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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5397, 2020 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106478

RESUMO

The migration of many cell types relies on the formation of actomyosin-dependent protrusions called blebs, but the mechanisms responsible for focusing this kind of protrusive activity to the cell front are largely unknown. Here, we employ zebrafish primordial germ cells (PGCs) as a model to study the role of cell-cell adhesion in bleb-driven single-cell migration in vivo. Utilizing a range of genetic, reverse genetic and mathematical tools, we define a previously unknown role for E-cadherin in confining bleb-type protrusions to the leading edge of the cell. We show that E-cadherin-mediated frictional forces impede the backwards flow of actomyosin-rich structures that define the domain where protrusions are preferentially generated. In this way, E-cadherin confines the bleb-forming region to a restricted area at the cell front and reinforces the front-rear axis of migrating cells. Accordingly, when E-cadherin activity is reduced, the bleb-forming area expands, thus compromising the directional persistence of the cells.


Assuntos
Actinas/metabolismo , Caderinas/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Células Germinativas/citologia , Pseudópodes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Actinas/genética , Actomiosina/genética , Actomiosina/metabolismo , Animais , Caderinas/genética , Feminino , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Masculino , Pseudópodes/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5191, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060587

RESUMO

In grasses, phased small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs), 21- or 24-nucleotide (nt) in length, are predominantly expressed in anthers and play a role in regulating male fertility. However, their targets and mode of action on the targets remain unknown. Here we profile phasiRNA expression in premeiotic and meiotic spikelets as well as in purified male meiocytes at early prophase I, tetrads and microspores in rice. We show that 21-nt phasiRNAs are most abundant in meiocytes at early prophase I while 24-nt phasiRNAs are more abundant in tetrads and microspores. By performing highly sensitive degradome sequencing, we find that 21-nt phasiRNAs direct target mRNA cleavage in male germ cells, especially in meiocytes at early prophase I. These targets include 435 protein-coding genes and 71 transposons that show an enrichment for carbohydrate biosynthetic and metabolic pathways. Our study provides strong evidence that 21-nt phasiRNAs act in a target-cleavage mode and may facilitate the progression of meiosis by fine-tuning carbohydrate biosynthesis and metabolism in male germ cells.


Assuntos
Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Meiose/fisiologia , Nucleotídeos , Oryza/embriologia , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA Replicase/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237792, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ewing sarcoma (EwS) is a rare, aggressive solid tumor of childhood, adolescence and young adulthood associated with pathognomonic EWSR1-ETS fusion oncoproteins altering transcriptional regulation. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 6 common germline susceptibility loci but have not investigated low-frequency inherited variants with minor allele frequencies below 5% due to limited genotyped cases of this rare tumor. METHODS: We investigated the contribution of rare and low-frequency variation to EwS susceptibility in the largest EwS genome-wide association study to date (733 EwS cases and 1,346 unaffected controls of European ancestry). RESULTS: We identified two low-frequency variants, rs112837127 and rs2296730, on chromosome 20 that were associated with EwS risk (OR = 0.186 and 2.038, respectively; P-value < 5×10-8) and located near previously reported common susceptibility loci. After adjusting for the most associated common variant at the locus, only rs112837127 remained a statistically significant independent signal (OR = 0.200, P-value = 5.84×10-8). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest rare variation residing on common haplotypes are important contributors to EwS risk. IMPACT: Motivate future targeted sequencing studies for a comprehensive evaluation of low-frequency and rare variation around common EwS susceptibility loci.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Sarcoma de Ewing/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
4.
Gene ; 761: 145037, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777526

RESUMO

Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are singled out from somatic cells very early during embryogenesis, then they migrate towards the genital ridge and differentiate into gametes through oogenesis or spermatogenesis. Labeling PGCs with Localized RNAexpression (LRE) technique by fluorescent proteins has been widely applied among teleost species to study the germ cell development and gonad differentiation. In this study, we first cloned and characterized the 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs) of nanos homolog 1-like (nos1l), dead end (dnd), and vasa in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco), and then synthesized the GFP-nos1l/dnd/vasa 3'UTR mRNAs. Each of these three 3'UTRs could label PGCs in yellow catfish embryos, of which, vasa 3'UTR exhibited the highest labeling efficiency. To identify the differences in PGCs at embryonic stage, XX all-female and XY all-male yellow catfish embryos were produced and injected with GFP-vasa 3'UTR mRNA. We observed the PGC migration route in these two monosex embryos from 24 hpf to 7 dpf, and found there was no difference between them. Besides, the PGC number was counted at 48 hpf, and the result showed that the average PGC number in XX females (11.3) was significantly larger than that in XY males (8.1).These findings provide an insight into the development of PGCs in yellow catfish embryos and the relationship between embryonicPGCnumberand thelatergonaddifferentiation.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/genética , Gametogênese/genética , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Movimento Celular/genética , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Gônadas/metabolismo , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo
5.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 161, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic AXIN2 variants cause absence of permanent teeth (hypodontia), sparse hair and eye brows (ectodermal dysplasia), and gastrointestinal polyps and cancer. Inheritance is autosomal dominant with variable penetrance. Only twenty- five patients have been reported from five families. A Mayo Clinic pilot program tested 3009 newly diagnosed cancer patients for pathogenic germline variants in 83 hereditary cancer genes, including AXIN2. We found only one patient with a pathogenic AXIN2 variant. CASE PRESENTATION: The proband was a 49 year-old female who came to Otolaryngology clinic complaining of right-sided nasal obstruction. Biopsy of identified nasal polyp revealed olfactory neuroblastoma (esthesioneuroblastoma). Surgical resection with gross, total tumor resection was followed by radiation therapy. The patient enrolled in a clinical pilot of genetic testing and a pathogenic variant in AXIN2, c.1822del (p.Leu608Phefs*81) (NM_004655.3) was found. She was seen in Medical Genetics clinic and found to have a personal history of hypodontia. Her eyebrows, hair, and nails were all normal. She underwent upper endoscopy and colonoscopy. A four mm gastric adenoma was found and removed. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first case reported on a patient with a pathogenic, germline AXIN2 variant and an olfactory neuroblastoma or a gastric adenoma. We propose that these could be features of the AXIN2 phenotype. The known association between gastric adenomas and familial adenomatous polyposis, the other Wnt/beta-catenin disorder, supports the hypothesis that pathogenic AXIN2 variants increase risk as well. As the odds of a chance co-occurrence of a pathogenic AXIN2 variant and an olfactory neuroblastoma are so rare, it is worth exploring potential causation. We are building a clinical registry to expand understanding of the AXIN2 phenotype and request any clinicians caring for patients with pathogenic AXIN2 variants to contact us.


Assuntos
Adenoma/genética , Proteína Axina/genética , Estesioneuroblastoma Olfatório/genética , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Estesioneuroblastoma Olfatório/diagnóstico por imagem , Estesioneuroblastoma Olfatório/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Radiografia Panorâmica , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico por imagem
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4242, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843637

RESUMO

Membraneless organelles are sites for RNA biology including small non-coding RNA (ncRNA) mediated gene silencing. How small ncRNAs utilise phase separated environments for their function is unclear. We investigated how the PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway engages with the membraneless organelle P granule in Caenorhabditis elegans. Proteomic analysis of the PIWI protein PRG-1 reveals an interaction with the constitutive P granule protein DEPS-1. DEPS-1 is not required for piRNA biogenesis but piRNA-dependent silencing: deps-1 mutants fail to produce the secondary endo-siRNAs required for the silencing of piRNA targets. We identify a motif on DEPS-1 which mediates a direct interaction with PRG-1. DEPS-1 and PRG-1 form intertwining clusters to build elongated condensates in vivo which are dependent on the Piwi-interacting motif of DEPS-1. Additionally, we identify EDG-1 as an interactor of DEPS-1 and PRG-1. Our study reveals how specific protein-protein interactions drive the spatial organisation and piRNA-dependent silencing within membraneless organelles.


Assuntos
Proteínas Argonauta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Inativação Gênica , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Argonauta/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/química , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/metabolismo , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Proteômica , Interferência de RNA , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética
7.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 54(4): 688-698, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840490

RESUMO

A majority of BRCA1/2 (BRCA) pathogenic variants (PVs) are single nucleotide substitutions or small insertions/deletions. Copy number variations (CNVs), also known as large genomic rearrangements (LGRs), have been identified in BRCA genes. LGRs detection is a mandatory analysis in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families, if no predisposing PVs are found by sequencing. Next generation sequencing (NGS) may be used to detect structural variation, since quantitative analysis of sequencing reads, when coupled with appropriate bioinformatics tools, is capable of estimating and predicting germline LGRs (gLGRs). However, applying this approach to tumor tissue is challenging, and the pipelines for determination of CNV are yet to be optimized. The aim of this study was to validate the Next Generation Tumor Sequencing (NGTS) technology to detect various gLGRs of BRCA1 locus in surgical tumor tissue samples. In this study, seven different BRCA1 gLGRs, previously found in high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC) patients, were detected in tumor samples collected from the patients at a time of HGSOC surgery. This study demonstrated that NGS can accurately detect BRCA1 gLGRs in primary tumors, suggesting that gLGR evaluation in BRCA1 locus should be performed in cases when the screening for BRCA alterations starts from tumor instead of blood. NGS sequencing of tumor samples may become the preferred method to detect both somatic and germline gLGRs in BRCA-encoding loci.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Feminino , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3739, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719317

RESUMO

The PIWI protein MIWI2 and its associated PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) instruct DNA methylation of young active transposable elements (TEs) in the male germline. piRNAs are proposed to recruit MIWI2 to the transcriptionally active TE loci by base pairing to nascent transcripts, however the downstream mechanisms and effector proteins utilized by MIWI2 in directing de novo TE methylation remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that MIWI2 associates with TEX15 in foetal gonocytes. TEX15 is predominantly a nuclear protein that is not required for piRNA biogenesis but is essential for piRNA-directed TE de novo methylation and silencing. In summary, TEX15 is an essential executor of mammalian piRNA-directed DNA methylation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Argonauta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Inativação Gênica , Animais , Proteínas Argonauta/genética , Feminino , Feto/citologia , Genoma , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ligação Proteica , Testículo/metabolismo
9.
PLoS Biol ; 18(7): e3000745, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667908

RESUMO

Mutations create genetic variation for other evolutionary forces to operate on and cause numerous genetic diseases. Nevertheless, how de novo mutations arise remains poorly understood. Progress in the area is hindered by the fact that error rates of conventional sequencing technologies (1 in 100 or 1,000 base pairs) are several orders of magnitude higher than de novo mutation rates (1 in 10,000,000 or 100,000,000 base pairs per generation). Moreover, previous analyses of germline de novo mutations examined pedigrees (and not germ cells) and thus were likely affected by selection. Here, we applied highly accurate duplex sequencing to detect low-frequency, de novo mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) directly from oocytes and from somatic tissues (brain and muscle) of 36 mice from two independent pedigrees. We found mtDNA mutation frequencies 2- to 3-fold higher in 10-month-old than in 1-month-old mice, demonstrating mutation accumulation during the period of only 9 mo. Mutation frequencies and patterns differed between germline and somatic tissues and among mtDNA regions, suggestive of distinct mutagenesis mechanisms. Additionally, we discovered a more pronounced genetic drift of mitochondrial genetic variants in the germline of older versus younger mice, arguing for mtDNA turnover during oocyte meiotic arrest. Our study deciphered for the first time the intricacies of germline de novo mutagenesis using duplex sequencing directly in oocytes, which provided unprecedented resolution and minimized selection effects present in pedigree studies. Moreover, our work provides important information about the origins and accumulation of mutations with aging/maturation and has implications for delayed reproduction in modern human societies. Furthermore, the duplex sequencing method we optimized for single cells opens avenues for investigating low-frequency mutations in other studies.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Mamíferos/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mutação/genética , Oócitos/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Animais , Análise Mutacional de DNA , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Deriva Genética , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Padrões de Herança/genética , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Genéticos , Taxa de Mutação , Nucleotídeos/genética , Linhagem
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3304, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620809

RESUMO

A main assumption of molecular population genetics is that genomic mutation rate does not depend on sequence function. Challenging this assumption, a recent study has found a reduction in the mutation rate in exons compared to introns in somatic cells, ascribed to an enhanced exonic mismatch repair system activity. If this reduction happens also in the germline, it can compromise studies of population genomics, including the detection of selection when using introns as proxies for neutrality. Here we compile and analyze published germline de novo mutation data to test if the exonic mutation rate is also reduced in germ cells. After controlling for sampling bias in datasets with diseased probands and extended nucleotide context dependency, we find no reduction in the mutation rate in exons compared to introns in the germline. Therefore, there is no evidence that enhanced exonic mismatch repair activity determines the mutation rate in germline cells.


Assuntos
Éxons/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Íntrons/genética , Taxa de Mutação , Algoritmos , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Evolução Molecular , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Mutação , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236197, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701958

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies of gastric cancer (GC) cases have revealed common gastric cancer susceptibility loci with low effect size. We investigated rare variants with high effect size via whole-exome sequencing (WES) of subjects with familial clustering of gastric cancer. WES of DNAs from the blood of 19 gastric cancer patients and 36 unaffected family members from 14 families with two or more gastric cancer patients were tested. Linkage analysis combined with association tests were performed using Pedigree Variant Annotation, Analysis, and Search Tool (pVAAST) software. Based on the logarithm of odds (LOD) and permutation-based composite likelihood ratio test (CLRT) from pVAAST, MUC4 was identified as a predisposing gene (LOD P-value = 1.9×10-5; permutation-based P-value of CLRT ≤ 9.9×10-9). In a larger cohort consisting of 597 GC patients and 9,759 healthy controls genotyped with SNP array, we discovered common variants in MUC4 regions (rs148735556, rs11717039, and rs547775645) significantly associated with GC supporting the association of MUC4 with gastric cancer. And the MUC4 variants were found in higher frequency in The Cancer Genome Atlas Study (TCGA) germline samples of patients with multiple cancer types. Immunohistochemistry indicated that MUC4 was downregulated in the noncancerous gastric mucosa of subjects with MUC4 germline missense variants, suggesting that loss of the protective function of MUC4 predisposes an individual to gastric cancer. Rare variants in MUC4 can be novel gastric cancer susceptibility loci in Koreans possessing the familial clustering of gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Ligação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Mucina-4/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Estudos de Coortes , Família , Feminino , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucina-4/química , Linhagem , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estômago/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética
12.
Nature ; 582(7811): 283-288, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499657

RESUMO

Mobile genetic elements threaten genome integrity in all organisms. RDE-3 (also known as MUT-2) is a ribonucleotidyltransferase that is required for transposon silencing and RNA interference in Caenorhabditis elegans1-4. When tethered to RNAs in heterologous expression systems, RDE-3 can add long stretches of alternating non-templated uridine (U) and guanosine (G) ribonucleotides to the 3' termini of these RNAs (designated poly(UG) or pUG tails)5. Here we show that, in its natural context in C. elegans, RDE-3 adds pUG tails to targets of RNA interference, as well as to transposon RNAs. RNA fragments attached to pUG tails with more than 16 perfectly alternating 3' U and G nucleotides become gene-silencing agents. pUG tails promote gene silencing by recruiting RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, which use pUG-tailed RNAs (pUG RNAs) as templates to synthesize small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Our results show that cycles of pUG RNA-templated siRNA synthesis and siRNA-directed pUG RNA biogenesis underlie double-stranded-RNA-directed transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in the C. elegans germline. We speculate that this pUG RNA-siRNA silencing loop enables parents to inoculate progeny against the expression of unwanted or parasitic genetic elements.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/parasitologia , Epigênese Genética/genética , Genoma/genética , Hereditariedade , Poli G/genética , Poli U/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/citologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Células Germinativas/citologia , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Masculino , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA Replicase/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Moldes Genéticos
13.
Gene ; 754: 144848, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522697

RESUMO

The TGF-beta superfamily is widely involved in cell events such as cell division and differentiation, while bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) belong to one of the subgroups. Their functions in crustacean spermatogenesis are still unknown. In this study, we first identified the bone morphogenetic protein 2 (bmp2) from Eriocheir sinensis (E. sinensis) testis. The es-BMP2 shows high expression in E. sinensis testis. We found that es-BMP2 is expressed in spermatids. The successfully knockdown of es-BMP2 through in vivo RNAi are used for functional analysis. Compared with the control group, the proportion of abnormal nuclear cup morphology in mature spermatozoa increased significantly after es-bmp2 RNAi, suggesting that es-BMP2 plays an important role in mature sperm morphogenesis. Immunofluorescence results confirm this finding. In order to study the specific mechanism of es-BMP2 involved in spermiogenesis, we tested kinesin-14 KIFC1, which functions in the nucleus formation of spermatozoa in E. sinensis. The results showed that knockdown of es-BMP2 caused a significant decrease of es-KIFC1 expression. We further performed es-bmp2 knockdown in vitro in primary cultured testis cells. es-KIFC1 expression was significantly reduced after es-bmp2 RNAi. The above results indicate that es-BMP2 participates in maintaining the spermiogenesis of E. sinensis by regulating es-KIFC1 expression.


Assuntos
Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/metabolismo , Células Germinativas/citologia , Cinesina/metabolismo , Espermatogênese , Testículo/citologia , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/genética , Braquiúros , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Cinesina/genética , Masculino , Testículo/metabolismo
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3147, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561720

RESUMO

Transposons are known to participate in tissue aging, but their effects on aged stem cells remain unclear. Here, we report that in the Drosophila ovarian germline stem cell (GSC) niche, aging-related reductions in expression of Piwi (a transposon silencer) derepress retrotransposons and cause GSC loss. Suppression of Piwi expression in the young niche mimics the aged niche, causing retrotransposon depression and coincident activation of Toll-mediated signaling, which promotes Glycogen synthase kinase 3 activity to degrade ß-catenin. Disruption of ß-catenin-E-cadherin-mediated GSC anchorage then results in GSC loss. Knocking down gypsy (a highly active retrotransposon) or toll, or inhibiting reverse transcription in the piwi-deficient niche, suppresses GSK3 activity and ß-catenin degradation, restoring GSC-niche attachment. This retrotransposon-mediated impairment of aged stem cell maintenance may have relevance in many tissues, and could represent a viable therapeutic target for aging-related tissue degeneration.


Assuntos
Proteínas Argonauta/metabolismo , Senescência Celular , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Argonauta/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Feminino , Inativação Gênica , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Ovário/citologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Retroelementos/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Nicho de Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo
15.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 55, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meiosis is essential for sexual reproduction and generates genetically diverse haploid gametes from a diploid germ cell. Reduction of ploidy depends on active chromosome movements during early meiotic prophase I. Chromosome movements require telomere attachment to the nuclear envelope. This attachment is mediated by telomere adaptor proteins. Telomere adaptor proteins have to date been identified in fission yeast and mice. In the mouse, they form a complex composed of the meiotic proteins TERB1, TERB2, and MAJIN. No sequence similarity was observed between these three mouse proteins and the adaptor proteins of fission yeast, raising the question of the evolutionary history and significance of this specific protein complex. RESULT: Here, we show the TERB1, TERB2, and MAJIN proteins are found throughout the Metazoa and even in early-branching non-bilateral phyla such as Cnidaria, Placozoa and Porifera. Metazoan TERB1, TERB2, and MAJIN showed comparable domain architecture across all clades. Furthermore, the protein domains involved in the formation of the complex as well as those involved for the interaction with the telomere shelterin protein and the LINC complexes revealed high sequence similarity. Finally, gene expression in the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris provided evidence that the TERB1-TERB2-MAJIN complex is selectively expressed in the germ line. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the TERB1-TERB2-MAJIN complex has an ancient origin in metazoans, suggesting conservation of meiotic functions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Meiose/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/genética , Telômero/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/química , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Gônadas/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Camundongos , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/química , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/metabolismo
16.
Gene ; 753: 144810, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470506

RESUMO

Meiotic entry and progression require dynamic regulation of germline gene expression. m6A on mRNAs and recognition by YTHDC2 has been known as post-transcriptional regulatory complex, but the roles of this regulator remain unclear for meiotic initiation and progression in female germ cells (FGCs). This study showed that m6A modification occurred mainly in FGCs rather than ovarian somatic cells (SOMAs), and m6A levels in FGCs increased significantly with meiotic initiation. m6A inhibition suppressed expression of the meiotic markers and affected the percent of FGCs at zygotene, pachytene and diplotene stage respectively. YTHDC2 expression also increased in the same pattern with m6A. Ythdc2 knockdown decreased the percent of STRA8-positive FGCs and altered the percent of FGCs at zygotene and pachytene stage respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that mRNA m6A modification and YTHDC2 expression are essential for meiotic initiation and progression in FGCs.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Meiose/genética , RNA Helicases/genética , Adenosina/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Meiose/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Ovário/metabolismo , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética
17.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449701

RESUMO

Understanding when and where protein-protein interactions (PPIs) occur is critical to understanding protein function in the cell and how broader processes such as development are affected. The Caenorhabditis elegans germline is a great model system for studying PPIs that are related to the regulation of stem cells, meiosis, and development. There are a variety of well-developed techniques that allow proteins of interest to be tagged for recognition by standard antibodies, making this system advantageous for proximity ligation assay (PLA) reactions. As a result, the PLA is able to show where PPIs occur in a spatial and temporal manner in germlines more effectively than alternative approaches. Described here is a protocol for the application and quantification of this technology to probe PPIs in the C. elegans germline.


Assuntos
Bioensaio/métodos , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2206, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371905

RESUMO

Compared to adult carcinomas, there is a paucity of targeted treatments for solid tumors in children, adolescents, and young adults (C-AYA). The impact of germline genomic signatures has implications for heritability, but its impact on targeted therapies has not been fully appreciated. Performing variant-prioritization analysis on germline DNA of 1,507 C-AYA patients with solid tumors, we show 12% of these patients carrying germline pathogenic and/or likely pathogenic variants (P/LP) in known cancer-predisposing genes (KCPG). An additional 61% have germline pathogenic variants in non-KCPG genes, including PRKN, SMARCAL1, SMAD7, which we refer to as candidate genes. Despite germline variants in a broad gene spectrum, pathway analysis leads to top networks centering around p53. Our drug-target analysis shows 1/3 of patients with germline P/LP variants have at least one druggable alteration, while more than half of them are from our candidate gene group, which would otherwise go unidentified in routine clinical care.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genômica/métodos , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias/genética , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , DNA Helicases/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/patologia , Proteína Smad7/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Genes Dev ; 34(11-12): 745-750, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381626

RESUMO

DNA methylation is a major silencing mechanism of transposable elements (TEs). Here we report that TEX15, a testis-specific protein, is required for TE silencing. TEX15 is expressed in embryonic germ cells and functions during genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming. The Tex15 mutant exhibits DNA hypomethylation in TEs at a level similar to Mili and Dnmt3c but not Miwi2 mutants. TEX15 is associated with MILI in testis. As loss of Tex15 causes TE desilencing with intact piRNA production, our results identify TEX15 as a new essential epigenetic regulator that may function as a nuclear effector of MILI to silence TEs by DNA methylation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Inativação Gênica/fisiologia , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Animais , Metilação de DNA , Células Germinativas Embrionárias/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação
20.
Exp Mol Pathol ; 115: 104471, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446860

RESUMO

Megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus (MPPH) syndrome is a developmental brain disorder characterized by an enlarged brain size with bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria and a variable degree of ventriculomegaly. MPPH syndrome is associated with oromotor dysfunction, epilepsy, intellectual disability and postaxial hexadactyly. The molecular diagnosis of this disorder is established by the identification of a pathogenic variant in either AKT3, CCND2 or PIK3R2. Previously reported AKT3 variants are associated with various brain abnormalities and may lead to megalencephaly. MPPH syndrome is usually due to germline pathogenic AKT3 variants. Somatic mosaic pathogenic variants associated with hemimegalencephaly, which is similar to MPPH, have also been observed. A Hungarian Roma family with two half-siblings, which present with intellectual disability, dysmorphic features, epilepsy, brain malformations, and megalencephaly was studied. Whole exome sequencing (WES) analysis was performed. WES analysis revealed a heterozygous c.1393C > T p.(Arg465Trp) pathogenic missense AKT3 variant in both affected half-siblings. The variant was verified via Sanger sequencing and was not present in the DNA sample from the healthy mother, which was derived from peripheral blood, suggesting maternal germline mosaicism. In conclusion, this is the first report in which maternal germline mosaicism of a rare pathogenic AKT3 variant leads to autosomal dominantly inherited MPPH syndrome.


Assuntos
Dedos/anormalidades , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Hidrocefalia/congênito , Padrões de Herança/genética , Megalencefalia/genética , Mosaicismo , Polidactilia/genética , Polimicrogiria/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Dedos do Pé/anormalidades , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Dedos/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Hidrocefalia/genética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Megalencefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Polidactilia/diagnóstico por imagem , Polimicrogiria/diagnóstico por imagem , Irmãos , Síndrome , Dedos do Pé/diagnóstico por imagem
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