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1.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 659-668, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641565

RESUMO

Human intestinal epithelial cell line-6 (HIEC-6) cells and primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) were treated with 3-amidinophenylalanine-derived inhibitors of trypsin-like serine proteases for 24 hours. It was proven that treatment with MI-1900 and MI-1907 was tolerated up to 50 µM in HIEC-6. These inhibitors did not cause elevations in extracellular H2O2 levels and in the concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 and did not alter occludin distribution in HIEC-6. It was also found that MI-1900 and MI-1907 up to 50 µM did not affect cell viability, IL-6 and IL-8 and occludin levels of PHH. Based on our findings, these inhibitors could be safely applicable at 50 µM in HIEC-6 and in PHH; however, redox status was disturbed in case of PHH. Moreover, it has recently been demonstrated that MI-1900 prevents the replication and spread of the new SARS-CoV-2 in infected Calu-3 cells, most-likely via an inhibition of the membrane-bound host protease TMPRSS2.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenilalanina/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/citologia , Hepatócitos/enzimologia , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/genética , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/enzimologia , Ocludina/genética , Ocludina/metabolismo , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenilalanina/análogos & derivados , Cultura Primária de Células , Serina Endopeptidases/genética
2.
J Pharm Pharm Sci ; 24: 84-93, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626315

RESUMO

Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a main receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry to the host cell. ACE2 is one of the key enzymes in renin-angiotensin system and plays a vital role in the maintenance of cardiovascular function. ACE/ACE2 balance is critical in the regulation of blood pressure, electrolyte homeostasis, vascular and cardiac remodeling and inflammation. ACE2 was shown to be abundantly present in human epithelial cells of the lung and enterocytes of the small intestine as well as in endothelial cells of the arterial and venous vessels. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are colocalized on the cell surface and produced a critical step host cell entry of SARS-CoV-2. TMPRSS2-cleaved ACE2 permits SARS-CoV-2 host cell entry however, ADAM17-cleaved ACE2 produces protective effects in several organs. Differently, basigin (CD147) was suggested as a putative alternate receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry into endothelial cells. The intestinal ACE2 receptor is associated with the neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1 and ACE2 is necessary for the expression of this transporter on the luminal surface of intestinal epithelial cells. There is a good association between the localization of SARS-CoV-2 binding receptor ACE2 and the disease target organs in respiratory, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems. Decreased expression of ACE2, being a receptor for coronavirus, would prevent cellular entry of the virus thereby reducing progression of the infection. However, increased ACE2 expression produces beneficial health effects. Further studies are needed to clarify this conflicting situation. Currently, it is recommended to continue the therapy with ACE2-increasing drugs in patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/enzimologia , Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus , Animais , Células Endoteliais/virologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
3.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 319(4): F686-F696, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830535

RESUMO

Renal proximal tubular apoptosis plays a critical role in kidney health and disease. However, cellular molecules that trigger renal apoptosis remain elusive. Here, we evaluated the effect of inhibiting protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), a critical thioredoxin chaperone protein, on apoptosis as well as the underlying mechanisms in human renal proximal tubular (HK2) cells. HK2 cells were transfected with PDI-specific siRNA in the absence and presence of an antioxidant, tempol. PDI siRNA transfection resulted in a decrease of ~70% in PDI protein expression and enzyme activity. PDI inhibition increased caspase-3 activity and induced profound cell apoptosis. Mitochondrial function, as assessed by mitochondrial cytochrome c levels, mitochondrial membrane potential, oxygen consumption, and ATP levels, was significantly reduced in PDI-inhibited cells. Also, PDI inhibition caused nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2; a redox-sensitive transcription factor) cytoplasmic sequestration, decreased superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase activities, and increased oxidative stress. In PDI-inhibited cells, tempol reduced apoptosis, caspase-3 activity, and oxidative stress and also restored Nrf2 nuclear translocation and mitochondrial function. Silencing Nrf2 in the cells abrogated the beneficial effect of tempol, whereas Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (an Nrf2 regulatory protein) silencing protected cells from PDI inhibitory effects. Collectively, our data indicate that PDI inhibition diminishes Nrf2 nuclear translocation, causing oxidative stress that further triggers mitochondrial dysfunction and renal cell apoptosis. This study suggests an important role for PDI in renal cell apoptosis involving Nrf2 and mitochondrial dysfunction.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/enzimologia , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Isomerases de Dissulfetos de Proteínas/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Óxidos N-Cíclicos/farmacologia , Metabolismo Energético , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Humanos , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Túbulos Renais Proximais/efeitos dos fármacos , Túbulos Renais Proximais/patologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Estresse Oxidativo , Isomerases de Dissulfetos de Proteínas/genética , Interferência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Marcadores de Spin
4.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(5): 899-907, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567273

RESUMO

Stearoyl-CoAdesaturase-1 (SCD-1) is a key regulator of monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis. It plays a vital role in lipid synthesis and metabolism. Ca²âº is an important cation in the body and plays an important role in the organism. The aims of this study were to investigate the correlation of SCD-1 gene overexpression with lipid indexes and calcium ion level. The pcDNA3.1 (+) + SCD-1 +Flag eukaryotic expression vector and cultured duck uterine epithelial cells were co-transfected. The overexpression of SCD-1 gene was measured using the Flag Label Detection Kit. Ca ions and lipid contents were detected through Fluo-3/AM Calcium Ion Fluorescence Labeling method and Lipid Measuring Kit, respectively. SCD-1 gene overexpression was negatively correlated with triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and positively correlated with Ca ion, total cholesterol (TC), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Meanwhile, Ca ion was positively correlated with TG, LDL-C and HDL-C contents, and negatively correlated with TC and VLDL-C levels. Overexpression of SCD-1 gene could regulate Ca ion secretion, as well as lipid synthesis and transport in duck uterine epithelial cells.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Coenzima A Ligases , Células Epiteliais , Expressão Gênica , Lipídeos , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Coenzima A Ligases/genética , Patos , Células Epiteliais/química , Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Íons , Lipídeos/genética , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
5.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(12): 1357-1376, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490513

RESUMO

Non-specific inhibition of Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs) alleviated renal fibrosis in the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model, while genetic deletion of ROCK1 did not affect renal pathology in mice. Thus, whether ROCK2 plays a role in renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis needs to be clarified. In the present study, a selective inhibitor against ROCK2 or genetic approach was used to investigate the role of ROCK2 in renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In the fibrotic kidneys of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs) patients, we observed an enhanced expression of ROCK2 with a positive correlation with interstitial fibrosis. In mice, the ROCK2 protein level was time-dependently increased in the UUO model. By treating CKD animals with KD025 at the dosage of 50 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal injection, the renal fibrosis shown by Masson's trichrome staining was significantly alleviated along with the reduced expression of fibrotic genes. In vitro, inhibiting ROCK2 by KD025 or ROCK2 knockdown/knockout significantly blunted the pro-fibrotic response in transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1)-stimulated mouse renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (mPTCs). Moreover, impaired cellular metabolism was reported as a crucial pathogenic factor in CKD. By metabolomics analysis, we found that KD025 restored the metabolic disturbance, including the impaired glutathione metabolism in TGF-ß1-stimulated tubular epithelial cells. Consistently, KD025 increased antioxidative stress enzymes and nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in fibrotic models. In addition, KD025 decreased the infiltration of macrophages and inflammatory response in fibrotic kidneys and blunted the activation of macrophages in vitro. In conclusion, inhibition of ROCK2 may serve as a potential novel therapy for renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in CKD.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Túbulos Renais Proximais/patologia , Doenças Metabólicas/enzimologia , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores , Adolescente , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fibrose , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/farmacologia , Humanos , Lactente , Inflamação/patologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/patologia , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Obstrução Ureteral/enzimologia , Obstrução Ureteral/patologia , Quinases Associadas a rho/metabolismo
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 5514-5524, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278554

RESUMO

Approximately 15 to 50% of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) reach the ruminant small intestine. Previous research suggests that activation of small intestinal gluconeogenesis induced by propionate has beneficial effects on energy homeostasis. However, the regulatory effect of propionate on key gluconeogenic genes in enterocytes of the bovine small intestine remains less known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish the long-term cultures of bovine intestinal epithelial cells (BIEC) from bovine jejunum tissue using SV40T (1:200; Santa Cruz, Shanghai, China) and investigate the regulatory effect of propionate on the key gluconeogenic genes in BIEC. Our study showed that long-term BIEC cultures were established by SV40T-induced immortalization. Immortal BIEC were distinguished by the expression of cytokeratin 18, villin, fatty acid binding protein 2, and small intestine peptidase. The mRNA expression of genes involved in the SCFA transporters, monocarboxylate transporter 4, and Na+/H+ exchanger isoforms 1 were significantly elevated with 20 mM SCFA compared with untreated controls. In addition, BIEC exhibited significant uptake of propionate and butyrate from the culture medium. Remarkably, 3 mM propionate induced profound changes in mRNA level of key genes involved in gluconeogenesis, including phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 2, pyruvate carboxylase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α. Additionally, 3 mM propionate enhanced the expression of PGC1A mRNA at 3, 6, 12, and 24 h of incubation. These findings suggest that propionate controls the mRNA expression of genes involved in key enzymes for gluconeogenesis in the enterocytes of bovines.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Gluconeogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Propionatos/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Células Cultivadas , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Feminino , Gluconeogênese/genética , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/enzimologia , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/genética , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinase (ATP)/genética , Piruvato Carboxilase/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Trocador 1 de Sódio-Hidrogênio/genética
8.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(4): e1008498, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282854

RESUMO

We investigated the role of the inflammasome effector caspases-1 and -11 during Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection of murine intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Salmonella burdens were significantly greater in the intestines of caspase-1/11 deficient (Casp1/11-/-), Casp1-/- and Casp11-/- mice, as compared to wildtype mice. To determine if this reflected IEC-intrinsic inflammasomes, enteroid monolayers were derived and infected with Salmonella. Casp11-/- and wildtype monolayers responded similarly, whereas Casp1-/- and Casp1/11-/- monolayers carried significantly increased intracellular burdens, concomitant with marked decreases in IEC shedding and death. Pretreatment with IFN-γ to mimic inflammation increased caspase-11 levels and IEC death, and reduced Salmonella burdens in Casp1-/- monolayers, while high intracellular burdens and limited cell shedding persisted in Casp1/11-/- monolayers. Thus caspase-1 regulates inflammasome responses in IECs at baseline, while proinflammatory activation of IECs reveals a compensatory role for caspase-11. These results demonstrate the importance of IEC-intrinsic canonical and non-canonical inflammasomes in host defense against Salmonella.


Assuntos
Caspase 1/imunologia , Caspases Iniciadoras/imunologia , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Intestinos/enzimologia , Intestinos/imunologia , Infecções por Salmonella/enzimologia , Salmonella typhimurium/imunologia , Animais , Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Feminino , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Interferon gama/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/enzimologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Infecções por Salmonella/imunologia , Salmonella typhimurium/patogenicidade
9.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e922149, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Leonurine is an active component of the traditional Chinese medicine Leonurus japonicus. This study aimed to investigate the effects of overexpressed CYP450s on the metabolic activity of leonurine. MATERIAL AND METHODS BEAS-2B cells stably expressing CYP1A1, 1A2, 2A13, 2B6, and 3A4 were constructed. CYP450s expression was identified using reverse-transcription PCR and Western blot assay. CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate the effect of leonurine on cell activity. Leonurine was incubated in vitro with CYP1A1, 1A2, 2A13, 2B6, and 3A4 metabolic enzymes to evaluate the clearance rate of CYP450 enzymes for leonurine. UPLC-MS was used to detect changes of drug concentration and discover the main metabolic enzymes affecting leonurine. RESULTS BEAS-2B cells stably expressing CYP1A1, 1A2, 2A13, 2B6, and 3A4 were successfully constructed. According to primary mass spectra and secondary mass spectra of leonurine, the main metabolic enzymes were 312.1550 [H+] and 181.0484. Compared to the control group, residue of leonurine in CYP2A13 group was significantly reduced (F=5.307, p=0.024). Compared to the 0-min group, the clearance rate of leonurine in the CYP2A13-treated group was significantly decreased at 120 min after treatment (F=7.273, p=0.007). CCK-8 results also showed that activity of BEAS-2B cells that overexpress CYP2A13 gradually decreased with increased concentration of leonurine. Although CYP2A13 demonstrated good metabolic activity for leonurine, we found that CYP1A1, 1A2, 2B6, and 3A4 had no metabolic effects on leonurine. CONCLUSIONS Leonurine can be effectively activated through CYP2A13 enzyme metabolism, and further inhibits activity of human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Therefore, CYP2A13 is a main metabolic enzyme for leonurine in BEAS-2B cells.


Assuntos
Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Ácido Gálico/análogos & derivados , Brônquios/citologia , Linhagem Celular , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Humanos , Inativação Metabólica
10.
J Cell Biol ; 219(3)2020 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32211891

RESUMO

Distal appendages (DAs) of the mother centriole are essential for the initial steps of ciliogenesis in G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle. DAs are released from centrosomes in mitosis by an undefined mechanism. Here, we show that specific DAs lose their centrosomal localization at the G2/M transition in a manner that relies upon Nek2 kinase activity to ensure low DA levels at mitotic centrosomes. Overexpression of active Nek2A, but not kinase-dead Nek2A, prematurely displaced DAs from the interphase centrosomes of immortalized retina pigment epithelial (RPE1) cells. This dramatic impact was also observed in mammary epithelial cells with constitutively high levels of Nek2. Conversely, Nek2 knockout led to incomplete dissociation of DAs and cilia in mitosis. As a consequence, we observed the presence of a cilia remnant that promoted the asymmetric inheritance of ciliary signaling components and supported cilium reassembly after cell division. Together, our data establish Nek2 as an important kinase that regulates DAs before mitosis.


Assuntos
Centríolos/enzimologia , Cílios/enzimologia , Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Mitose , Quinases Relacionadas a NIMA/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/enzimologia , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular , Centríolos/genética , Cílios/genética , Feminino , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/enzimologia , Humanos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/enzimologia , Camundongos , Proteínas dos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas dos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Quinases Relacionadas a NIMA/genética , Ligação Proteica , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/citologia , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 318(5): G931-G945, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174134

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori infection always induces gastritis, which may progress to ulcer disease or cancer. The mechanisms underlying mucosal injury by the bacteria are incompletely understood. Here, we identify a novel pathway for H. pylori-induced gastric injury, the impairment of maturation of the essential transport enzyme and cell adhesion molecule, Na-K-ATPase. Na-K-ATPase comprises α- and ß-subunits that assemble in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) before trafficking to the plasma membrane. Attachment of H. pylori to gastric epithelial cells increased Na-K-ATPase ubiquitylation, decreased its surface and total levels, and impaired ion balance. H. pylori did not alter degradation of plasmalemma-resident Na-K-ATPase subunits or their mRNA levels. Infection decreased association of α- and ß-subunits with ER chaperone BiP and impaired assembly of α/ß-heterodimers, as was revealed by quantitative mass spectrometry and immunoblotting of immunoprecipitated complexes. The total level of BiP was not altered, and the decrease in interaction with BiP was not observed for other BiP client proteins. The H. pylori-induced decrease in Na-K-ATPase was prevented by BiP overexpression, stopping protein synthesis, or inhibiting proteasomal, but not lysosomal, protein degradation. The results indicate that H. pylori impairs chaperone-assisted maturation of newly made Na-K-ATPase subunits in the ER independently of a generalized ER stress and induces their ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. The decrease in Na-K-ATPase levels is also seen in vivo in the stomachs of gerbils and chronically infected children. Further understanding of H. pylori-induced Na-K-ATPase degradation will provide insights for protection against advanced disease.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This work provides evidence that Helicobacter pylori decreases levels of Na-K-ATPase, a vital transport enzyme, in gastric epithelia, both in acutely infected cultured cells and in chronically infected patients and animals. The bacteria interfere with BiP-assisted folding of newly-made Na-K-ATPase subunits in the endoplasmic reticulum, accelerating their ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation and decreasing efficiency of the assembly of native enzyme. Decreased Na-K-ATPase expression contributes to H. pylori-induced gastric injury.


Assuntos
Retículo Endoplasmático/enzimologia , Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Mucosa Gástrica/enzimologia , Gastrite/enzimologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Infecções por Helicobacter/enzimologia , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Retículo Endoplasmático/microbiologia , Estabilidade Enzimática , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Mucosa Gástrica/microbiologia , Gastrite/genética , Gastrite/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/genética , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Dobramento de Proteína , Proteólise , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética , Ubiquitinação
12.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0220348, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935221

RESUMO

In a process linked to DNA replication, duplicated chromosomes are entrapped in large, circular cohesin complexes and functional sister chromatid cohesion (SCC) is established by acetylation of the SMC3 cohesin subunit. Roberts Syndrome (RBS) and Warsaw Breakage Syndrome (WABS) are rare human developmental syndromes that are characterized by defective SCC. RBS is caused by mutations in the SMC3 acetyltransferase ESCO2, whereas mutations in the DNA helicase DDX11 lead to WABS. We found that WABS-derived cells predominantly rely on ESCO2, not ESCO1, for residual SCC, growth and survival. Reciprocally, RBS-derived cells depend on DDX11 to maintain low levels of SCC. Synthetic lethality between DDX11 and ESCO2 correlated with a prolonged delay in mitosis, and was rescued by knockdown of the cohesin remover WAPL. Rescue experiments using human or mouse cDNAs revealed that DDX11, ESCO1 and ESCO2 act on different but related aspects of SCC establishment. Furthermore, a DNA binding DDX11 mutant failed to correct SCC in WABS cells and DDX11 deficiency reduced replication fork speed. We propose that DDX11, ESCO1 and ESCO2 control different fractions of cohesin that are spatially and mechanistically separated.


Assuntos
Acetiltransferases/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Cromátides/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Fibroblastos/enzimologia , Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Proliferação de Células , Cromátides/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Quebra Cromossômica , Segregação de Cromossomos , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/enzimologia , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/metabolismo , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Ectromelia/enzimologia , Ectromelia/genética , Ectromelia/patologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Fibroblastos/patologia , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hipertelorismo/enzimologia , Hipertelorismo/genética , Hipertelorismo/patologia , Camundongos , Mitose , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
13.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 318(3): G464-G478, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984785

RESUMO

The frequency of esophageal adenocarcinoma is rising despite widespread use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), which heal reflux esophagitis but do not prevent reflux of weakly acidic gastric juice and bile in Barrett's esophagus patients. We aimed to determine if weakly acidic (pH 5.5) bile salt medium (WABM) causes DNA damage in Barrett's cells. Because p53 is inactivated frequently in Barrett's esophagus and p38 can assume p53 functions, we explored p38's role in DNA damage response and repair. We exposed Barrett's cells with or without p53 knockdown to WABM, and evaluated DNA damage, its response and repair, and whether these effects are p38 dependent. We also measured phospho-p38 in biopsies of Barrett's metaplasia exposed to deoxycholic acid (DCA). WABM caused phospho-H2AX increases that were blocked by a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger. WABM increased phospho-p38 and reduced bromodeoxyuridine incorporation (an index of S phase entry). Repair of WABM-induced DNA damage proceeded through p38-mediated base excision repair (BER) associated with reduction-oxidation factor 1-apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease I (Ref-1/APE1). Cells treated with WABM supplemented with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) exhibited enhanced p38-mediated responses to DNA damage. All of these effects were observed in p53-intact and p53-deficient Barrett's cells. In patients, esophageal DCA perfusion significantly increased phospho-p38 in Barrett's metaplasia. WABM exposure generates ROS, causing oxidative DNA damage in Barrett's cells, a mechanism possibly underlying the rising frequency of esophageal adenocarcinoma despite PPI usage. p38 plays a central role in oxidative DNA damage response and Ref-1/APE1-associated BER, suggesting potential chemopreventive roles for agents like UDCA that increase p38 activity in Barrett's esophagus.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We found that weakly acidic bile salt solutions, with compositions similar to the refluxed gastric juice of gastroesophageal reflux disease patients on proton pump inhibitors, cause oxidative DNA damage in Barrett's metaplasia that could contribute to the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. We also have elucidated a critical role for p38 in Barrett's metaplasia in its response to and repair of oxidative DNA damage, suggesting a potential chemopreventive role for agents like ursodeoxycholic acid that increase p38 activity in Barrett's esophagus.


Assuntos
Esôfago de Barrett/enzimologia , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Ácido Desoxicólico/toxicidade , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Esofágica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Esôfago de Barrett/genética , Esôfago de Barrett/patologia , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Mucosa Esofágica/enzimologia , Mucosa Esofágica/patologia , Feminino , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Fosforilação , Cultura Primária de Células , Pontos de Checagem da Fase S do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Ácido Ursodesoxicólico/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética
14.
Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom ; 1868(2): 140332, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765716

RESUMO

The endometrium cycle involves proliferation of endometrial epithelial cells in preparation for implantation of fertilized ovum. With ovulation, the endometrium secretes nutrients such as peptides and amino acids into the endometrial cavity. The histological evidence of ovulation in normal menstrual cycle includes subnuclear glycogen vacuoles surrounded by placental leucine aminopeptidase (P-LAP) in endometrial epithelial cells. P-LAP is an essentially involved in intracellular trafficking of glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 which is primarily important for glucose uptake in skeletal muscles and fat tissues. On the other hand, glucose influx from blood into endometrial epithelial cells is not mainly mediated by GLUTs, but by coincident appearing progesterone just after ovulation. Progesterone increases permeability of not only plasma membranes, but also lysosomal membranes, and this may be primarily involved in glucose influx. Progesterone also expands the exocytosis in the endometrium after ovulation, and endometrial secretion after ovulation is possibly apocrine and holocrine, which is augmented and exaggerated exocytosis of the lysosomal contents. The endometrial spiral arteries/arterioles are surrounded by endometrial stromal cells which are differentiated into decidual/pre-decidual cells. Decidual cells are devoid of aminopeptidase A (APA), possibly leading to enhancement of Angiotensin-II action in decidual cell area due to loss of its degradation by APA. Angiotensin-II is thought to exert growth-factor-like effects in post-implantation embryos in decidual cells, thereby contributing to implantation. Without implantation, angiotensin-II constricts the endometrial spiral arteries/arterioles to promote menstruation. Thus, P-LAP and APA may be involved in homeostasis in uterus via regulating glucose transport and vasoconstrictive peptides.


Assuntos
Endométrio/enzimologia , Leucil Aminopeptidase/metabolismo , Endométrio/citologia , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Humanos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Menstruação
15.
Mol Cell ; 77(4): 734-747.e7, 2020 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812350

RESUMO

Mutation and prevalence of pathogenic viruses prompt the development of broad-spectrum antiviral strategies. Viperin is a potent antiviral protein that inhibits a broad range of viruses. Unexpectedly, we found that Viperin protein production in epithelium is defective in response to both viruses and interferons (IFNs). We further revealed that viruses and IFNs stimulate expression of the acetyltransferase HAT1, which induces Lys197-acetylation on Viperin. Viperin acetylation in turn recruits UBE4A that stimulates K6-linked polyubiquitination at Lys206 of Viperin, leading to Viperin protein degradation. Importantly, UBE4A deficiency restores Viperin protein production in epithelium. We then designed interfering peptides (IPs) to inhibit UBE4A binding with Viperin. We found that VIP-IP3 rescues Viperin protein production in epithelium and therefore enhances cellular antiviral activity. VIP-IP3 renders mice more resistant to viral infection. These findings could provide strategies for both enhancing host broad-spectrum antiviral response and improving the efficacy of IFN-based antiviral therapy.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Proteínas/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Acetilação , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Humanos , Interferons/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
16.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 218, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The dysfunction of airway epithelial barrier is closely related to the pathogenesis of asthma. Secreted Hsp90α participates in inflammation and Hsp90 inhibitor protects endothelial dysfunction. In the current study, we aimed to explore the role of secreted Hsp90α in asthmatic airway epithelial barrier function. METHODS: Male BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with HDM to generate asthma model. The 16HBE and Hsp90α-knockdown cells were cultured and treated according to the experiment requirements. Transepithelial Electric Resistance (TEER) and permeability of epithelial layer in vitro, distribution and expression of junction proteins both in vivo and in vitro were used to evaluate the epithelial barrier function. Western Blot was used to evaluate the expression of junction proteins and phosphorylated AKT in cells and lung tissues while ELISA were used to evaluate the Hsp90α expression and cytokines release in the lung homogenate. RESULTS: HDM resulted in a dysfunction of airway epithelial barrier both in vivo and in vitro, paralleled with the increased expression and release of Hsp90α. All of which were rescued in Hsp90α-knockdown cells or co-administration of 1G6-D7. Furthermore, either 1G6-D7 or PI3K inhibitor LY294002 suppressed the significant phosphorylation of AKT, which caused by secreted and recombinant Hsp90α, resulting in the restoration of epithelial barrier function. CONCLUSIONS: Secreted Hsp90α medicates HDM-induced asthmatic airway epithelial barrier dysfunction via PI3K/AKT pathway, indicating that anti-secreted Hsp90α therapy might be a potential treatment to asthma in future.


Assuntos
Asma/fisiopatologia , Brônquios/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromonas/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Animais , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Brônquios/enzimologia , Brônquios/imunologia , Caderinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Impedância Elétrica , Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/genética , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fosforilação , Pyroglyphidae/imunologia , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo
17.
Nano Lett ; 19(10): 7526-7533, 2019 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487192

RESUMO

Amplitude, duration, and frequency of activation of the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway code distinct information to instruct cells to migrate, proliferate, or differentiate. Synchronized frequency control of ERK activation would provide a powerful approach to regulate cell behaviors. Here we demonstrated modulation of ERK activities using alternative current (AC) electric fields (EFs) applied through high-k dielectric passivated microelectrodes. Both the amplitude and frequency of ERK activation can be precisely synchronized and modulated. ERK activation in our system is independent of Faradaic currents and electroporation, thus excluding mechanisms of changes in pH, reactive oxygen species, and other electrochemical reaction. Further experiments pinpointed a mechanism of phosphorylation site of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor to activate the EGFR-ERK pathway, and independent of EGF. AC EFs thus provide a powerful platform for practical and precise control of EGFR-ERK pathway.


Assuntos
Mama/citologia , Estimulação Elétrica/instrumentação , Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Mama/enzimologia , Linhagem Celular , Ativação Enzimática , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Microeletrodos
18.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 317(5): L625-L638, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553637

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking has marked effects on lung tissue, including induction of oxidative stress, inflammatory cell recruitment, and a protease/antiprotease imbalance. These effects contribute to tissue remodeling and destruction resulting in loss of lung function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Cathepsin S (CatS) is a cysteine protease that is involved in the remodeling/degradation of connective tissue and basement membrane. Aberrant expression or activity of CatS has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including arthritis, cancer, cardiovascular, and lung diseases. However, little is known about the effect of cigarette smoking on both CatS expression and activity, as well as its role in smoking-related lung diseases. Here, we evaluated the expression and activity of human CatS in lung tissues from never-smokers and smokers with or without COPD. Despite the presence of an oxidizing environment, CatS expression and activity were significantly higher in current smokers (both non-COPD and COPD) compared with never-smokers, and correlated positively with smoking history. Moreover, we found that the exposure of primary human bronchial epithelial cells to cigarette smoke extract triggered the activation of P2X7 receptors, which in turns drives CatS upregulation. The present data suggest that excessive CatS expression and activity contribute, beside other proteases, to the deleterious effects of cigarette smoke on pulmonary homeostasis.


Assuntos
Catepsinas/metabolismo , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/enzimologia , Mucosa Respiratória/enzimologia , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Mucosa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Pharmacol Rep ; 71(6): 1001-1005, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: "Orphan" cytochromes are a new group of P450 cytochromes without a fully recognized biological role. The expression of these CYPs in tumors is higher than that in normal tissues, which makes them attractive as chemopreventive and/or therapeutic targets. In this study, we compared the effect of synthetic methoxy stilbenes and resveratrol on the expression of two orphan cytochromes, CYP2S1 and CYP2W1, in breast cancer cells. METHODS: Breast cancer cells, lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, were treated for 72 h with tested compounds. The expression of CYP2S1 and CYP2W1 was evaluated at the transcript and protein levels by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. RESULTS: The constitutive expression of both isoforms was confirmed at the mRNA and protein levels. CYP2S1 and CYP2W1 showed higher expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. In MCF7 cells treated with stilbenes, the expression of both CYPs was increased at the mRNA level, whereas at the protein level this effect was confirmed for CYP2S1 alone. In contrast, in estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB-231 cells treated with stilbenes, the expression of both CYPs decreased, but mostly at the transcript level. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study confirmed the constitutive expression of CYP2S1 and CYP2W1 in breast cancer cells, although their relatively low level of expression suggests that they may be less involved in the transformation of therapeutic agents in these types of tumors. Stilbenes, particularly 3MS and 4MS, can modulate the expression of "orphan" CYPs more efficiently than resveratrol.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/biossíntese , Família 2 do Citocromo P450/biossíntese , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Indução Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Resveratrol/farmacologia
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(40): 11167-11178, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542928

RESUMO

Milk contains a number of beneficial fatty acids including short and medium chain and unsaturated conjugated and nonconjugated fatty acids. In this study, microRNA sequencing of mammary tissue collected in early-, peak-, mid-, and late-lactation periods was performed to determine the miRNA expression profiles. miR-16a was one of the differentially expressed miRNA and was selected for in-depth functional studies pertaining to fatty acid metabolism. The mimic of miR-16a impaired fat metabolism [triacylglycerol (TAG) and cholesterol] while knock-down of miR-16a promoted fat metabolism in vitro in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). In addition, the in vitro work with BMECs also revealed that miR-16a had a negative effect on the cellular concentration of cis 9-C18:1, total C18:1, C20:1, and C22:1 and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Therefore, these data suggesting a negative effect on fatty acid metabolism extend the discovery of the key role of miR-16a in mediating adipocyte differentiation. Through a combination of bioinformatics analysis, target gene 3' UTR luciferase reporter assays, and western blotting, we identified large tumor suppressor kinase 1 (LATS1) as a target of miR-16a. Transfection of siRNA-LATS1 into BMECs led to increases in TAG, cholesterol, and cellular fatty acid concentrations, suggesting a positive role of LATS1 in mammary cell fatty acid metabolism. In summary, data suggest that miR-16a regulates biological processes associated with intracellular TAG, cholesterol, and unsaturated fatty acid synthesis through LATS1. These data provide a theoretical and experimental framework for further clarifying the regulation of lipid metabolism in mammary cells of dairy cows.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/enzimologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Colesterol/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
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