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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1267: 101-115, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894479

RESUMO

Pathogenic bacteria colonize or disseminate into cells and tissues by inducing large-scale remodeling of host membranes. The physical phenomena underpinning these massive membrane extension and deformation are poorly understood. Invasive strategies of pathogens have been recently enriched by the description of a spectacular mode of opening of large transendothelial cell macroaperture (TEM) tunnels correlated to the dissemination of EDIN-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus via a hematogenous route or to the induction of gelatinous edema triggered by the edema toxin from Bacillus anthracis. Remarkably, these highly dynamic tunnels close rapidly after they reach a maximal size. Opening and closure of TEMs in cells lasts for hours without inducing endothelial cell death. Multidisciplinary studies have started to provide a broader perspective of both the molecular determinants controlling cytoskeleton organization at newly curved membranes generated by the opening of TEMs and the physical processes controlling the dynamics of these tunnels. Here we discuss the analogy between the opening of TEM tunnels and the physical principles of dewetting, stemming from a parallel between membrane tension and surface tension. This analogy provides a broad framework to investigate biophysical constraints in cell membrane dynamics and their diversion by certain invasive microbial agents.


Assuntos
Bactérias/patogenicidade , Membrana Celular/microbiologia , Membrana Celular/patologia , Células Endoteliais/microbiologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Molhabilidade , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Edema/metabolismo , Edema/microbiologia , Edema/patologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Tensão Superficial
2.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5463-5469, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Periostin exists as an extracellular matrix protein in several carcinomas and is related to metastasis and poor prognosis. It is mainly secreted from cancer associated fibroblasts, and not from carcinoma cells. As a tumor microenvironment component, periostin usually mediates tumor cell stemness, metastasis, angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. This study aimed to examine the role of periostin in chondrosarcoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To evaluate the effect of periostin on the proliferation of chondrosarcoma cells, MTT assay was performed on SW1353 cells and periostin knockdown SW1353 cells. Migration activity was examined using Boyden chamber. RESULTS: Periostin, secreted from chondrosarcoma cells, was found to support proliferation, and maintain stemness and migration of chondrosarcoma cells. Periostin also induced proliferation and migration of lymphatic endothelial cells. CONCLUSION: Periostin plays an important role in chondrosarcoma development and disease progression.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Condrossarcoma/genética , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Condrossarcoma/patologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Humanos , Linfangiogênese/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
3.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 22(9): 63, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852642

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review current literature on endothelial dysfunction with previous coronaviruses, and present available data on the role of endothelial dysfunction in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection in terms of pathophysiology and clinical phenotype RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence suggests that signs and symptoms of severe COVID-19 infection resemble the clinical phenotype of endothelial dysfunction, implicating mutual pathophysiological pathways. Dysfunction of endothelial cells is believed to mediate a variety of viral infections, including those caused by previous coronaviruses. Experience from previous coronaviruses has triggered hypotheses on the role of endothelial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), which are currently being tested in preclinical and clinical studies. Endothelial dysfunction is the common denominator of multiple clinical aspects of severe COVID-19 infection that have been problematic for treating physicians. Given the global impact of this pandemic, better understanding of the pathophysiology could significantly affect management of patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Endotélio/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Betacoronavirus , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Endotélio/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias
4.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 26: 1076029620943293, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735131

RESUMO

Since the onset of the global pandemic in early 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a multitude of challenges to health care systems worldwide. In order to combat these challenges and devise appropriate therapeutic strategies, it becomes of paramount importance to elucidate the pathophysiology of this illness. Coronavirus disease 2019, caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2), is characterized by a dysregulated immune system and hypercoagulability. COVID-associated coagulopathy (CAC) was recognized based on profound d-dimer elevations and evidence of microthrombi and macrothrombi, both in venous and arterial systems. The underlying mechanisms associated with CAC have been suggested, but not clearly defined. The model of immunothrombosis illustrates the elaborate crosstalk between the innate immune system and coagulation. The rendering of a procoagulant state in COVID-19 involves the interplay of many innate immune pathways. The SARS-CoV2 virus can directly infect immune and endothelial cells, leading to endothelial injury and dysregulation of the immune system. Activated leukocytes potentiate a procoagulant state via release of intravascular tissue factor, platelet activation, NETosis, and inhibition of anticoagulant mechanisms. Additional pathways of specific relevance in CAC include cytokine release and complement activation. All these mechanisms have recently been reported in COVID-19. Immunothrombosis provides a comprehensive perspective of the several synergistic pathways pertinent to the pathogenesis of CAC.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Células Endoteliais/virologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Leucócitos/patologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Trombofilia/imunologia , Trombofilia/virologia , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/imunologia , Trombose/virologia
5.
Open Biol ; 10(8): 200208, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847471

RESUMO

COVID-19 management guidelines have largely attributed critically ill patients who develop acute respiratory distress syndrome, to a systemic overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Cardiovascular dysfunction may also represent a primary phenomenon, with increasing data suggesting that severe COVID-19 reflects a confluence of vascular dysfunction, thrombosis and dysregulated inflammation. Here, we first consolidate the information on localized microvascular inflammation and disordered cytokine release, triggering vessel permeability and prothrombotic conditions that play a central role in perpetuating the pathogenic COVID-19 cascade. Secondly, we seek to clarify the gateways which SARS-CoV-2, the causative COVID-19 virus, uses to enter host vascular cells. Post-mortem examinations of patients' tissues have confirmed direct viral endothelial infection within several organs. While there have been advances in single-cell RNA sequencing, endothelial cells across various vascular beds express low or undetectable levels of those touted SARS-CoV-2 entry factors. Emerging studies postulate alternative pathways and the apicobasal distribution of host cell surface factors could influence endothelial SARS-CoV-2 entry and replication. Finally, we provide experimental considerations such as endothelial polarity, cellular heterogeneity in organoids and shear stress dynamics in designing cellular models to facilitate research on viral-induced endothelial dysfunctions. Understanding the vascular underpinning of COVID-19 pathogenesis is crucial to managing outcomes and mortality.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Trombose/patologia , Permeabilidade Capilar/fisiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Citocinas/sangue , Células Endoteliais/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/imunologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Internalização do Vírus
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3866, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737287

RESUMO

Upon severe head injury (HI), blood vessels of the meninges and brain parenchyma are inevitably damaged. While limited vascular regeneration of the injured brain has been studied extensively, our understanding of meningeal vascular regeneration following head injury is quite limited. Here, we identify key pathways governing meningeal vascular regeneration following HI. Rapid and complete vascular regeneration in the meninges is predominantly driven by VEGFR2 signaling. Substantial increase of VEGFR2 is observed in both human patients and mouse models of HI, and endothelial cell-specific deletion of Vegfr2 in the latter inhibits meningeal vascular regeneration. We further identify the facilitating, stabilizing and arresting roles of Tie2, PDGFRß and Dll4 signaling, respectively, in meningeal vascular regeneration. Prolonged inhibition of this angiogenic process following HI compromises immunological and stromal integrity of the injured meninges. These findings establish a molecular framework for meningeal vascular regeneration after HI, and may guide development of wound healing therapeutics.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/genética , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica/genética , Regeneração/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Vasos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Vasos Sanguíneos/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/metabolismo , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Meninges/lesões , Meninges/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Receptor beta de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/genética , Receptor beta de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Receptor TIE-2/genética , Receptor TIE-2/metabolismo , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Cicatrização/genética
7.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(10): 2404-2407, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762443

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alveolar-capillary endothelial cells can be activated by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection leading to cytokine release. This could trigger endothelial dysfunction, pyroptosis, and thrombosis, which are the vascular changes, commonly referred to as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) endotheliopathy. Thus, this study aimed to identify tissue biomarkers associated with endothelial activation/dysfunction and the pyroptosis pathway in the lung samples of patients with COVID-19 and to compare them to pandemic influenza A virus H1N1 subtype 2009 and control cases. Approach and Results: Postmortem lung samples (COVID-19 group =6 cases; H1N1 group =10 cases, and control group =11 cases) were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and the following monoclonal primary antibodies: anti-IL (interleukin)-6, anti-TNF (tumor necrosis factor)-α, anti-ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1), and anticaspase-1. From the result, IL-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, and caspase-1 showed higher tissue expression in the COVID-19 group than in the H1N1 and control groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated endothelial dysfunction and suggested the participation of the pyroptosis pathway in the pulmonary samples. These conditions might lead to systemic thrombotic events that could impair the clinical staff's efforts to avoid fatal outcomes. One of the health professionals' goals should be to identify the high risk of thrombosis patients early to block endotheliopathy and its consequences.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Trombose/patologia , Doenças Vasculares/patologia , Autopsia , Biópsia por Agulha , Causas de Morte , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/mortalidade , Doenças Vasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Vasculares/fisiopatologia
8.
Science ; 369(6506)2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820093

RESUMO

In developed countries, the leading causes of blindness such as diabetic retinopathy are characterized by disorganized vasculature that can become fibrotic. Although many such pathological vessels often naturally regress and spare sight-threatening complications, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we used orthogonal approaches in human patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and a mouse model of ischemic retinopathies to identify an unconventional role for neutrophils in vascular remodeling during late-stage sterile inflammation. Senescent vasculature released a secretome that attracted neutrophils and triggered the production of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs ultimately cleared diseased endothelial cells and remodeled unhealthy vessels. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of NETosis prevented the regression of senescent vessels and prolonged disease. Thus, clearance of senescent retinal blood vessels leads to reparative vascular remodeling.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Vasos Retinianos/patologia , Animais , Senescência Celular , Retinopatia Diabética/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/imunologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Vasos Retinianos/imunologia
9.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000808, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817651

RESUMO

Although dysregulation of mitochondrial dynamics has been linked to cellular senescence, which contributes to advanced age-related disorders, it is unclear how Krüppel-like factor 5 (Klf5), an essential transcriptional factor of cardiovascular remodeling, mediates the link between mitochondrial dynamics and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) senescence. Here, we show that Klf5 down-regulation in VSMCs is correlated with rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), an age-related vascular disease. Mice lacking Klf5 in VSMCs exacerbate vascular senescence and progression of angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced AAA by facilitating reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Klf5 knockdown enhances, while Klf5 overexpression suppresses mitochondrial fission. Mechanistically, Klf5 activates eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5a (eIF5a) transcription through binding to the promoter of eIF5a, which in turn preserves mitochondrial integrity by interacting with mitofusin 1 (Mfn1). Accordingly, decreased expression of eIF5a elicited by Klf5 down-regulation leads to mitochondrial fission and excessive ROS production. Inhibition of mitochondrial fission decreases ROS production and VSMC senescence. Our studies provide a potential therapeutic target for age-related vascular disorders.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/genética , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fatores de Iniciação de Peptídeos/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Idoso , Angiotensina II/genética , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/metabolismo , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecocardiografia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Feminino , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/deficiência , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Iniciação de Peptídeos/deficiência , Cultura Primária de Células , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
10.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 26: 1076029620944497, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722927

RESUMO

The new type of pneumonia caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is endemic worldwide, and many countries cannot be spared, becoming a global health concern. The disease was named COVID-19 by the World Health Organization (WHO) on January 30, 2020, when the WHO declared the Chinese outbreak of COVID-19 to be a public health emergency of international concern. The clinical features of COVID-19 include dry cough, fever, diarrhea, vomiting, and myalgia. Similar to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, nearly 20% of patients experienced various fatal complications, including acute kidney injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by cytokine storm. Furthermore, systemic cytokine storm induced vascular endothelial injury, which extensively mediates hypercoagulability in blood vessels and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The autopsy pathology of COVID-19 confirmed the above. This article briefly summarizes the mechanism of hypercoagulability and thrombotic complications of severe COVID-19 and proposes that blood hypercoagulability and intravascular microthrombosis are the development nodes of severe COVID-19. Therefore, anticoagulation and anti-inflammatory therapy can be used as important treatment strategies for severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Trombofilia/virologia , Trombose/virologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/etiologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombofilia/etiologia , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/etiologia
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1207: 731-736, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671790

RESUMO

Several major cardiovascular diseases, such as heart failure (HF) and atherosclerosis (AS), have been linked to autophagy dysfunction. The influence of autophagy on the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases has two sides. Generally, the induction of autophagy at a low level can provide energy and nutrients for cells through degradation of damaged organelles, protect cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells, and stabilize atherosclerotic plaques. However, excessive autophagy may damage cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells and even cause cell death. Therefore, the study on the role and mechanism of autophagy in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases may not only provide new targets for the treatment of cardiac remodeling, myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis and heart failure, but also provide clues for the developing new drugs on prevention and treatment of clinical cardiovascular diseases. In this chapter, we reviewed the research progress on resveratrol, curcumin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and cordyceps sinensis on their recent research progress for cardiovascular diseases. Regulating autophagy may be an effective strategy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in the future.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Humanos , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia
12.
J Int Med Res ; 48(7): 300060520939746, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722979

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection is a serious global concern. Increased morbidity and mortality is associated with older age, male gender, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and smoking. As COVID-19 spreads from coastal borders, both state to state and country to country, our understanding of its pathophysiology has evolved. Age and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) play especially important roles in COVID-19 progression. T2DM is an age-related disease associated with metabolic syndrome, obesity, insulin resistance (hyperinsulinemia), hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and endothelial activation and dysfunction. This review evaluates the relationships and intersection between endothelial cell activation and dysfunction in T2DM and COVID-19. COVID-19 induces multiple injuries of the terminal bronchioles and alveolar blood-gas barrier and associated ultrastructural tissue remodeling. COVID-19 may unmask multiple vulnerabilities associated with T2DM including damage to the endothelial glycocalyx and multiple end-organ macro and microvascular diseases. Unmasking existing vulnerabilities in diabetic patients with COVID-19 is important. Globally, we must come together to better understand why T2DM is associated with increased COVID-19 morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Animais , Barreira Alveolocapilar/patologia , Barreira Alveolocapilar/fisiopatologia , Bronquíolos/patologia , Bronquíolos/fisiopatologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Alvéolos Pulmonares/fisiologia , Alvéolos Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Cicatrização/fisiologia
13.
Life Sci ; 258: 118136, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726662

RESUMO

The endothelium is a critical regulator of vascular homeostasis, controlling vascular tone and permeability as well as interactions of leukocytes and platelets with blood vessel walls. Consequently, endothelial dysfunction featuring inflammation and reduced vasodilation are considered central to cardiovascular disease (CVD) pathogenesis and have become a therapeutic area of focus. Type II endothelial cell (EC) activation by stress-related stimuli such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) initiates the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, a master regulator of inflammatory responses. Because dysregulated NF-κB signaling has been tightly linked to several CVDs, EC-specific inhibition of NF-κB represents an attractive pharmacological strategy. As accumulating evidence highlights the clinical benefits of tea catechin for multiple diseases including CVDs, we sought to determine whether the tea catechin epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) that displays antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, anti-thrombogenic, and anti-hypertensive properties offers protection against CVDs by suppressing the canonical NF-κB pathway. Our findings indicate that EGCG downregulates multiple components of the TNF-α-induced NF-κB signaling pathway and thereby reduces the consequent increase in inflammatory gene transcription and protein expression. Furthermore, EGCG blocked type II EC activation, evidenced by diminished EC leakage and monocyte adhesion in EGCG-treated cells. In summary, our study advances knowledge of EGCG's anti-inflammatory effects on the NF-κB pathway and hence its benefits on endothelial health, supporting its therapeutic potential for CVDs.


Assuntos
Catequina/análogos & derivados , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Catequina/farmacologia , Catequina/uso terapêutico , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
14.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 2244-2264, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640900

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Nanog is expressed in adult endothelial cells (ECs) at a low-level, however, its functional significance is not known. The goal of our study was to elucidate the role of Nanog in adult ECs using a genetically engineered mouse model system. Approach and Results: Biochemical analyses showed that Nanog is expressed in both adult human and mouse tissues. Primary ECs isolated from adult mice showed detectable levels of Nanog, Tert (telomerase reverse transcriptase), and eNos (endothelial nitric oxide synthase). Wnt3a (Wnt family member 3A) increased the expression of Nanog and hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase) in ECs and increased telomerase activity in these cells. In a chromatin immunoprecipitation experiment, Nanog directly bound to the hTERT and eNOS promoter/enhancer DNA elements, thereby regulating their transcription. Administration of low-dose tamoxifen to ROSAmT/mG::Nanogfl/+::Cdh5CreERT2 mice induced deletion of a single Nanog allele, simultaneously labeling ECs with green fluorescent protein and resulting in decreased Tert and eNos levels. Histological and morphometric analyses of heart tissue sections prepared from these mice revealed cell death, microvascular rarefaction, and increased fibrosis in cardiac vessels. Accordingly, EC-specific Nanog-haploinsufficiency resulted in impaired EC homeostasis and angiogenesis. Conversely, re-expression of cDNA encoding the hTERT in Nanog-depleted ECs, in part, restored the effect of loss of Nanog. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that low-level Nanog expression is required for normal EC homeostasis and angiogenesis in adulthood.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células , Senescência Celular , Vasos Coronários/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Proteína Homeobox Nanog/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasos Coronários/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Feminino , Fibrose , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína Homeobox Nanog/deficiência , Proteína Homeobox Nanog/genética , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Telomerase/genética , Telomerase/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Proteína Wnt3A/farmacologia
15.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 2171-2186, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640906

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM), consisting of dilated capillary channels formed by a single layer of endothelial cells lacking surrounding mural cells. It is unclear why CCM lesions are primarily confined to brain vasculature, although the 3 CCM-associated genes (CCM1, CCM2, and CCM3) are ubiquitously expressed in all tissues. We aimed to determine the role of CCM gene in brain mural cell in CCM pathogenesis. Approach and Results: SM22α-Cre was used to drive a specific deletion of Ccm3 in mural cells, including pericytes and smooth muscle cells (Ccm3smKO). Ccm3smKO mice developed CCM lesions in the brain with onset at neonatal stages. One-third of Ccm3smKO mice survived upto 6 weeks of age, exhibiting seizures, and severe brain hemorrhage. The early CCM lesions in Ccm3smKO neonates were loosely wrapped by mural cells, and adult Ccm3smKO mice had clustered and enlarged capillary channels (caverns) formed by a single layer of endothelium lacking mural cell coverage. Importantly, CCM lesions throughout the entire brain in Ccm3smKO mice, which more accurately mimicked human disease than the current endothelial cell-specific CCM3 deletion models. Mechanistically, CCM3 loss in brain pericytes dramatically increased paxillin stability and focal adhesion formation, enhancing ITG-ß1 (integrin ß1) activity and extracellular matrix adhesion but reducing cell migration and endothelial cell-pericyte associations. Moreover, CCM3-wild type, but not a paxillin-binding defective mutant, rescued the phenotypes in CCM3-deficient pericytes. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate for the first time that deletion of a CCM gene in the brain mural cell induces CCM pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Hemangioma Cavernoso do Sistema Nervoso Central/genética , Microvasos/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Pericitos/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/deficiência , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular , Movimento Celular , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Feminino , Adesões Focais/genética , Adesões Focais/metabolismo , Adesões Focais/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hemangioma Cavernoso do Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Hemangioma Cavernoso do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout , Microvasos/anormalidades , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Paxilina/metabolismo , Pericitos/patologia , Fenótipo , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 2212-2226, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640908

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The ductus arteriosus (DA) is a fetal artery connecting the aorta and pulmonary arteries. Progressive matrix remodeling, that is, intimal thickening (IT), occurs in the subendothelial region of DA to bring anatomic DA closure. IT is comprised of multiple ECMs (extracellular matrices) and migrated smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Because glycoprotein fibulin-1 binds to multiple ECMs and regulates morphogenesis during development, we investigated the role of fibulin-1 in DA closure. Approach and Results: Fibulin-1-deficient (Fbln1-/-) mice exhibited patent DA with hypoplastic IT. An unbiased transcriptome analysis revealed that EP4 (prostaglandin E receptor 4) stimulation markedly increased fibulin-1 in DA-SMCs via phospholipase C-NFκB (nuclear factor κB) signaling pathways. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis demonstrated that fibulin-1 binding protein versican was derived from DA-endothelial cells (ECs). We examined the effect of fibulin-1 on directional migration toward ECs in association with versican by using cocultured DA-SMCs and ECs. EP4 stimulation promoted directional DA-SMC migration toward ECs, which was attenuated by either silencing fibulin-1 or versican. Immunofluorescence demonstrated that fibulin-1 and versican V0/V1 were coexpressed at the IT of wild-type DA, whereas 30% of versican-deleted mice lacking a hyaluronan binding site displayed patent DA. Fibulin-1 expression was attenuated in the EP4-deficient mouse (Ptger4-/-) DA, which exhibits patent DA with hypoplastic IT, and fibulin-1 protein administration restored IT formation. In human DA, fibulin-1 and versican were abundantly expressed in SMCs and ECs, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Fibulin-1 contributes to DA closure by forming an environment favoring directional SMC migration toward the subendothelial region, at least, in part, in combination with EC-derived versican and its binding partner hyaluronan.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/metabolismo , Canal Arterial/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/deficiência , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Movimento Celular , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Canal Arterial/anormalidades , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/genética , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/patologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP4/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fosfolipases Tipo C/metabolismo
17.
Gene ; 760: 144965, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Immunologic contact urticaria (ICU) is an immediate response of wheal caused by various contactants in vulnerable individuals, with undefined pathogenesis. METHODS: In the present study, we aim to explore the effects of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) gene silencing by RNA inference (RNAi) on vascular endothelial cells (VECs) adhesion molecule expression and cell-cell adhesion in ICU mice. Sixty BALB/c mice were selected, among which 48 mice were used for establishment of ICU models. VECs from normal and ICU mice were grouped into different groups. Expressions of ICAM-1, eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP), total immunologlobulin E (tIgE), L-selectin (CD62L), integrin, alpha L (CD11a) in tissues and cells were evaluate by RT-qPCR and western blotting. Cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay and EdU staining and cell adhesive function by cell-cell adhesion assay. RESULTS: Compared with normal mice, ICU mice had increased expressions of ICAM-1, ECP, tIgE, CD62L, and CD11a.ICAM-1 gene silencing decreased expressions of ECP, tIgE, CD62L, and CD11a, enhanced cell proliferation, and more activity in cell adhesion. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that RNAi-mediated gene silencing of ICAM-1 may decrease VECs adhesion expression and reduce cell-cell adhesion in mice with ICU.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Urticária/genética , Animais , Adesão Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Feminino , Inativação Gênica , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Interferência de RNA , Urticária/metabolismo , Urticária/patologia
19.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(6): e1008634, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555637

RESUMO

Kaposi's Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV) is present in the main tumor cells of Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS), the spindle cells, which are of endothelial origin. KSHV is also associated with two B-cell lymphomas, Primary Effusion Lymphoma (PEL) and Multicentric Castleman's Disease. In KS and PEL, KSHV is primarily latent in the infected cells, expressing only a few genes. Although KSHV infection is required for KS and PEL, it is unclear how latent gene expression contributes to their formation. Proliferation of cancer cells occurs despite multiple checkpoints intended to prevent dysregulated cell growth. The first of these checkpoints, caused by shortening of telomeres, results in replicative senescence, where cells are metabolically active, but no longer divide. We found that human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are more susceptible to KSHV infection than their blood-specific endothelial cell counterparts and maintain KSHV latency to higher levels during passage. Importantly, KSHV infection of human LECs but not human BECs promotes their continued proliferation beyond this first checkpoint of replicative senescence. The latently expressed viral cyclin homolog is essential for KSHV-induced bypass of senescence in LECs. These data suggest that LECs may be an important reservoir for KSHV infection and may play a role during KS tumor development and that the viral cyclin is a critical oncogene for this process.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular , Ciclinas/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Infecções por Herpesviridae/metabolismo , Herpesvirus Humano 8/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Ciclinas/genética , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Células Endoteliais/virologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/patologia , Herpesvirus Humano 8/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Virais/genética
20.
Life Sci ; 256: 117957, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534035

RESUMO

AIMS: Sepsis-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common, high mortality complication in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. MicroRNA-92a (miR-92a) plays a role in many diseases, but its association with sepsis-induced ARDS is unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 53 patients, including 17 with sepsis only, and 36 with sepsis-induced ARDS. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to stimulate pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC) and alveolar epithelial A549 cells, which were used to investigate the miR-92a roles in ARDS. MiR-92a expression levels in patient serum and cells were quantified using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and protein expression was examined using Western blotting. The effect of miR-92a on apoptosis was examined using flow cytometry. Wound healing and transwell migration assays were used to evaluate cell migration. KEY FINDINGS: Serum miR-92a expression was higher in patients with sepsis-induced ARDS, when compared to patients with sepsis only. After LPS treatment in cells, miR-92a expression was higher when compared with control group, cell apoptosis and inflammatory responses were increased and cell migration was inhibited. However, cell apoptosis and inflammatory responses were decreased and cell migration was enhanced after miR-92a downregulation, when compared with inhibitor negative control (NC) group. Moreover, phosphorylated-Akt and phosphorylated-mTOR expression were increased after miR-92a inhibition. SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides evidence that circulating serum miR-92a could act as a risk factor for sepsis-induced ARDS. MiR-92a inhibition attenuated the adverse effects of LPS on ARDS through the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Movimento Celular , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/genética , Sepse/complicações , Células A549 , Idoso , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/genética , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Lipopolissacarídeos , MicroRNAs/sangue , MicroRNAs/genética , Microvasos/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/sangue , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
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