Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 13.251
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4977, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020483

RESUMO

Although thousands of breast cancer cells disseminate and home to bone marrow until primary surgery, usually less than a handful will succeed in establishing manifest metastases months to years later. To identify signals that support survival or outgrowth in patients, we profile rare bone marrow-derived disseminated cancer cells (DCCs) long before manifestation of metastasis and identify IL6/PI3K-signaling as candidate pathway for DCC activation. Surprisingly, and similar to mammary epithelial cells, DCCs lack membranous IL6 receptor expression and mechanistic dissection reveals IL6 trans-signaling to regulate a stem-like state of mammary epithelial cells via gp130. Responsiveness to IL6 trans-signals is found to be niche-dependent as bone marrow stromal and endosteal cells down-regulate gp130 in premalignant mammary epithelial cells as opposed to vascular niche cells. PIK3CA activation renders cells independent from IL6 trans-signaling. Consistent with a bottleneck function of microenvironmental DCC control, we find PIK3CA mutations highly associated with late-stage metastatic cells while being extremely rare in early DCCs. Our data suggest that the initial steps of metastasis formation are often not cancer cell-autonomous, but also depend on microenvironmental signals.


Assuntos
Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Medula Óssea/patologia , Mama/citologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Receptor gp130 de Citocina/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-6/deficiência , Receptores de Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
2.
J Neurovirol ; 26(5): 631-641, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876900

RESUMO

A subset of patients with coronavirus 2 disease (COVID-19) experience neurological complications. These complications include loss of sense of taste and smell, stroke, delirium, and neuromuscular signs and symptoms. The etiological agent of COVID-19 is SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), an RNA virus with a glycoprotein-studded viral envelope that uses ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) as a functional receptor for infecting the host cells. Thus, the interaction of the envelope spike proteins with ACE2 on host cells determines the tropism and virulence of SARS-CoV-2. Loss of sense of taste and smell is an initial symptom of COVID-19 because the virus enters the nasal and oral cavities first and the epithelial cells are the receptors for these senses. Stroke in COVID-19 patients is likely a consequence of coagulopathy and injury to cerebral vascular endothelial cells that cause thrombo-embolism and stroke. Delirium and encephalopathy in acute and post COVID-19 patients are likely multifactorial and secondary to hypoxia, metabolic abnormalities, and immunological abnormalities. Thus far, there is no clear evidence that coronaviruses cause inflammatory neuromuscular diseases via direct invasion of peripheral nerves or muscles or via molecular mimicry. It appears that most of neurologic complications in COVID-19 patients are indirect and as a result of a bystander injury to neurons.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Encefalopatias/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/virologia , Encefalopatias/imunologia , Encefalopatias/patologia , Encefalopatias/virologia , Efeito Espectador , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Neurônios/patologia , Neurônios/virologia , Transtornos do Olfato/imunologia , Transtornos do Olfato/patologia , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Embolia Pulmonar/imunologia , Embolia Pulmonar/patologia , Embolia Pulmonar/virologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/imunologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/virologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4786, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963227

RESUMO

Evidence points to an indispensable function of macrophages in tissue regeneration, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here we demonstrate a protective function for the IL-33-ST2 axis in bronchial epithelial repair, and implicate ST2 in myeloid cell differentiation. ST2 deficiency in mice leads to reduced lung myeloid cell infiltration, abnormal alternatively activated macrophage (AAM) function, and impaired epithelial repair post naphthalene-induced injury. Reconstitution of wild type (WT) AAMs to ST2-deficient mice completely restores bronchial re-epithelialization. Central to this mechanism is the direct effect of IL-33-ST2 signaling on monocyte/macrophage differentiation, self-renewal and repairing ability, as evidenced by the downregulation of key pathways regulating myeloid cell cycle, maturation and regenerative function of the epithelial niche in ST2-/- mice. Thus, the IL-33-ST2 axis controls epithelial niche regeneration by activating a large multi-cellular circuit, including monocyte differentiation into competent repairing AAMs, as well as group-2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2)-mediated AAM activation.


Assuntos
Bronquíolos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Interleucina-33/metabolismo , Interleucina-33/farmacologia , Animais , Bronquíolos/lesões , Bronquíolos/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Feminino , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/genética , Pulmão/patologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Transdução de Sinais
4.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2145, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983174

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infection has recently been declared a pandemic. Some patients showing severe symptoms exhibit drastic inflammation and airway damage. In this study, we re-analyzed published scRNA-seq data of COVID-19 patient bronchoalveolar lavage fluid to further classify and compare immunological features according to the patient's disease severity. Patients with severe symptoms showed DNA damage and apoptotic features of epithelial cells. Our results suggested that epithelial damage was associated with neutrophil infiltration. Myeloid cells of severe patients showed higher expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as CXCL8. As a result, neutrophils were abundant in lungs of patients from the severe group. Furthermore, recruited neutrophils highly expressed genes related to neutrophil extracellular traps. Neutrophil-mediated inflammation was regulated by glucocorticoid receptor expression and activity. Based on these results, we suggest that severe COVID-19 symptoms may be determined by differential expression of glucocorticoid receptors and neutrophils.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Interleucina-8/genética , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transcriptoma , Adulto , Idoso , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA-Seq , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única/métodos
5.
J Exp Med ; 217(12)2020 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926098

RESUMO

Severe COVID-19 patients develop acute respiratory distress syndrome that may progress to cytokine storm syndrome, organ dysfunction, and death. Considering that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been described as important mediators of tissue damage in inflammatory diseases, we investigated whether NETs would be involved in COVID-19 pathophysiology. A cohort of 32 hospitalized patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 and healthy controls were enrolled. The concentration of NETs was augmented in plasma, tracheal aspirate, and lung autopsies tissues from COVID-19 patients, and their neutrophils released higher levels of NETs. Notably, we found that viable SARS-CoV-2 can directly induce the release of NETs by healthy neutrophils. Mechanistically, NETs triggered by SARS-CoV-2 depend on angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, serine protease, virus replication, and PAD-4. Finally, NETs released by SARS-CoV-2-activated neutrophils promote lung epithelial cell death in vitro. These results unravel a possible detrimental role of NETs in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Therefore, the inhibition of NETs represents a potential therapeutic target for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Células A549 , Adulto , Morte Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Masculino , Ativação de Neutrófilo , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Serina Proteases/metabolismo , Sucção , Traqueia/imunologia
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3910, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764693

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2, a ß-coronavirus, has rapidly spread across the world, highlighting its high transmissibility, but the underlying morphogenesis and pathogenesis remain poorly understood. Here, we characterize the replication dynamics, cell tropism and morphogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 in organotypic human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures. SARS-CoV-2 replicates efficiently and infects both ciliated and secretory cells in HAE cultures. In comparison, HCoV-NL63 replicates to lower titers and is only detected in ciliated cells. SARS-CoV-2 shows a similar morphogenetic process as other coronaviruses but causes plaque-like cytopathic effects in HAE cultures. Cell fusion, apoptosis, destruction of epithelium integrity, cilium shrinking and beaded changes are observed in the plaque regions. Taken together, our results provide important insights into SARS-CoV-2 cell tropism, replication and morphogenesis.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Morfogênese/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Sistema Respiratório/patologia , Tropismo , Replicação Viral
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1265: 57-70, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761570

RESUMO

Lung diseases affect millions of individuals all over the world. Various environmental factors, such as toxins, chemical pollutants, detergents, viruses, bacteria, microbial dysbiosis, and allergens, contribute to the development of respiratory disorders. Exposure to these factors activates stress responses in host cells and disrupt lung homeostasis, therefore leading to dysfunctional epithelial barriers. Despite significant advances in therapeutic treatments for lung diseases in the last two decades, novel interventional targets are imperative, considering the side effects and limited efficacy in patients treated with currently available drugs. Nutrients, such as amino acids (e.g., arginine, glutamine, glycine, proline, taurine, and tryptophan), peptides, and bioactive molecules, have attracted more and more attention due to their abilities to reduce oxidative stress, inhibit apoptosis, and regulate immune responses, thereby improving epithelial barriers. In this review, we summarize recent advances in amino acid metabolism in the lungs, as well as multifaceted functions of amino acids in attenuating inflammatory lung diseases based on data from studies with both human patients and animal models. The underlying mechanisms for the effects of physiological amino acids are likely complex and involve cell signaling, gene expression, and anti-oxidative reactions. The beneficial effects of amino acids are expected to improve the respiratory health and well-being of humans and other animals. Because viruses (e.g., coronavirus) and environmental pollutants (e.g., PM2.5 particles) induce severe damage to the lungs, it is important to determine whether dietary supplementation or intravenous administration of individual functional amino acids (e.g., arginine-HCl, citrulline, N-acetylcysteine, glutamine, glycine, proline and tryptophan) or their combinations to affected subjects may alleviate injury and dysfunction in this vital organ.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Pneumopatias/metabolismo , Pneumopatias/patologia , Animais , Humanos , Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia
8.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008766, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857822

RESUMO

Pathogens commonly disrupt the intestinal epithelial barrier; however, how the epithelial immune system senses the loss of intestinal barrier as a danger signal to activate self-defense is unclear. Through an unbiased approach in the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that the EGL-44/TEAD transcription factor and its transcriptional activator YAP-1/YAP (Yes-associated protein) were activated when the intestinal barrier was disrupted by infections with the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis of the genes containing the TEAD-binding sites revealed that "innate immune response" and "defense response to Gram-negative bacterium" were two top significantly overrepresented terms. Genetic inactivation of yap-1 and egl-44 significantly reduced the survival rate and promoted bacterial accumulation in worms after bacterial infections. Furthermore, we found that disturbance of the E-cadherin-based adherens junction triggered the nuclear translocation and activation of YAP-1/YAP in the gut of worms. Although YAP is a major downstream effector of the Hippo signaling, our study revealed that the activation of YAP-1/YAP was independent of the Hippo pathway during disruption of intestinal barrier. After screening 10 serine/threonine phosphatases, we identified that PP2A phosphatase was involved in the activation of YAP-1/YAP after intestinal barrier loss induced by bacterial infections. Additionally, our study demonstrated that the function of YAP was evolutionarily conserved in mice. Our study highlights how the intestinal epithelium recognizes the loss of the epithelial barrier as a danger signal to deploy defenses against pathogens, uncovering an immune surveillance program in the intestinal epithelium.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Salmonelose Animal/imunologia , Salmonella typhimurium/imunologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Camundongos , Salmonelose Animal/metabolismo , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236348, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735560

RESUMO

Vocal folds are a viscoelastic multilayered structure responsible for voice production. Vocal fold epithelial damage may weaken the protection of deeper layers of lamina propria and thyroarytenoid muscle and impair voice production. Systemic dehydration can adversely affect vocal function by creating suboptimal biomechanical conditions for vocal fold vibration. However, the molecular pathobiology of systemically dehydrated vocal folds is poorly understood. We used an in vivo rabbit model to investigate the complete gene expression profile of systemically dehydrated vocal folds. The RNA-Seq based transcriptome revealed 203 differentially expressed (DE) vocal fold genes due to systemic dehydration. Interestingly, function enrichment analysis showed downregulation of genes involved in cell adhesion, cell junction, inflammation, and upregulation of genes involved in cell proliferation. RT-qPCR validation was performed for a subset of DE genes and confirmed the downregulation of DSG1, CDH3, NECTIN1, SDC1, S100A9, SPINK5, ECM1, IL1A, and IL36A genes. In addition, the upregulation of the transcription factor NR4A3 gene involved in epithelial cell proliferation was validated. Taken together, these results suggest an alteration of the vocal fold epithelial barrier independent of inflammation, which could indicate a disruption and remodeling of the epithelial barrier integrity. This transcriptome provides a first global picture of the molecular changes in vocal fold tissue in response to systemic dehydration. The alterations observed at the transcriptional level help to understand the pathobiology of dehydration in voice function and highlight the benefits of hydration in voice therapy.


Assuntos
Desidratação/genética , Músculos Laríngeos/metabolismo , Prega Vocal/metabolismo , Distúrbios da Voz/genética , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Adesão Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Desidratação/metabolismo , Desidratação/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Junções Intercelulares/genética , Músculos Laríngeos/patologia , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Membrana Mucosa/patologia , Coelhos , Prega Vocal/patologia , Distúrbios da Voz/patologia
10.
Virology ; 550: 1-7, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853833

RESUMO

Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is an important pathogen threatening poultry production worldwide. Here, two recombinant IBVs (rYN-1a-aYN and rYN-1b-aYN) were generated in which ORF1a or ORF1b of the virulent YN genome were replaced by the corresponding regions from the attenuated strain aYN. The pathogenicity and virulence of rIBVs were evaluated in ovo and in vivo. The results revealed that mutations in the ORF1a gene during passage in embryonated eggs caused the decreased pathogenicity of virulent IBV YN strain, proven by determination of virus replication in ECEs and CEK cells, the observation of clinical signs, gross lesions, microscopic lesions, tracheal ciliary activity and virus distribution in chickens following exposure to rIBVs. However, mutations in ORF1b had no obvious effect on virus replication in both ECEs and CEK cells, or pathogenicity in chickens. Our findings demonstrate that the replicase 1a gene of avian coronavirus IBV is a determinant of pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/patogenicidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , RNA Replicase/genética , Vírus Reordenados/patogenicidade , Proteínas Virais/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cricetulus , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Expressão Gênica , Vida Livre de Germes , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/genética , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mutação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , RNA Replicase/metabolismo , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Vírus Reordenados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Replicação Viral
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111188, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836151

RESUMO

Increasing evidence indicates autophagy and apoptosis are involved in the toxicity mechanism of heavy metals. Our previous studies showed that cadmium (Cd) could induce autophagy and apoptosis in duck kidneys in vivo, nevertheless, the interaction between them has yet to be elucidated. Herein, the cells were either treated with 3CdSO4·8H2O (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0 µM Cd) or/and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) (2.5 µM) for 12 h and the indictors related autophagy and apoptosis were detected to assess the correlation between autophagy and apoptosis induced by Cd in duck renal tubular epithelial cells. The results demonstrated that Cd exposure notably elevated intracellular and extracellular Cd contents, the number of autophagosomes and LC3 puncta, up-regulated LC3A, LC3B, Beclin-1, Atg5 mRNA levels, and Beclin-1 and LC3II/LC3I protein levels, down-regulated mTOR, p62 and Dynein mRNA levels and p62 protein level. Additionally, autophagy inhibitor 3-MA decreased Beclin-1, LC3II/LC3I protein levels and increased p62 protein level. Moreover, co-treatment with Cd and 3-MA could notably elevate Caspase-3, Cyt C, Bax, and Bak-1 mRNA levels, Caspase-3 and cleaved Caspase-3 protein levels, and cell apoptotic rate as well as cell damage, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), Bcl-2 mRNA level and the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax compared to treatment with Cd alone. Overall, these results indicate Cd exposure can induce autophagy in duck renal tubular epithelial cells, and inhibition of autophagy might aggravate Cd-induced apoptosis through mitochondria-mediated pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Patos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Túbulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Autofagossomos/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Humanos , Túbulos Renais/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 121, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641705
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234993, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645014

RESUMO

The main functions of the choroid plexus (CP) are the production of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), the formation of the blood-CSF barrier, and regulation of immune response. This barrier allows for the exchange of specific nutrients, waste, and peripheral immune cells between the blood stream and CSF. Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the causative bacteria of Lyme disease, is associated with neurological complications including meningitis-indeed, Bb has been isolated from the CSF of patients. While it is accepted that B. burgdorferi can enter the central nervous system (CNS) of patients, it is unknown how the bacteria crosses this barrier and how the pathogenesis of the disease leads to the observed symptoms in patients. We hypothesize that during infection Borrelia burgdorferi will induce an immune response conducive to the chemotaxis of immune cells and subsequently lead to a pro-inflammatory state with the CNS parenchyma. Primary human choroid plexus epithelial cells were grown in culture and infected with B. burgdorferi strain B31 MI-16 for 48 hours. RNA was isolated and used for RNA sequencing and RT-qPCR validation. Secreted proteins in the supernatant were analyzed via ELISA. Transcriptome analysis based on RNA sequencing determined a total of 160 upregulated genes and 98 downregulated genes. Pathway and biological process analysis determined a significant upregulation in immune and inflammatory genes specifically in chemokine and interferon related pathways. Further analysis revealed downregulation in genes related to cell to cell junctions including tight and adherens junctions. These results were validated via RT-qPCR. Protein analysis of secreted factors showed an increase in inflammatory chemokines, corresponding to our transcriptome analysis. These data further demonstrate the role of the CP in the modulation of the immune response in a disease state and give insight into the mechanisms by which Borrelia burgdorferi may disseminate into, and act upon, the CNS. Future experiments aim to detail the impact of B. burgdorferi on the blood-CSF-barrier (BCSFB) integrity and inflammatory response within animal models.


Assuntos
Borrelia burgdorferi/patogenicidade , Plexo Corióideo/patologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Borrelia burgdorferi/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Plexo Corióideo/imunologia , Plexo Corióideo/microbiologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Doença de Lyme/imunologia , Doença de Lyme/patologia , Proteínas/análise , RNA/análise
14.
Nanotoxicology ; 14(7): 968-984, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633691

RESUMO

Rich vacancies of semiconductor nanomaterials (NMs) give rise to great enhancement of their physical and chemical properties such as magnetic, catalytic, optical, etc. These NMs possessing extensive applications could inevitably enter into the environment and increase the toxic effects on organisms, so it is imperative to investigate the cytotoxicity of NMs with different types of vacancies. Here, one-dimensional cobalt selenide (CoSe2) NMs with different vacancies were synthesized through the same precursor while calcined at different temperatures (P-CoSe2 which calcined at 200 °C and N-CoSe2 which calcined at 230 °C). According to the positron annihilation spectrum, the VSeSe vacancy associate in P-CoSe2 was endowed with two positive charges, while the VCoCoCoSeSe vacancy associate in N-CoSe2 possessed four negative charges. Cell viability assays revealed that N-CoSe2 had higher toxicity to macrophages than P-CoSe2, which was attributed to higher levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species induced by N-CoSe2. Further investigation showed that N-CoSe2 had higher affinity to the mitochondrion-targeting peptide, leading to its preferential distribution in the mitochondria and consequent induction of mitochondrial superoxide production. In contrast, P-CoSe2 exhibited higher affinity to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-targeting peptide, facilitating its preferential distribution in the ER and the nuclei and causing higher damage to both organelles as compared to N-CoSe2. These results demonstrated that type of surface vacancies significantly affected biodistribution of NMs in subcellular organelles, which contributed to differential biological behaviors of the NMs.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanoestruturas/toxicidade , Compostos de Selênio/toxicidade , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Humanos , Macrófagos Alveolares/metabolismo , Macrófagos Alveolares/patologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanoestruturas/química , Coroa de Proteína/química , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Compostos de Selênio/química , Solubilidade , Propriedades de Superfície , Distribuição Tecidual
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110956, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atmospheric pollutants could induced over-expression of Muc5ac, which is a major pathological feature in acute exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and fatal asthma. Notch signaling pathway could promote mucus cell proliferation and mucus secretion. However, the effects of Notch signaling pathway on the airway mucus secretion induced by PM2.5 remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of the Notch signaling pathway on Muc5ac by atmospheric PM2.5 in Beas-2B cell. METHODS: The mRNA and protein levels of the Notch1-4, downstream target gene Hes1 and Muc5ac in the Notch signaling pathway were detected by qPCR and western after Beas-2B cells were exposed to PM2.5 of different concentrations for 12h, 24h, and 48h. RESULTS: The longer the exposure time and the higher the concentration of PM2.5, the lower the survival rate of Beas-2B cells. The expressions of Hes1 and Muc5ac in mRNA and protein were significantly increased after PM2.5 exposure. Correlation analysis indicated that there was a positive correlation between the expression of Muc5ac and Hes1 in mRNA and protein. CONCLUSION: Atmospheric PM2.5 can induce the express of Muc5ac, the Notch signaling pathway may be involved in the regulation of Muc5ac by Hes1.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucina-5AC/biossíntese , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Humanos , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3715, 2020 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709844

RESUMO

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is prevalent in some geographical regions of the world. ESCC development presents a multistep pathogenic process from inflammation to invasive cancer; however, what is critical in these processes and how they evolve is largely unknown, obstructing early diagnosis and effective treatment. Here, we create a mouse model mimicking human ESCC development and construct a single-cell ESCC developmental atlas. We identify a set of key transitional signatures associated with oncogenic evolution of epithelial cells and depict the landmark dynamic tumorigenic trajectories. An early downregulation of CD8+ response against the initial tissue damage accompanied by the transition of immune response from type 1 to type 3 results in accumulation and activation of macrophages and neutrophils, which may create a chronic inflammatory environment that promotes carcinogen-transformed epithelial cell survival and proliferation. These findings shed light on how ESCC is initiated and developed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Transcriptoma , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/imunologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Linfócitos T , Fatores de Transcrição , Microambiente Tumoral
17.
Arch Virol ; 165(10): 2241-2247, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681408

RESUMO

Cervical cancer is primarily caused by persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV), and 70% of cases are associated with HPV16 and 18 infections. The objective of this study was to establish rapid, simple, and sensitive internally controlled recombinase-aided amplification (IC-RAA) assays for the detection of HPV16 and 18. The assays were performed at 39 ℃ and were completed within 30 min. A total of 277 clinical samples of exfoliated cervical cells were tested by IC-RAA assays and commercial HPV real-time fluorescent PCR kits using extracted DNA and samples treated with nucleic acid releasing agent. The analytical sensitivity of the IC-RAA assay was found to be 10 copies/µL for the detection of HPV16 and 18 when using recombinant plasmids as targets. The optimal concentration of the internal control (IC) plasmid and 18 was 1000 copies/µL for HPV16 and 100 copies/µL for HPV18. The clinical sensitivity of the IC-RAA assays for HPV16 using extracted DNA and samples treated with nucleic acid releasing agent was 98.73% and 97.47%, respectively, with kappa values of 0.977 (P < 0.01) and 0.955 (P < 0.01), respectively, and 100% The specificity in both cases. For HPV18, the sensitivity and specificity were 100%, and the kappa value was 1 for both samples (P < 0.01). The IC-RAA assay is a promising tool for the detection of HPV16 and HPV18, especially in resource-constrained settings.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 18/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Colo do Útero/patologia , Colo do Útero/virologia , Primers do DNA/síntese química , Primers do DNA/genética , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16/classificação , Papillomavirus Humano 16/isolamento & purificação , Papillomavirus Humano 18/classificação , Papillomavirus Humano 18/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
18.
Mol Cell ; 79(3): 425-442.e7, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615088

RESUMO

Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most deleterious DNA lesions, which, if left unrepaired, may lead to genome instability or cell death. Here, we report that, in response to DSBs, the RNA methyltransferase METTL3 is activated by ATM-mediated phosphorylation at S43. Phosphorylated METTL3 is then localized to DNA damage sites, where it methylates the N6 position of adenosine (m6A) in DNA damage-associated RNAs, which recruits the m6A reader protein YTHDC1 for protection. In this way, the METTL3-m6A-YTHDC1 axis modulates accumulation of DNA-RNA hybrids at DSBs sites, which then recruit RAD51 and BRCA1 for homologous recombination (HR)-mediated repair. METTL3-deficient cells display defective HR, accumulation of unrepaired DSBs, and genome instability. Accordingly, depletion of METTL3 significantly enhances the sensitivity of cancer cells and murine xenografts to DNA damage-based therapy. These findings uncover the function of METTL3 and YTHDC1 in HR-mediated DSB repair, which may have implications for cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Bleomicina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/patologia , Fosforilação , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/metabolismo , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo , Ribonuclease H/genética , Ribonuclease H/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
19.
Exp Cell Res ; 394(2): 112101, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474064

RESUMO

Acute lung injury (ALI) and its more severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are common lung disorders characterized by alveolar-capillary barrier disruption and dyspnea, which can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Currently, a cluster of acute respiratory illnesses, known as novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-infected pneumonia (NCIP), which allegedly originally occurred in Wuhan, China, has increased rapidly worldwide. The critically ill patients with ARDS have high mortality in subjects with comorbidities. Previously, the excessive recruitment and activation of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMNs]), accompanied by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation were reported being implicated in the pathogenesis of ALI/ARDS. However, the direct visualization of lung epithelial injuries caused by NETs, and the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of this damage are still lacking. Additionally, those already reported methods are limited for their neglect of the pathological role exerted by NETs and focusing only on the morphological features of NETosis. Therefore, we established a cell-based assay for detecting NETs during lung epithelial cells-neutrophils co-culture using the xCELLigence system, a recognized real-time, dynamic, label-free, sensitive, and high-throughput apparatus. Our results demonstrated that lung epithelial injuries, reflected by declines in cell index (CI) values, could be induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated PMNs, or NETs in a time and dose-dependent manner. NETs generation was verified to be the major contributor to the cytotoxicity of activated PMNs; protein components of NETs were the prevailing cytotoxic mediators. Moreover, this cell-based assay identified that PMNs from severe pneumonia patients had a high NETs formative potential. Additionally, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and acetaminophen (APAP) were discovered alleviating NETs formation. Thus, this study not only presents a new methodology for detecting the pathophysiologic role of NETs but also lays down a foundation for exploring therapeutic interventions in an effort to cure ALI/ARDS in the clinical setting of severe pneumonia, including the emerging of NCIP.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Armadilhas Extracelulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/sangue , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/virologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/virologia , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Neutrófilos/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia/sangue , Pneumonia/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/patologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/virologia
20.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(6): e1008647, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559251

RESUMO

A trimeric glycoprotein complex on the surface of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) binds to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor α (PDGFRα) to mediate host cell recognition and fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. Soluble PDGFRα potently neutralizes HCMV in tissue culture, and its potential use as an antiviral therapeutic has the benefit that any escape mutants will likely be attenuated. However, PDGFRα binds multiple PDGF ligands in the human body as part of developmental programs in embryogenesis and continuing through adulthood. Any therapies with soluble receptor therefore come with serious efficacy and safety concerns, especially for the treatment of congenital HCMV. Soluble virus receptors that are orthogonal to human biology might resolve these concerns. This engineering problem is solved by deep mutational scanning on the D2-D3 domains of PDGFRα to identify variants that maintain interactions with the HCMV glycoprotein trimer in the presence of competing PDGF ligands. Competition by PDGFs is conformation-dependent, whereas HCMV trimer binding is independent of proper D2-D3 conformation, and many mutations at the receptor-PDGF interface are suitable for functionally separating trimer from PDGF interactions. Purified soluble PDGFRα carrying a targeted mutation succeeded in displaying wild type affinity for HCMV trimer with a simultaneous loss of PDGF binding, and neutralizes trimer-only and trimer/pentamer-expressing HCMV strains infecting fibroblasts or epithelial cells. Overall, this work makes important progress in the realization of soluble HCMV receptors for clinical application.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Citomegalovirus , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína , Receptores Virais , Linhagem Celular , Citomegalovirus/química , Citomegalovirus/genética , Citomegalovirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/genética , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fibroblastos/virologia , Humanos , Mutação , Domínios Proteicos , Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/química , Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/genética , Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/química , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA