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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 277-282, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893421

RESUMO

Acidification of the cellular microenvironment is found in different pathological states such as inflammation, ischemia and in solid tumors. It can affect cell function and phenotype, and by this aggravate the pathological process. Epithelial cells are a relevant functional part in several normal organs as well as in tumors and will thus be challenged by the acidic extracellular pH (acidosis). Therefore, the impact of acidosis on the expression of different inflammatory mediators (MCP-1, IL-6, osteopontin, iNOS, TNF-α, and COX-2), as well as the role of different signaling pathways regulating the expression, was studied in epithelial normal rat kidney cells (NRK-52E). Acidosis led to an increase in TNF-α expression but a down-regulation of MCP-1, iNOS and COX-2. Expression of IL-6 was only slightly modulated, while osteopontin was not regulated at all. Since acidosis activates ERK1/2 and p38 signaling in NRK-52E cells, the impact of MAP kinase signaling pathways on the expression of the inflammatory markers was analyzed. At normal pH, blocking ERK1/2 or p38 decreased the level of MCP-1, iNOS and partly TNF-α. However, the effect of acidosis on the expression of inflammatory mediators was not affected by inhibition of the MAP kinase pathways. In conclusion, our results show that an acidic microenvironment affects the transcriptional program of epithelial cells. Low pH mostly reduced the expression of pathological relevant genes and might thus repress inflammatory processes induced by epithelial cells.


Assuntos
Acidose , Células Epiteliais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Mediadores da Inflamação , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno , Acidose/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Ratos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
2.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 54(1): 15-26, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The primary cilium is a nanoscale membrane protrusion believed to act as a mechano-chemical sensor in a range of different cell types. Disruptions in its structure and signalling have been linked to a number of medical conditions, referred to as ciliopathies, but remain poorly understood due to lack of techniques capable of investigating signal transduction in cilia at nanoscale. Here we set out to use latest advances in nanopipette technology to address the question of ion channel distribution along the structure of primary cilium. METHODS: We used glass nanopipettes and Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy (SICM) to image 3D topography of intact primary cilia in inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells with nanoscale resolution. The high-resolution topographical images were then used to navigate the nanopipette along the structure of each cilium and perform spatially resolved single-channel recordings under precisely controlled mechanical and chemical stimulation. RESULTS: We have successfully obtained first single-channel recordings at specific locations of intact primary cilia. Our experiments revealed significant differences between the populations of channels present at the ciliary base, tip and within extra-ciliary regions in terms of mean conductance and sensitivity to membrane displacement as small as 100 nm. Ion channels at the base of cilium, where mechanical strain is expected to be the highest, appeared particularly sensitive to the mechanical displacement. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest the distribution of ion channels in the membrane of primary cilia is non-homogeneous. The relationship between the location and function of ciliary ion channels could be key to understanding signal transduction in primary cilia.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Cílios/metabolismo , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Mecanotransdução Celular , Camundongos
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1197: 143-163, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732940

RESUMO

Epithelial cells and functions of the epithelium are critical to the health of the oral cavity. We used a nonhuman primate model to profile the transcriptome of gingival tissues in health across the lifespan and hypothesized that in older animals, epithelial-related transcriptome patterns would reflect epithelial cells that are aggressively responsive to the surrounding environment and less able to modulate and resolve the noxious challenge from the bacteria. Rhesus monkeys (n = 34) with a healthy periodontium were distributed into four groups: ≤3 years (young), 3-7 years (adolescent), 12-16 years (adult), and 18-23 years (aged), and a buccal gingival sample from the premolar/molar region of each animal was obtained. RNA was subjected to a microarray analysis (GeneChip® Rhesus Macaque Genome Array, Affymetrix), and 336 genes examined that are linked to epithelium and epithelial cell functions categorized into 9 broad functional groups: extracellular matrix and cell structure; extracellular matrix remodeling enzymes; cell adhesion molecules, cytoskeleton regulation; inflammatory response; growth factors; kinases/cell signaling; cell surface receptors; junction associated molecules; autophagy/apoptosis; antimicrobial peptides; and transcription factors. Total of 255 genes displayed a normalized signal >100, and differences across the age groups were observed primarily in extracellular matrix and cell structure, cell adhesion molecules, and cell surface receptor gene categories with elevations in the aged tissues. Keratins 2, 5, 6B, 13, 16, 17 were all significantly increased in healthy-aged tissues versus adults, and keratins 1 and 2 were significantly decreased in young animals. Approximately 15 integrins are highly expressed in the gingival tissues across the age groups with only ITGA8, ITGAM (CD11b), and ITGB2 significantly increased in the aged tissues. Little impact of aging on desmosomal/hemidesmosomal genes was noted. These results suggest that healthy gingival aging has a relatively limited impact on the broader functions of the epithelium and epithelial cells, with some effects on genes for extracellular matrix and cell adhesion molecules (e.g., integrins). Thus, while there is a substantial impact of aging on immune system targets even in healthy gingiva, it appears that the epithelial barrier remains reasonably molecularly intact in this model system.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Células Epiteliais , Gengiva , Transcriptoma , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Gengiva/metabolismo , Macaca mulatta , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos
4.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(11): 1188-1196, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603699

RESUMO

The mammary gland is an important organ for lactation in dairy goats. Mammary gland development and lactation functions are primarily regulated by natural hormones and certain crucial regulatory factors. Nedd4 family-interacting protein 1 (Ndfip1) can specifically bind to neural precursor cell-expressed, developmentally downregulated protein 4 (Nedd4) family members to participate in ubiquitination, which in turn regulates a range of biological processes in the body. However, the effects of Ndfip1 expression regulation at the post-transcriptional level on the development of mammary gland cells have not been previously reported. To study the regulation of Ndfip1 at post-transcriptional level, the overexpression and interference vectors of Ndfip1 were constructed, and co-transfected into the primary mammary gland epithelial cells cultured in vitro with miR-143 mimics and inhibitor. Dual luciferase reporter gene system, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, cholecystokinin octapeptide assays, and flow cytometry were used to identify their regulation and function. As a result, Ndfip1 was targeted and regulated by miR-143, which influences the development of mammary gland epithelial cells in dairy goats cultured in vitro. This study will lay an experimental foundation for further understanding the functions of Ndfip1 and miR-143.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Cabras , Lactação/genética , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Indústria de Laticínios , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Cabras/genética , Cabras/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo
5.
Toxicol Lett ; 317: 92-101, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593750

RESUMO

Cigarette smoke (CS) is known to cause mitochondrial dysfunction leading to cellular senescence in lung cells. We determined the mechanism of mitochondrial dysfunction by CS in lung epithelial cells. CS extract (CSE) treatment differentially affected mitochondrial function, such as membrane potential, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) and mitochrondrial mass as analyzed by FACS, and were associated with altered oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) protein levels (Complexes I-IV) in primary lung epithelial cells (SAEC and NHBE), and (complexes I and II) in BEAS2B cells. There were dose- and time-dependent changes in mitochondrial respiration (oxygen consumption rate parameters i.e. maximal respiration, ATP production and spare capacity, measured by the Seahorse analyzer) in control vs. CSE treated BEAS2B and NHBE/DHBE cells. Electron microscopy (EM) analysis revealed perinuclear clustering by localization and increased mitochondrial fragmentation by fragement length analysis. Immunoblot analysis revealed CS-mediated increase in Drp1 and decrease in Mfn2 levels that are involved in mitochondrial fission/fusion process. CSE treatment reduced Miro1 and Pink1 abundance that play a crucial role in the intercellular transfer mechanism and mitophagy process. Overall, these findings highlight the role of Miro1 in context of CS-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in lung epithelial cells that may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory lung diseases.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Regulação para Baixo , Metabolismo Energético , Células Epiteliais/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Pulmão/ultraestrutura , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Estresse Oxidativo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(91): 13657-13660, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595891

RESUMO

Cell penetrating peptide (CPP), LK-3, causes a ca. 10-fold increase in the cell penetration of cyclosporin A (CsA) at nanomolar concentrations. The results of an in vivo dry eye mouse model demonstrated that a 100-fold lower dose of the CsA/LK-3 complex than that of Restasis® is sufficient to cause the same therapeutic effect.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Penetradores de Células/química , Ciclosporina/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Ciclosporina/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Síndromes do Olho Seco/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes do Olho Seco/patologia , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/genética , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microscopia Confocal , Solubilidade
7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 7003-7016, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564862

RESUMO

Background: Yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y2O3/ZrO2) nanoparticles are one of the important nanoparticles extensively used in manufacturing of plastics, textiles, catalyst, etc. Still, the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of yttria-stabilized zirconia nanoparticles have not been well identified on human skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Therefore, in this study, we have designed to examine the cytotoxic potential of yttria-stabilized zirconia nanoparticles in HaCaT cells. Methods: Prior to treatment, the yttria-stabilized zirconia nanoparticles were characterized by using different advanced instruments viz. dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Cell viability of HaCaT cells was measured by using MTS and NRU assays and viability of cells was reduced in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Results: Reduction in the viability of cells was correlated with the rise of reactive oxygen species generation, increased caspase-3, mitochondria membrane potential and evidence of DNA strand breakage. These were consistent with the possibility that mitochondria damage can play a significant role in the cytotoxic response. Moreover, the activity of oxidative enzymes such as lipid peroxide (LPO) was increased and glutathione was reduced in HaCaT cells exposed with yttria-stabilized zirconia nanoparticles. It is also important to indicate that HaCaT cells appear to be more susceptible to yttria-stabilized zirconia nanoparticles exposure after 24 hrs. Conclusion: This result provides a dose- and time-dependent apoptosis and genotoxicity of yttria-stabilized zirconia nanoparticles in HaCaT cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Dano ao DNA , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Pele/citologia , Ítrio/química , Zircônio/química , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragmentação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Membranas Intracelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Membranas Intracelulares/metabolismo , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
8.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5515-5524, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Administration of cisplatin in cancer patients is limited by the kidney-related adverse effects; however, a protective strategy is absent. We hypothesized that fucoidan protects the proximal tubule epithelial (TH-1) cells against the effects of cisplatin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To assess the effect of fucoidan, its effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, DNA damage response (DDR), apoptosis, and cell-cycle arrest in TH-1 cells was investigated. RESULTS: Cisplatin increased the accumulation of ROS, leading to excessive ER stress. In presence of cisplatin, treatment of TH-1 cells with fucoidan significantly reduced the ER stress by maintaining the complex of GRP78 with PERK and IRE1α. In particular, fucoidan enhanced the antioxidative capacity through up-regulation of PrPC Furthermore, fucoidan suppressed cisplatin-induced apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest, whereas silencing of PRNP blocked these effects of fucoidan. CONCLUSION: Fucoidan may be a potential adjuvant therapy for cancer patients treated with cisplatin as it preserves renal functionality.


Assuntos
Cisplatino/farmacologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Túbulos Renais Proximais/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th1/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , eIF-2 Quinase/metabolismo
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1146: 31-44, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612452

RESUMO

Cells apply forces to their surroundings to perform basic biological activities, including division, adhesion, and migration. Similarly, cell populations in epithelial tissues coordinate forces in physiological processes of morphogenesis and repair. These activities are highly regulated to yield the correct development and function of the body. The modification of this order is at the onset of pathological events and malfunctions. Mechanical forces and their translation into biological signals are the focus of an emerging field of research, shaping as a central discipline in the study of life and gathering knowledge at the interface of engineering, physics, biology and medicine. Novel engineering methods are needed to complement the classic instruments developed by molecular biology, physics and medicine. These should enable the measurement of forces at the cellular and multicellular level, and at a temporal and spatial resolution which is fully compatible with the ranges experienced by cells in vivo.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Movimento Celular , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Morfogênese , Estresse Mecânico
10.
Chem Biol Interact ; 314: 108846, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606474

RESUMO

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in EMT but their role in the regulation of cigarette smoke-induced EMT in airway epithelium is not clear. We have therefore investigated the potential role of MMP-2 and -9 in cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induced EMT using A549 lung epithelial cells and human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC). The cells were treated with different concentration of CSE, and MTT and trypan blue assays, acridine orange-ethidium bromide assay, gelatin zymography, Western blotting, immunofluorescence studies, Boyden-chamber assay, wound healing assay and air-liquid interface (ALI) culture were used to assess different cellular and molecular changes associated with EMT. The results depict that CSE increased the cytotoxicity along with a concurrent increase in the expression and activity of MMP-2 and -9. CSE further altered EMT markers like E-cadherin, N-cadherin, vimentin, and the molecular modulators of EMT such as ß-catenin and pGSK-3ß. Further, CSE also upregulated EGFR, AKT, and ERK1/2 in airway epithelial cells. SB-3CT, a known inhibitor of MMP-2 and -9, altered and reversed the expression of markers of EMT and kinases, validating the role of MMP-2 and -9 in CSE-induced EMT. Fisetin, a plant-derived bioflavonoid, also reversed the expression of EMT markers and molecular regulators in a similar fashion as SB-3CT. In summary, this study highlights the role of MMP-2 and -9 in CSE-induced EMT and curate its molecular cascade through EGFR/AKT/ERK/ß-catenin axis, which could be restored by MMP-2 and -9 inhibitor and fisetin. Fisetin is hitherto unknown to modulate CSE-induced MMPs activity in airway epithelial cells, and our study suggests its potential role as a therapeutic approach in CSE-induced EMT in lung epithelial cells.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Tabaco/química , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo
11.
Nature ; 574(7779): 532-537, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645730

RESUMO

The colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence has provided a paradigmatic framework for understanding the successive somatic genetic changes and consequent clonal expansions that lead to cancer1. However, our understanding of the earliest phases of colorectal neoplastic changes-which may occur in morphologically normal tissue-is comparatively limited, as for most cancer types. Here we use whole-genome sequencing to analyse hundreds of normal crypts from 42 individuals. Signatures of multiple mutational processes were revealed; some of these were ubiquitous and continuous, whereas others were only found in some individuals, in some crypts or during certain periods of life. Probable driver mutations were present in around 1% of normal colorectal crypts in middle-aged individuals, indicating that adenomas and carcinomas are rare outcomes of a pervasive process of neoplastic change across morphologically normal colorectal epithelium. Colorectal cancers exhibit substantially increased mutational burdens relative to normal cells. Sequencing normal colorectal cells provides quantitative insights into the genomic and clonal evolution of cancer.


Assuntos
Colo/citologia , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Mutação , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Reto/citologia , Adenoma/genética , Adenoma/patologia , Idoso , Proteína Axina/genética , Carcinoma/genética , Carcinoma/patologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Células Clonais/citologia , Células Clonais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
12.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 53(4): 606-622, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Adenosine release and connexin (Cx) hemichannel activity are enhanced in the respiratory epithelium during pathophysiological events such as inflammation. We analysed the interplay between Cx channels and adenosine signalling in human respiratory airway epithelium using the Calu-3 cell line as a model. METHODS: The Cx hemichannel activity in Calu-3 cells was evaluated by dye uptake assays. The expressed Cx isoforms and adenosine receptor subtypes were identified by PCR and western blot analysis. Pharmacological and molecular biological experiments were performed to analyse the involvement of the different adenosine receptor subtypes, the induced signalling pathways and the contribution of specific Cx isoforms to the hemichannel activity. RESULTS: The adenosine receptor agonist 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) increased the dye uptake rate in Calu-3 cells. The pannexon and Cx hemichannel inhibitor carbenoxolone (CBX) did not supress the dye uptake at pannexin-specific concentrations (100 µM). High CBX concentrations or the inhibitor La3+, both effective on Cx hemichannels, were needed to inhibit the dye uptake. The NECA-related increase of dye uptake depended on enhanced cAMP synthesis and subsequent activation of the protein kinase A (PKA) as shown by quantification of cAMP levels and pharmacological inhibition of the adenylyl cyclase and the PKA. Further pharmacological inhibition as well as knockdown experiments with specific siRNA showed that the A2B adenosine receptor was the subtype mainly responsible for the increased dye uptake. The NECA-related increase of the dye uptake rate correlated with a decrease of Cx43 mRNA and an increase of Cx26 mRNA content in the cells as well as Cx26 protein synthesis and was inhibited by Cx26 knockdown using Cx26 siRNA. Of note, a siRNA-induced knockdown of Cx43 increased the content of Cx26 mRNA and correspondingly the dye uptake rate. CONCLUSION: The Calu-3 cell model shows that stimulation of the A2B adenosine receptor subtype activates synthesis of cAMP. cAMP activates PKA and induces thereby an increase in Cx26 and a decrease in Cx43 mRNA levels. As a result, the synthesis of Cx26 is reinforced, leading to an enhanced Cx hemichannel activity. The report identifies a mechanism that integrates adenosine release and Cx hemichannel activity and shows how adenosine signalling and Cx channels may act together to promote persistent inflammation, which is observed in several chronic diseases of the respiratory airway.


Assuntos
Conexina 26/metabolismo , Receptor A2B de Adenosina/metabolismo , Agonistas do Receptor A2 de Adenosina/farmacologia , Carbenoxolona/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Conexina 26/antagonistas & inibidores , Conexina 26/genética , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Espectroscopia Dielétrica , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Junções Comunicantes/efeitos dos fármacos , Junções Comunicantes/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Isoformas de Proteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Receptor A2B de Adenosina/química , Receptor A2B de Adenosina/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Toxicol Lett ; 317: 1-12, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562913

RESUMO

During extrusion of some polymers, fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3-D printers emit billions of particles per minute and numerous organic compounds. The scope of this study was to evaluate FFF 3-D printer emission-induced toxicity in human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC). Emissions were generated from a commercially available 3-D printer inside a chamber, while operating for 1.5 h with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) or polycarbonate (PC) filaments, and collected in cell culture medium. Characterization of the culture medium revealed that repeat print runs with an identical filament yield various amounts of particles and organic compounds. Mean particle sizes in cell culture medium were 201 ±â€¯18 nm and 202 ±â€¯8 nm for PC and ABS, respectively. At 24 h post-exposure, both PC and ABS emissions induced a dose dependent significant cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, apoptosis, necrosis, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in SAEC. Though the emissions may not completely represent all possible exposure scenarios, this study indicate that the FFF could induce toxicological effects. Further studies are needed to quantify the detected chemicals in the emissions and their corresponding toxicological effects.


Assuntos
Resinas Acrílicas/toxicidade , Butadienos/toxicidade , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Cimento de Policarboxilato/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Impressão Tridimensional , Mucosa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Necrose , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/ultraestrutura , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 144: 40-49, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505225

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the present study was to develop zeta potential changing self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) via a flip-flop mechanism in order to improve their mucus permeating and cellular uptake properties. METHODS: Phosphorylated serine-oleylamine (p-Ser-OA) conjugates were synthesized and incorporated into SEDDS at a concentration of 1% (v/v). Cytotoxic potential of p-Ser-OA and p-Ser-OA loaded SEDDS was investigated on Caco-2 cells. Phosphate release was evaluated using isolated as well as cell-associated intestinal alkaline phosphatase (AP). In parallel, change in zeta potential and amino group concentration on the surface of SEDDS was determined. Furthermore, mucus permeation and cellular uptake studies were performed. RESULTS: p-Ser-OA was synthesized by covalent attachment of serine (Ser) to oleylamine (OA) via a carbodiimide-mediated reaction followed by phosphorylation using phosphorous pentoxide (P2O5) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The chemical structure of p-Ser-OA was confirmed via FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 31P NMR and mass spectroscopic analysis. p-Ser-OA loaded SEDDS exhibited a droplet size and zeta potential of 46.42 ±â€¯0.35 nm and -11.53 mV, respectively. A significant amount of phosphate was released after incubation with isolated as well as cell-associated AP within 6 h and zeta potential raised up to -2.04 mV. p-Ser-OA loaded SEDDS showed improved mucus permeation in comparison to p-Ser-OA loaded SEDDS treated with AP. Moreover, cellular uptake increased almost 2-fold after phosphate cleavage using AP. CONCLUSION: Findings of this study show that SEDDS changing their zeta potential via a flip-flop mechanism exhibit both high mucus permeating and high cellular uptake properties.


Assuntos
Emulsões/química , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Muco/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Emulsificantes/química , Humanos , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatos/química , Ácidos Fosfóricos/química
15.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 49-59, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520698

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have established the correlations between PM2.5 and a wide variety of pulmonary diseases. However, their underlying pathogeneses have not been clearly elucidated yet. In the present study, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype with enhanced proliferation and migration activity of human pulmonary epithelial cell line BEAS-2B was observed after exposure to low dose PM2.5 exposure (50 µg/ml) for 30 passages. Then, epithelial cells derived-exosomal micro-RNA (miRNA) and intracellular total RNA were extracted, and the differentially expressed exosomal miRNAs (DE-Exo-MiRs) as well as differentially expressed protein coding genes (DEGs) were identified by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and transcriptome analysis. We found that chronic PM2.5 exposure stimulated the release of pulmonary epithelium derived exosomes. 45 DE-Exo-MiRs including 32 novelly predicted miRNAs and 843 DEGs between PM2.5 exposed group and the normal control were detected. The Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses showed that DEGs were significantly enriched in extracellular matrix organization, focal adhesion and cancer related terms. Besides, the enrichment analyses on 7774 mRNA targets of 27 DE-Exo-MiRs predicted by MiRanda software also revealed the potential regulatory role of exosomal miRNAs in pathways in cancer, Wingless/Integrated (Wnt) signaling pathway, focal adhesion related genes and other multiple pathogenic pathways. Moreover, the interactive exosomal miRNA-mRNA pair networks were constructed using Cytoscape software. Our results provided a novel basis for a better understanding of the mechanisms of chronic PM2.5 exposure induced pulmonary disorders including pulmonary fibrosis and cancer, in which exosomal miRNAs (Exo-MiRs) potentially functions by dynamically regulating gene expressions.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Exossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/genética , Material Particulado/toxicidade , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/ultraestrutura , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Exossomos/genética , Exossomos/metabolismo , Exossomos/patologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/ultraestrutura , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(40): 11167-11178, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542928

RESUMO

Milk contains a number of beneficial fatty acids including short and medium chain and unsaturated conjugated and nonconjugated fatty acids. In this study, microRNA sequencing of mammary tissue collected in early-, peak-, mid-, and late-lactation periods was performed to determine the miRNA expression profiles. miR-16a was one of the differentially expressed miRNA and was selected for in-depth functional studies pertaining to fatty acid metabolism. The mimic of miR-16a impaired fat metabolism [triacylglycerol (TAG) and cholesterol] while knock-down of miR-16a promoted fat metabolism in vitro in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). In addition, the in vitro work with BMECs also revealed that miR-16a had a negative effect on the cellular concentration of cis 9-C18:1, total C18:1, C20:1, and C22:1 and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Therefore, these data suggesting a negative effect on fatty acid metabolism extend the discovery of the key role of miR-16a in mediating adipocyte differentiation. Through a combination of bioinformatics analysis, target gene 3' UTR luciferase reporter assays, and western blotting, we identified large tumor suppressor kinase 1 (LATS1) as a target of miR-16a. Transfection of siRNA-LATS1 into BMECs led to increases in TAG, cholesterol, and cellular fatty acid concentrations, suggesting a positive role of LATS1 in mammary cell fatty acid metabolism. In summary, data suggest that miR-16a regulates biological processes associated with intracellular TAG, cholesterol, and unsaturated fatty acid synthesis through LATS1. These data provide a theoretical and experimental framework for further clarifying the regulation of lipid metabolism in mammary cells of dairy cows.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/enzimologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Colesterol/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
17.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 109-118, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472180

RESUMO

Lithocholic acid (LCA) is both a secondary bile acid and a vitamin D receptor (VDR) ligand. The VDR is activated by 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and plays an important role in maintaining integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier. LCA can also substitute for vitamin D to carry out the in vivo functions of vitamin D. However, it is unclear whether activation of the VDR by LCA affects mucosal barrier function. In the present study, we researched the protective effect of LCA on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cells of the human epithelial intestinal adenocarcinoma cell line. Caco-2 cell monolayers were pretreated with LCA and then exposed to 100 ng/mL TNF-α. The results showed that LCA alleviated the decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance and the increase in FITC-Dextran flux induced by TNF-α. LCA ameliorated the TNF-α-induced decrease in protein expression and distribution of ZO-1, E-cadherin, Occludin, and Claudin-1, which are tight junction markers. Additionally, the LCA treatment effectively counteracted TNF-α-mediated downregulation of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), nuclear factor erythroid2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and heme oxygenase-1, which are related to oxidative stress. Increases in NF-κB p-p65 and p-IκB-α induced by TNF-α were significantly inhibited by LCA. Considering all these, the present study indicates that LCA has a significant protective effect on TNF-α-induced injury of intestinal barrier function through the VDR and suggests that suppressing NF-κB signaling and activating the SIRT1/Nrf2 pathway might be one of the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of LCA.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Litocólico/farmacologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Receptores de Calcitriol/agonistas , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/toxicidade , Células CACO-2 , Citoproteção , Impedância Elétrica , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Permeabilidade , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas/efeitos dos fármacos , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas/patologia
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(40): 11137-11147, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532202

RESUMO

MicroRNA-mediated gene regulation is important for the development of the mammary gland and the lactating process. A previous study has shown that the expression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) is different in the dry and early lactation period of the dairy cow mammary gland, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the lactation cycle are not fully understood. Here, the function of miR-21-3p on bovine mammary gland epithelial cells (BMECs) was detected by MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis, which showed that miR-21-3p significantly promoted the cell viability and proliferation. Then, the regulating mechanism of miR-21-3p on cell viability and proliferation was elucidated. Dual luciferase assay, RT-qPCR, and Western blot results revealed that IGFBP5 was a target gene of miR-21-3p. It was known that lncRNA could act as a competing endogenous RNA to sequester miRNAs and reduce the regulatory effect of miRNA-targeted genes. Based on our previous lncRNA-seq data and bioinformatics analysis, lncRNA NONBTAT017009.2 was potentially associated with miR-21-3p, and its expression was specifically inhibited with the transfection of miR-21-3p mimic into BMECs. Inversely, the overexpression of NONBTAT017009.2 significantly decreased the expression level of miR-21-3p in BMECs, while the expression of IGFBP5, the target gene of miR-21-3p, was significantly upregulated. In addition, the promoter region of miR-21 contained two STAT3 binding sites, and the dual luciferase reporter assays revealed that the overexpression of STAT3 significantly reduced the promoter activity of miR-21, implying that the transcription factor STAT3 may act as an upstream regulator affecting the regulation process of miR-21-3p. The overexpression of STAT3 significantly inhibited the expression of miR-21-3p, while the mRNA expression of IGFBP5 was significantly increased compared with the control group. Besides, there are no STAT3 binding sites in the promoter region of IGFBP5 as we predicted by gene-regulation and JASPAR software. Therefore, it could infer that STAT3 might regulate the expression of IGFBP5 by miR-21-3p. Taken together, these results established a regulatory network of miR-21-3p to illustrate the regulating mechanism on promoting cow mammary epithelial cell proliferation.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Proliferação de Células , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo
19.
Microbiol Res ; 229: 126325, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563838

RESUMO

Edwardsiella bacteria cause economic losses to a variety of commercially important fish globally. Human infections are rare and result in a gastroenteritis-like illness. Because these bacteria are evolutionarily related to other Enterobacteriaceae and the host cytoskeleton is a common target of enterics, we hypothesized that Edwardsiella may cause similar phenotypes. Here we use HeLa and Caco-2 infection models to show that microtubules are severed during the late infections. This microtubule alteration phenotype was not dependant on the type III or type VI secretion system (T3SS and T6SS) of the bacteria as ΔT3SS and ΔT6SS mutants of E. piscicida EIB202 and E. tarda ATCC15947 that lacks both also caused microtubule disassembly. Immunolocalization experiments showed the host katanin catalytic subunits A1 and A like 1 proteins at regions of microtubule severing, suggesting their involvement in the microtubule disassembly events. To identify bacterial components involved in this phenotype, we screened a 2,758 transposon library of E. piscicida EIB202 and found that 4 single mutations in the atpFHAGDC operon disrupted microtubule disassembly in HeLa cells. We then constructed three atp deletion mutants; they all could not disassemble host microtubules. This work provides the first clear evidence of host cytoskeletal alterations during Edwardsiella infections.


Assuntos
Edwardsiella/fisiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Edwardsiella/genética , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/metabolismo , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Células HeLa , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Óperon , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo III/genética , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo III/metabolismo , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo VI/genética , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo VI/metabolismo
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10513-10520, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475823

RESUMO

Amino acids can stimulate milk fat synthesis, but the underlying molecular mechanism is still largely unknown. In this study, we studied the regulatory role and corresponding molecular mechanism of cAMP response element-binding protein-regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2) in amino acid-induced milk fat synthesis in mammary epithelial cells. We showed that leucine and methionine stimulated CRTC2 but not p-CRTC2(Ser171) expression and nuclear localization in cow mammary epithelial cells. Knockdown of CRTC2 decreased milk fat synthesis and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) expression and activation, whereas its overexpression had the opposite effects. Neither knockdown nor overexpression of CRTC2 affected ß-casein synthesis and phosphorylation of the machanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), suggesting that CRTC2 only regulates milk fat synthesis. CRTC2 knockdown abolished the stimulation of leucine and methionine on SREBP-1c expression and activation. Knockdown or overexpression of CRTC2 did not affect the protein level of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) and its phosphorylation but decreased or increased the binding of p-CREB to the promoter of SREBP-1c gene and its mRNA expression, respectively. Mutation of Ser171 of CRTC2 did not alter the stimulation of CRTC2 on SREBP-1c expression and activation, further suggesting that CRTC2 functions in the nucleus. mTOR inhibition by rapamycin totally blocked the stimulation of leucine and methionine on CRTC2 expression. The expression of CRTC2 was dramatically higher in the mouse mammary gland of lactation period, compared with that of the dry and puberty periods, whereas p-CRTC2(Ser171) was not changed, further supporting that CRTC2 is a key transcription coactivator for milk fat synthesis. These results uncover that CRTC2 is a key transcription coactivator of amino acid-stimulated mTOR-mediated milk fat synthesis in mammary epithelial cells.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Bovinos/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Gorduras/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , Leite/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Feminino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fosforilação , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
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