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1.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5515-5524, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Administration of cisplatin in cancer patients is limited by the kidney-related adverse effects; however, a protective strategy is absent. We hypothesized that fucoidan protects the proximal tubule epithelial (TH-1) cells against the effects of cisplatin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To assess the effect of fucoidan, its effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, DNA damage response (DDR), apoptosis, and cell-cycle arrest in TH-1 cells was investigated. RESULTS: Cisplatin increased the accumulation of ROS, leading to excessive ER stress. In presence of cisplatin, treatment of TH-1 cells with fucoidan significantly reduced the ER stress by maintaining the complex of GRP78 with PERK and IRE1α. In particular, fucoidan enhanced the antioxidative capacity through up-regulation of PrPC Furthermore, fucoidan suppressed cisplatin-induced apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest, whereas silencing of PRNP blocked these effects of fucoidan. CONCLUSION: Fucoidan may be a potential adjuvant therapy for cancer patients treated with cisplatin as it preserves renal functionality.


Assuntos
Cisplatino/farmacologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Túbulos Renais Proximais/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th1/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , eIF-2 Quinase/metabolismo
2.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495106

RESUMO

Objective: To study the effect of particulate matter 2.5 (PM(2.5)) on oncogene expression in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. Methods: HBE cells were selected as the study subjects, and PM(2.5) treatment group (10 µg/ml and 50 µg/ml) , negative control group and positive control group (10 µmol/L Cr(6+)) were set. CCK8 assay was used to test the IC(50) value of PM(2.5). HBE cells were treated with PM(2.5) for 24 h at 10 µg/ml and 50 µg/ml, additionally, cells were treated with blank as negative control, 10 µmol/L Cr(6+) as a positive control for 24 h. After the treatment, mRNA expression of oncogenes including c-myc, c-fos, k-ras and p53 were detected by fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR, the protein expression of oncogenes were detected with western blot. Results: The IC(50) value of PM(2.5) in HBE cells is 70.12 µg/ml. The qRT-PCR data showed that compared with the control group, the expression level of c-myc gene increased by respectively 500.1%、780.7%、305.3% after exposure to 10、50 µg/ml PM(2.5) and positive control group; c-fos gene increased respectively 34.0%、76.7%、131.3% after exposure to 10、50 µg/ml PM(2.5) and positive control group; k-ras gene increased respectively 50.3%、107.0%、49.7% after exposure to 10、50 µg/ml PM(2.5) and positive control group; p53 gene decreased by 28.3%、28.7%、59.7% after exposure to 10、50 µg/ml PM(2.5) and positive control group. The western blot results showed that compared with the control group, c-myc protein increased respectively 29.7%、77.3% after exposure to 50 µg/ml PM(2.5) and positive control group; c-fos protein increased respectively 200.3%、137.0% after exposure to 50 µg/ml PM(2.5) and positive control group; k-ras protein increased respectively 106.3%、130.3%、116.7% after exposure to 10、50 µg/ml PM(2.5) and positive control group; p53 protein decreased by 43.7%、53.3%、52.1% after exposure to 10、50 µg/ml PM(2.5) and positive control group. Conclusion: PM(2.5) could promote the expression of oncogenes in HBE cells, the carcinogenicity of haze might be related to promotion of oncogenes expression induced by PM(2.5).


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Oncogenes , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Brônquios/citologia , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
3.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 159: 144-153, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400776

RESUMO

Ivermectin is a pesticide that has been used for over 30 years in livestock. Although there are a number of studies on the therapeutic potential of ivermectin, little is known about the effects of the drug during the early stage of pregnancy. In this study, we investigated the detrimental effects of ivermectin on porcine trophectoderm (pTr) and uterine luminal epithelial (pLE) cells. Ivermectin not only inhibited the proliferation of both cells via the regulation of cell cycle-associated genes, but also induced apoptosis in pTr and pLE cells. We also verified its effect on mitochondrial dysfunction as shown by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in pTr and pLE cells. As a mechanistic approach, we evaluated ivermectin-mediated cell signaling interactions including PI3K, AKT and MAPK pathways. Overall, our results suggest that constant exposure to and accumulation of ivermectin may cause abnormal fetal morphogenesis and placentation during the early stages of pregnancy. Our results may further provide a comprehensive understanding of the detrimental effects of ivermectin during pregnancy and will contribute to the establishment of a complete safety profile for ivermectin and its association with environmental pollution and public health in humans and livestock.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Útero/citologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Suínos , Trofoblastos/citologia , Trofoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Toxicol Lett ; 315: 14-22, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400404

RESUMO

In vitro testing can facilitate the rapid assessment of next generation nicotine delivery products (NGPs) with comparisons to combustible tobacco products. In vitro assays for cytotoxicity and oxidative stress were employed at BAT (UK) and JT (Japan) to test total particulate matter (TPM) of a scientific reference cigarette and aerosol collected mass (ACM) of a commercially available E-cigarette and two tobacco heating products (THP). 3R4F TPMs were generated using the Health Canada intense (HCI) regimen, a modified regime (mHCI) for the THP ACMs and the CORESTA recommended method no. 81 for the E-cigarette ACM. Human lung cells were exposed to the test product TPM/ACMs at concentrations between 0-200 µg/ml followed by the employment of commercially available assays for endpoint analysis that included reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, the glutathione ratio (GSH:GSSG), activation of the antioxidant response elements (ARE) and cellular viability. TPM/ACM nicotine concentrations were quantified using a UPLC-PDA technique. At both laboratories the 3R4F TPM induced significant and dose-dependent responses in all in vitro assays, whereas no significant responses could be measured for the NGP ACMs. In conclusion, both laboratories obtained comparable results across all endpoints therefore demonstrating the utility of the in vitro techniques combined with standardised test products to support the assessment of NGPs.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Produtos do Tabaco/análise , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Humanos , Japão , Reino Unido
5.
Toxicol Lett ; 315: 1-8, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421153

RESUMO

Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been used clinically for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia and some solid tumors. However, the mechanisms of its anti-tumor effects are still elusive. Angiogenesis is a key process for tumor initiation, and increasing evidence has supported the role of anti-angiogenesis caused by arsenic in tumor suppression, although the detailed mechanism is not well understood. In the present study, we found that As2O3 significantly inhibited the angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro, and this was mediated by the upregulation of FoxO3a. Knockdown of FoxO3a could restore the angiogenic ability of HUVECs. Moreover, vascular endothelial cell-specific knockout of FoxO3a in mice could disrupt the anti-angiogenesis effect of As2O3 and endow the tumors with resistance to As2O3 treatments. Our results revealed a new mechanism by which As2O3 suppresses angiogenesis and tumor growth.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Trióxido de Arsênio/farmacologia , Trióxido de Arsênio/uso terapêutico , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Crescimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Veias Umbilicais/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 147-154, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468393

RESUMO

It has been confirmed by our laboratory that taurine could decrease uric acid levels in hyperuricemic rats and regulate the expressions of some urate transporters. The present study aims to investigate the effects of taurine on uric acid uptake in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2). The cell growth inhibition rate was measured by MTS assay, which was up to 50% after treatment with 1.5 mmol/L uric acid. After administration of 15 mmol/L taurine, the inhibition rate and uric acid uptake were both significantly decreased. Then the HK-2 cells were grouped as follows: control group (C); model group (M), in which 1.5 mmol/L uric acid was added to the medium; taurine group (MT), in which 1.5 mmol/L uric acid and 15 mmol/L taurine were added to the medium; and taurine control group (T), in which 15 mmol/L taurine was added to the medium. The mRNA and protein expression levels of URAT1 and GLUT9 were measured by real-time PCR and western-blot. The results showed that URAT1 and GLUT9 mRNA/protein expression levels in group M were significantly increased compared with group C, and they were both down-regulated in MT group. In addition, the expression levels of these two transporters in group T were significantly lower than group C. The results indicated that taurine could inhibit uric acid uptake and down-regulate the expressions of URAT1 and GLUT9 in HK-2 cells.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/farmacologia , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/metabolismo
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 739-746, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468444

RESUMO

The herbicide Paraquat induce oxidative stress-mediated lung injury. Taurine is a well-known antioxidant. This study was designed to explore the effect of taurine on paraquat-induced injury and its related mechanism in A549 cells. The cells were pretreated with various concentrations of taurine for 30 min prior to paraquat exposure. 24 h later, cell viability was examined by the MTT assay. The level of glutathione (GSH) and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were analyzed. The results show that taurine treatment significantly attenuates the decrease in cell viability mediated by paraquat in A549 cells. Taurine also reversed paraquat-induced disturbances in GSH content and GPx activity. Taurine exerts protection against paraquat-mediated A549 cell toxicity likely through modulation of oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo , Paraquat/toxicidade , Taurina/farmacologia , Células A549 , Células Cultivadas , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Pulmão/citologia
8.
Life Sci ; 234: 116735, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394124

RESUMO

AIMS: The present study was to investigate the protective effects of Zn supplementation in OTA-induced apoptosis of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells and explore the potential mechanisms. Aiming to provides a new insight into the treatment strategy of OTA-induced nephrotoxicity by nutritional regulation. MAIN METHODS: Initially, through MTT and LDH assay revealed that Zn supplementation significantly suppressed OTA-induced cytotoxicity in MDCK cells. Then, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by using a DCFH-DA assay. Annexin V-FITC/PI, Hoechst 33258 staining and Flow cytometry were used to detect the apoptosis. The expressions of apoptosis-related molecules were determined by RT-PCR, Western blotting. Interestingly, OTA treatment slightly increased the levels of Metallothionein-1 (MT-1) and Metallothionein-2 (MT-2) by using RT-PCR, Western blotting assay; while Zn supplementation further improved the increase of MT-1 and MT-2 induced by OTA. However, the inhibitive effects of Zn supplementation were significantly blocked after double knockdown of MT-1 and MT-2 by using Small Interfering RNA (siRNA) Transfection method. KEY FINDINGS: Our study provides supportive data for the potential roles of Zn in reducing OTA-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in MDCK cells. SIGNIFICANCE: Zn is one of the key structural components of many proteins, which plays an important role in several physiological processes such as cell survival and apoptosis. This metal is expected to contribute to the conservative and adjuvant treatment of kidney disease and should therefore be investigated further.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Metalotioneína/genética , Ocratoxinas/toxicidade , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Zinco/farmacologia , Animais , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8868-8874, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319027

RESUMO

Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), a primary bile acid, has been demonstrated to play important roles as a signaling molecule in various physiology functions. However, the role of CDCA in regulating intestinal barrier function remains largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CDCA on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-impaired intestinal epithelial barrier function and explore the underlying mechanisms. In IPEC-J2 cells, CDCA reversed the LPS-induced increase in transepithelial electrical resistance and decrease in tight junction protein expression. In addition, we found that farnesoid X receptor (FXR) but not Takeda G-protein receptor 5 was responsible for the CDCA-improved epithelial barrier function impaired by LPS. Furthermore, CDCA blocked LPS-induced activation of the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) pathway in a FXR-dependent manner and elicited similar effects to MLCK inhibition. In mice, CDCA supplementation restored LPS-induced elevation of intestinal permeability and MLCK expression and reduction of tight junction protein expression, thus alleviating LPS-induced intestinal barrier impairment. In conclusion, CDCA protected against the LPS-induced impairment of the intestinal epithelial barrier function via the FXR-MLCK pathway.


Assuntos
Ácido Quenodesoxicólico/administração & dosagem , Enteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Quinase de Cadeia Leve de Miosina/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Enteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Enteropatias/genética , Enteropatias/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Quinase de Cadeia Leve de Miosina/genética , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Junções Íntimas/efeitos dos fármacos , Junções Íntimas/genética , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8668-8676, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271028

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) on genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis in Caco-2 and HT-29 cells. C. vulgaris significantly induced DNA damage in both cell lines at a concentration of 200 µg dry matter/mL (comet tail intensity CTI: 24.6 ± 4.7% for Caco-2, 16.6 ± 0.9% for HT-29). The application of processing (sonication, ball-milling) did not affect the genotoxicity negatively and lowered the lipid peroxidation in C. vulgaris preparations. C. vulgaris-induced intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species in human cell lines and might be responsible for the genotoxic effect. A solid fraction mainly triggered the observed DNA damage (CTI: 41.5 ± 1.9%), whereas a hydrophilic (CTI: 7.9 ± 1.7%) and lipophilic (CTI: 10.2 ± 2.1%) fraction revealed a significantly lower tail intensity. C. vulgaris significantly induced DNA damage in both cell lines possibly through intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species; however, it was repaired after a 2 h recovery time or was even avoided at lower concentrations. In addition, none of the preparations indicated an adverse effect on cell proliferation or revealed apoptotic activity.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris/química , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Processos Autotróficos , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorella vulgaris/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chlorella vulgaris/efeitos da radiação , Ensaio Cometa , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Luz , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
11.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 267, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In practical production, dairy cows are frequently exposed to bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) when they are subjected to high-concentrate diets, poor hygienic environments, as well as mastitis and metritis. Histone acetylation is an important epigenetic control of DNA transcription and a higher histone acetylation is associated with facilitated transcription. LPS might reduce histone acetylation in the mammary epithelial cells, resulting in lower transcription and mRNA expression of lactation-related genes. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of LPS on histone acetylation in bovine mammary epithelial cells and the efficacy of sodium butyrate (SB) in suppressing the endotoxin-induced adverse effect. Firstly, the bovine mammary epithelial cell line MAC-T cells were treated for 48 h with LPS at different doses of 0, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 endotoxin units (EU)/mL (1 EU = 0.1 ng), and the acetylation levels of histones H3 and H4 as well as the histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity were measured. Secondly, the MAC-T cells were treated for 48 h as follows: control, LPS (100 EU/mL), and LPS (100 EU/mL) plus SB (10 mmol/L), and the acetylation levels of histones H3 and H4 as well as milk gene mRNA expressions were determined. RESULTS: The results showed that HDAC activity increased linearly with increasing LPS doses (P < 0.01). The histone H3 acetylation levels were significantly reduced by LPS, while the histone H4 acetylation levels were not affected by LPS (P > 0.05). Sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of HDAC, effectively suppressed the endotoxin-induced decline of histone H3 acetylation (P < 0.05). As a result, SB significantly enhanced the mRNA expression of lactation-related genes (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest one of the adverse effects of LPS on the lactation of bovine mammary gland epithelial cells was due to decreasing histone H3 acetylation through increasing HDAC activity, whereas the endotoxin-induced adverse effects were effectively suppressed by SB.


Assuntos
Ácido Butírico/farmacologia , Endotoxinas/toxicidade , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Histonas/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/farmacologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia
12.
Toxicol Lett ; 313: 150-158, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276768

RESUMO

Ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the most abundant food-contaminating mycotoxins, is a possible carcinogen to humans. We previously demonstrated that long-term (40 weeks) OTA exposure induces the malignant transformation of human gastric epithelium cells (GES-1) in vitro. However, the specific mechanism underlying OTA-induced gastric carcinogenesis is complex. In the present study, we used 2-DE and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF MS) combined with bioinformatics and immunoblotting to investigate the differentially expressed proteins between GES-1 and OTA-malignant transformed GES-1 cells (OTA-GES-1T cells) in vitro. We found that four differentially expressed proteins were identified after malignant transformation, including actin, cytoplasmic 1 (ACTB), F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha-1 (CAPZA1), Annexin A3 (ANXA3), thioredoxin peroxidase B from red blood cells (TPx-B) and Fibrinogen beta B (Fibrinogen ß). Among the differentially expressed proteins, the effect of Annexin A3 was analyzed by MTT assay, western blot, cell cycle analysis, wound healing assay, Transwell assay, and colony formation assay in OTA-GES-1T cells. The results showed that inhibition of Annexin A3 by siRNA effectively prevented the proliferation, migration, and invasion abilities of OTA-GES-1T cells. Collectively, the results of this study will guide future research on OTA carcinogenicity.


Assuntos
Anexina A3/metabolismo , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/induzido quimicamente , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocratoxinas/toxicidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/induzido quimicamente , Anexina A3/genética , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Biologia Computacional , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteômica/métodos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
13.
Anticancer Res ; 39(7): 3739-3744, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Cancer incidence and mortalities are growing worldwide, therefore research and development of more effective and less invasive treatments, such as photodynamic therapy, are needed. Herein, we investigated the methylene blue (MB) photoactivation effects in lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and lung adenocarcinoma cells (H-441). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the laser photoactivation of MB in aqueous solutions and cell cultures were measured with probes, and the cell viability was evaluated with a colorimetric assay. RESULTS: MB up to 31.26 µM did not induce detectable effects in BEAS-2B cells. However, H-441 cells presented adverse effects below that concentration in the same range of fluencies studied. These results are in concordance with the ROS production in H-441 cells, while in BEAS-2B cells the production of ROS was less significant compared to the control. CONCLUSION: Photoactivation of MB at concentrations below 31.26 µM could be used for the selective treatment of H-441 cells over non-cancer cells.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Luz , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Azul de Metileno/farmacologia , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
14.
Toxicol Lett ; 314: 43-52, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310794

RESUMO

Thioredoxin is an evolutionarily conserved antioxidant protein that plays a crucial role for fundamental cellular processes and embryonic development. Growing evidence support that Thioredoxin influences cellular response to chemicals insults, particularly those accompanying oxidative stress. The mechanisms underlying the functions of Thioredoxin1 in the embryonic development under the environmental toxicant exposure remain, however, largely unexplored. We report here that thioredoxin1 becomes differentially expressed in zebrafish embryos after exposure to 9 out of 11 environmental chemicals. In situ gene expression analysis show that thioredoxin1 is expressed in neurons, olfactory epithelia, liver and swim bladder under normal conditions. After MeHg exposure, however, thioredoxin1 is ectopically induced in the hair cells of the lateral line and in epithelia cells of the pharynx. Knockdown of Thioredoxin1 induces hydrocephalus and increases cell apoptosis in the brain ventricular epithelia cells. In comparison with 5% malformation in embryos injected with control morpholino, MeHg induces more than 77% defects in Thioredoxin1 knockdown embryos. Our data suggest that there is an association between hydrocephalus and Thioredoxin1 malfunction in embryonic development, and provide valuable information to elucidate the protective role of Thioredoxin1 against chemicals disruption.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Hidrocefalia/induzido quimicamente , Tiorredoxinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/embriologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/patologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Hidrocefalia/embriologia , Hidrocefalia/genética , Hidrocefalia/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiorredoxinas/genética , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
15.
Fitoterapia ; 137: 104252, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271787

RESUMO

The stems of Fissistigma polyanthoides (A.DC.) Merr. are traditionally used for the treatment of rheumatism and for recuperating women after childbirth. In our continuous phytochemical investigation of this plant, four new (1, 2, 5, and 19) and fifteen known (3, 4, and 6-18) phenolic compounds were isolated. The structures of all compounds were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analyses (1D-, 2D-NMR, and MS), and in comparison with reported literature data. The new natural products showed to be two poly-methoxylated chalcones (1 and 2) and two flavonoid glycosides, with 19 containing an uncommon sugar moiety (quinovose). Compounds with sufficient amount were tested for their anti-oxidant activity in a cell-based assay using the human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. The compounds' capacity to inhibit the peroxyl radical triggered formation of dichlorofluorescein (DCF) was investigated in a dose-dependent manner. Both, anti-oxidant (3, 4, 6, 8-12, and 14) and pro-oxidative (5 and 16) properties were found for the investigated substances. The half maximal concentrations (IC50) for the inhibition of ROS formation ranged between 18.8 µM and 63.5 µM. Compounds, which acted protectively in the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay and did not negatively affect cell viability, could be interesting targets for further investigations.


Assuntos
Annonaceae/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular , Chalconas/isolamento & purificação , Chalconas/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Vietnã
16.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 24: 33, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160892

RESUMO

Background: Induction of lysosomal function and autophagy is regarded as an adaptive mechanism in response to cellular stress. The transcription factor EB (TFEB) has been identified as a master regulator of lysosomal function and autophagy. TFEB is a member of the microphthalmia family of bHLH-LZ transcription factors that includes other members such as micropthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), TFE3, and TFEC. TFEB controls lysosome biogenesis and autophagy by upregulation of a family of genes belonging to the Coordinated Lysosomal Expression and Regulation (CLEAR) network. Here, we investigated the expression of TFEB in cells subjected to nutrient deprivation and lysosomal stress. We studied transcriptional induction of TFEB-regulated genes in response to nutrient deprivation and lysosomal stress in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Furthermore, we also investigated the induction of autophagy and lysosomal genes upon overexpression of constitutively active form of TFEB. Methods: Expression of TFEB and MITF protein levels were evaluated in cells subjected to prolonged periods of nutrient deprivation. mRNA levels of the CLEAR network genes was measured by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis in cells deprived of nutrients, treated with ammonium chloride and upon overexpression of constitutively active TFEB. Immunostaining with LC3 antibody was used to measure autophagy flux. Labeling with lysoTracker dye was used to assess lysosomes. Results: Our results show that nutrient deprivation increases protein levels of TFEB and MITF in ARPE-19 cells. Nutrient stress induces the expression of lysosomal (LAMP1, CTSD MCOLN1, SGSH) and autophagy (BECN1) genes. Lysosomal stress also increases the expression of lysosomal (ATP6V0A1 and LAMP1) and autophagy (p62 and BECN1) genes. Our results show that overexpression of constitutively active TFEB also induces the expression of CLEAR network genes. Conclusions: Collectively, these observations suggest that nutrient stress induces the protein expression of both MITF and TFEB in ARPE-19 cells. TFEB-regulated transcriptional program plays an important role in adaptive response of cells during both nutrient and lysosomal stress.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/patologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Adulto , Cloreto de Amônio/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
J Toxicol Sci ; 44(6): 415-424, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168028

RESUMO

Polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG-p) is an active ingredient of humidifier disinfectants and causes severe lung injury resulting in pulmonary fibrosis. Current evidence indicates that pulmonary fibrosis is initiated as a result of epithelial damage, which can lead to an inflammatory response and fibrotic cell infiltration; however, the toxic mechanism of PHMG-p on the epithelium is still unknown. In this study, the toxic response of PHMG-p on human lung epithelial cells was evaluated, and its mechanisms associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, and its relationship with p53 activation were investigated. The toxic responses of epithelial cells were assessed by flow cytometry analysis and western blot analysis. The results revealed that PHMG-p induced G1/S arrest and apoptosis in A549 cells. Interestingly, p53 was activated by PHMG-p treatment and p53 knockdown suppressed PHMG-p-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. PHMG-p promoted ROS generation and consequently increased the expression of DNA damage markers such as ATM and H2AX phosphorylation. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine reduced the expression of phosphorylated ATM and H2AX, and the ATM inhibitor, caffeine, inhibited p53 activation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PHMG-p triggered G1/S arrest and apoptosis through the ROS/ATM/p53 pathway in lung epithelial cells.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Guanidinas/toxicidade , Células A549 , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Pulmão/citologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
18.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 28(7): 605-616, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203680

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The salivary gland (SG) in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is characterized by its lack of function (hyposalivation) and lymphocytic invasion. Small-molecule inhibitors (SMIs) are a new class of drugs, whose diminutive size permits diffusion into cells. SMIs targeting components of the immune system are eagerly being trialed for their potential therapeutic utility in pSS. Neglected until now, however, is a discussion of the potential effects of SMIs on the SG epithelium. AREAS COVERED: We begin by reminding the reader of the SG epithelial compartment, its complicity in inflammatory milieu formation in pSS, and categories of SMIs which merit attention. We discuss each SMI category, including pre-clinical data concerning pSS and likely consequences of their application on the SG epithelium. EXPERT OPINION: Recovery of saliva production in pSS requires restoring the function of the SG epithelium, not solely on inflammation resolution. Many SMIs, for example, those blocking JAK-STAT signaling, interfere with critical epithelial cell pathways, most notably EGF signaling. If the effect of SMIs on SG epithelium is ignored, recovery of SG function will be challenging. We predict that NFκB signaling blockade will impart the least SG epithelium damage whilst reducing inflammation and facilitating recovery from hyposalivation in pSS.


Assuntos
Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Glândulas Salivares/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome de Sjogren/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Desenho de Drogas , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Glândulas Salivares/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome de Sjogren/imunologia
19.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(3): 322-327, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154569

RESUMO

Annona cherimola is a tree belonging to the family Annonacea, whose fruit (cherimoya) is very desirable, but its seeds are considered waste. Present in these seeds are compounds that have been described as selective antiproliferative agents for cancer cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative activity of ethanol macerate extract (EMCHS) obtained from A. cherimola seeds against the human stomach gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cell line and the normal human gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1). The EMCHS extract presented an IC50 of 80.43 µg/mL in AGS cells, and a selectivity index (SI) of 3.5-fold higher than that of cisplatin. In addition, the EMCHS extract showed apoptotic activity in AGS cells since 50 µg/mL. Overxpression of PUMA gene in both cells demonstrate that EMCHS activate the apoptotic route. Future studies should be carried out to elucidate anticancer activity of EMCHS in vivo. This work represents the first showing antiproliferative effects of crude extracts obtained from seeds of A. cherimola in AGS cells.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Annona/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Estômago/patologia
20.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 24: 42, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236120

RESUMO

Human bronchial epithelium (HBE)-Dp71 anti-sense(AS)cells with stably transfected Dp71 siRNA plasmids were prepared for further exploration of Dp71 biological traits in cells other than PC12. HBE-Dp71AS cells displayed increased DNA damage induced by H2O2. Apoptosis of HBE-Dp71AS cells induced by H2O2 was increased via enhancing caspase 3, caspase 8 and caspase 9. HBE-Dp71AS cells also displayed decreased proliferation and clonogenic formation. RAD51 was proved to be a new binding partner of Dp71 by co-immunoprecipitation (Ip) and immunofluorescence. Reduced RAD51 mRNA and protein levels were observed in HBE-Dp71AS cells. Decreased lamin B1, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK) and phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT) were detected in the HBE-Dp71AS cells, which functioned together with RAD51 as the molecular explanations for the character alterations of HBE-Dp71AS cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Dano ao DNA , Distrofina/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Linhagem Celular , DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA/metabolismo , Reparo do DNA , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/genética , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Lamina Tipo B/genética , Fosforilação , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo
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