and tissue functions and vary in different cell types. This paper is a review of recent studies on the organization and properties of actin structures in endotheliocytes, interaction of these structures with other cytoskeletal components and elements involved in cell adhesion, as well as their role in the functional activity of endothelial cells.


Assuntos
Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto de Actina/química , Actinas/química , Actinas/genética , Caderinas/química , Caderinas/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/química , Microtúbulos/metabolismo
15.
Anticancer Res ; 39(6): 2739-2747, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate the vascular normalization effect of traditional Chinese medicine Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Curcuma wenyujin (CW) on tumor-derived endothelial cells (TECs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: TECs were isolated from the xenografted HCC cell line HepG2 expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP). The effect of AM and CW on TECs proliferation was measured using the CCK8 assay. The vascular normalization potential of AM and CW was assessed using a tube formation assay. Immunocytochemistry was performed to assess the effect of AM and CW on the expression of angiogenic maker CD34 and hypoxia-inducible factor HIF1a. RESULTS: The isolated TECs and endothelioma (EOMA) cells did not differ with regard to the expression levels of endothelial markers CD34, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, PDGFR-α and PDGFR-ß. All AM, CW, AM+CW and Nintedanib (Nin) showed a dose-dependent increasing inhibition effect on either TECs or EOMA cells. AM, CW and AM+CW significantly reduced HIF1a expression, increased CD34 expression and enhanced endothelial network formation in TECs or EOMA cells compared to the control. CONCLUSION: AM and CW promoted vascular normalization in tumor-derived endothelial cells of HCC, through increased expression of CD34 and reduced expression of HIF1a.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Animais , Astragalus propinquus/química , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/irrigação sanguínea , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcuma/química , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/irrigação sanguínea , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Camundongos , Transplante de Neoplasias , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Cornea ; 38(7): 873-879, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170105

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the temporal effect of toric implantable collamer lens (TICL) implantation and location on corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) over a period of 36 months after surgery. METHODS: ECD [number of cells per square millimeter estimated using the Specular Microscope SP-1P (Topcon Europe Medical B.V., Netherlands)] data were collected from cases deemed suitable for the TICL (VTICMO, VTICM5; STAAR Surgical, Nidau, Switzerland). The preoperative refractive error (sphere and cylinder) ranged from -1.00 to -22.25 diopter sphere and from -0.50 to -5.50 diopter cylinder. ECD was evaluated at preoperative and all postoperative sessions. RESULTS: Key findings were as follows: the mean ECD (±SD, 95% confidence interval) was 2720 cells/mm (±272, 2620-2820 cells/mm) preoperatively, which was reduced to 2372 cells/mm (±325, 2250-2490 cells/mm) at 36 months postoperatively (P < 0.001). Linear regression revealed the following significant correlations between the (1) log of the change in ECD (y1) and log of preoperative ECD (x1) at 2 years postoperatively, y1 = 2.513x1-6.2816 (n = 62, r= 0.3503, P = 0.005); (2) mean ECD (y2) and log time (in months, x2), y2= 2543.7-36.997x2-38.99x2 (r=-0.9654, n = 7, P = 0.0004); and (3) mean axial distance between the front surface of the crystalline lens and the TICL back surface (y3) and time postoperatively (in months, x3), y3 = 0.1035x3-5.2808x3 +473.18 (r = 0.8512, n = 7, P = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Expected ECD loss after TICL implantation by 2 years postoperatively is predictable. On average, over 3 years after implantation, there is (1) an initial rapid decline in ECD, followed by a gradual fall in the rate of cell loss, and (2) a gradual fall in the distance between the TICL and the crystalline lens by 2 years postoperatively, followed by a reversal by the third year.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo/cirurgia , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Epitélio Posterior/citologia , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Miopia Degenerativa/cirurgia , Lentes Intraoculares Fácicas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Refrativos/métodos , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Contagem de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Life Sci ; 229: 116-123, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082401

RESUMO

AIMS: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the leading cause of non-traumatic neurological disability in young adults, and its diagnosis is often delayed due to the lack of diagnostic markers. Initiation of disease -modifying therapy in the early stages of MS is especially critical because currently available therapy mostly target relapsing-remitting MS, and is less effective as disease progresses into the more chronic form of secondary-progressive MS. Therefore, exploring specific and sensitive biomarkers will facilitate an expedited and more accurate diagnosis to allow currently available therapies to be more effective. MAIN METHODS: Western blotting was conducted to detect the expression of neurolymphatic proteins in human brain endothelial cells in culture. Additionally, using a cohort of 150 patients with relapsing remitting MS, 26 with secondary progressive MS, and 60 healthy control samples, neurolymphatic protein expression was detected in serum samples using dot blot analysis. KEY FINDINGS: Human brain microvascular endothelial cells express neurolymphatic markers. Neurolymphatic protein abundance increases with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α stimulation but decreases with interferon (IFN)- γ or combined (TNF + IFN) treatment. Circulating neurolymphatic protein levels is significantly lower in MS patients. Further, one of the markers, FOXC2, is associated with the clinical stages of MS, with significantly lower expression in secondary progressive MS compared to relapsing remitting MS. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings describe brain endothelial expression of neurolymphatic proteins, which is altered under inflammatory stress, and provide a possibility of using a collective pool of circulating neurolymphatic proteins as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of MS.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Inflamação/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/imunologia , Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Endotélio Vascular/imunologia , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/imunologia
18.
Mol Med Rep ; 19(6): 5195-5202, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059098

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are considered to be critical mediators of gene expression with respect to tumor progression, although their role in ischemia­induced angiogenesis is poorly characterized, including in peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Furthermore, the underlying mechanism of action of specific miRNAs in PAD remains unknown. Reverse transcription­quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that microRNA­93 (miR­93) was significantly upregulated in patients with PAD and in the EA.hy926 endothelial cells in response to hypoxia. Additionally, miRNA (miR)­93 promoted angiogenesis by enhancing proliferation, migration and tube formation. Cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A), verified as a potential target gene of miR­93, was inhibited by overexpressed miR­93 at the protein and mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, a hind­limb ischemia model served to evaluate the role of miR­93 in angiogenesis in vivo, and the results demonstrated that miR­93 overexpression enhanced capillary density and perfusion recovery from hind­limb ischemia. Taken together, miR­93 was indicated to be a promising target for pharmacological regulation to promote angiogenesis, and the miR­93/CDKN1A pathway may function as a novel therapeutic approach in PAD.


Assuntos
Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Doença Arterial Periférica/patologia , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Idoso , Animais , Hipóxia Celular , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/química , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Membro Posterior/patologia , Humanos , Isquemia/metabolismo , Isquemia/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/química , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/sangue , Doença Arterial Periférica/genética
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2350, 2019 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138815

RESUMO

Endothelial cell migration, proliferation and survival are triggered by VEGF-A activation of VEGFR2. However, how these cell behaviors are regulated individually is still unknown. Here we identify Endophilin-A2 (ENDOA2), a BAR-domain protein that orchestrates CLATHRIN-independent internalization, as a critical mediator of endothelial cell migration and sprouting angiogenesis. We show that EndoA2 knockout mice exhibit postnatal angiogenesis defects and impaired front-rear polarization of sprouting tip cells. ENDOA2 deficiency reduces VEGFR2 internalization and inhibits downstream activation of the signaling effector PAK but not ERK, thereby affecting front-rear polarity and migration but not proliferation or survival. Mechanistically, VEGFR2 is directed towards ENDOA2-mediated endocytosis by the SLIT2-ROBO pathway via SLIT-ROBO-GAP1 bridging of ENDOA2 and ROBO1. Blocking ENDOA2-mediated endothelial cell migration attenuates pathological angiogenesis in oxygen-induced retinopathy models. This work identifies a specific endocytic pathway controlling a subset of VEGFR2 mediated responses that could be targeted to prevent excessive sprouting angiogenesis in pathological conditions.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/genética , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica/genética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Movimento Celular/genética , Polaridade Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Endocitose/genética , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Vasos Retinianos/citologia , Vasos Retinianos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quinases Ativadas por p21/metabolismo
20.
Mol Med Rep ; 19(6): 5291-5300, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059055

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis (AS) is an inflammatory disease that occurs in the arterial wall and is characterized by progressive lipid accumulation within the intima of large arteries, leading to the dysfunction of endothelial cells and further destruction of the endothelial barrier and vascular tone. Arterial intima injury accelerates the adhesion and activation of platelets at the injury site. The activation of platelets results in the secretion of growth factors, leading to the migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), promoting the formation of plaque, resulting in the formation of thrombus. The present study found that vorapaxar could alleviate the inflammatory response induced by a high concentration of cholesterol stimulation and increase the release of nitric oxide (NO) via the protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway and regulation of the intracellular concentration of Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). We also found that vorapaxar could reduce the damage of DNA caused by cholesterol stimulation and regulate the cell cycle via the AKT/JNK signaling pathway and its downstream molecules glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK­3ß) and connexin 43, maintaining the integrity of the endothelial barrier and proliferation of endothelial cells, serving a protective role in endothelial cells.


Assuntos
Lactonas/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/farmacologia , Conexina 43/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA