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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5191-5200, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Small molecule-based chemotherapy is an attractive approach for the chemoprevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a natural organosulfur compound with anticancer properties, as revealed by studies on in vitro models of gingival, prostate, lung, hepatic, and breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of MSM in colon cancer cells remain unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we investigated the effects of MSM, especially on the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, in HT-29 cells. RESULTS: MSM suppressed the viability of HT-29 cells by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. MSM suppressed the sphere-forming ability and expression of stemness markers in HT-29 cells. CONCLUSION: MSM has anti-cancer effects on HT-29 cells, and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, while suppressing the stemness potential.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Autorrenovação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dimetil Sulfóxido/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células HT29 , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4064, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792542

RESUMO

Regulation of the programming of tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) controls tumour growth and anti-tumour immunity. We examined the role of FGF2 in that regulation. Tumours in mice genetically deficient in low-molecular weight FGF2 (FGF2LMW) regress dependent on T cells. Yet, TAMS not T cells express FGF receptors. Bone marrow derived-macrophages from Fgf2LMW-/- mice co-injected with cancer cells reduce tumour growth and express more inflammatory cytokines. FGF2 is induced in the tumour microenvironment following fractionated radiation in murine tumours consistent with clinical reports. Combination treatment of in vivo tumours with fractionated radiation and a blocking antibody to FGF2 prolongs tumour growth delay, increases long-term survival and leads to a higher iNOS+/CD206+ TAM ratio compared to irradiation alone. These studies show for the first time that FGF2 affects macrophage programming and is a critical regulator of immunity in the tumour microenvironment.


Assuntos
Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Radioterapia/métodos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Células HT29 , Humanos , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos da radiação , Lectinas de Ligação a Manose/genética , Lectinas de Ligação a Manose/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Nus , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos da radiação , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5803-5811, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821102

RESUMO

Introduction: Photodynamic therapy (PDT), which induces tissue damage by exposing tissue to a specific wavelength of light in the presence of a photosensitizer and oxygen, is a promising alternative treatment that could be used as an adjunct to chemotherapy and surgery in oncology. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) with high arginine content, such as protamine, have membrane translocation and lysosome localization activities. They have been used in an extensive range of drug delivery applications. Methods: We conjugated cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) with methylene blue (MB) and then purification by FPLC. Synthesis structure was characterized by the absorbance spectrum, FPLC, Maldi-TOF, and then evaluated cell viability by cytotoxicity assay after photodynamic therapy (PDT) assay. An uptake imaging assay was used to determine the sites of MB and MB-Pro in subcellular compartments. Results: In vitro assays showed that MB-Pro has more efficient photodynamic activities than MB alone for the colon cancer cells, owing to lysosome rupture causing the rapid necrotic cell death. In this study, we coupled protamine with MB for high efficacy PDT. The conjugates localized in the lysosomes and enhanced the efficiency of PDT by inducing necrotic cell death, whereas PDT with non-coupled MB resulted in only apoptotic processes. Discussion: Our research aimed to enhance PDT by engineering the photosensitizers using CPPs coupled with methylene blue (MB). MB alone permeates through the cell membrane and distributes into the cytoplasm, whereas coupling of MB dye with CPPs localizes the MB through an endocytic mechanism to a specific organelle where the localized conjugates enhance the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induce cell damage.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Penetradores de Células/farmacologia , Azul de Metileno/farmacologia , Fotoquimioterapia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Células HT29 , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Azul de Metileno/química , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236657, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760089

RESUMO

Crohn's disease is a pathological condition of the gastro-intestinal tract, causing severe transmural inflammation in the ileum and/or colon. Cigarette smoking is one of the best known environmental risk factors for the development of Crohn's disease. Nevertheless, very little is known about the effect of prolonged cigarette smoke exposure on inflammatory modulators in the gut. We examined the effect of cigarette smoke on cytokine profiles in the healthy and inflamed gut of human subjects and in the trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid mouse model, which mimics distal Crohn-like colitis. In addition, the effect of cigarette smoke on epithelial expression of transient receptor potential channels and their concurrent increase with cigarette smoke-augmented cytokine production was investigated. Active smoking was associated with increased IL-8 transcription in ileum of controls (p < 0,001; n = 18-20/group). In the ileum, TRPV1 mRNA levels were decreased in never smoking Crohn's disease patients compared to healthy subjects (p <0,001; n = 20/group). In the colon, TRPV1 mRNA levels were decreased (p = 0,046) in smoking healthy controls (n = 20/group). Likewise, healthy mice chronically exposed to cigarette smoke (n = 10/group) showed elevated ileal Cxcl2 (p = 0,0075) and colonic Kc mRNA levels (p = 0,0186), whereas TRPV1 mRNA and protein levels were elevated in the ileum (p = 0,0315). Although cigarette smoke exposure prior to trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid administration did not alter disease activity, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production was observed in the distal colon (Kc: p = 0,0273; Cxcl2: p = 0,104; Il1-ß: p = 0,0796), in parallel with the increase of Trpv1 mRNA (p < 0,001). We infer that CS affects pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in healthy and inflamed gut, and that the simultaneous modulation of TRPV1 may point to a potential involvement of TRPV1 in cigarette smoke-induced production of inflammatory mediators.


Assuntos
Colo/metabolismo , Doença de Crohn/metabolismo , Íleo/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Colo/patologia , Doença de Crohn/induzido quimicamente , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células HT29 , Humanos , Íleo/patologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Ácido Trinitrobenzenossulfônico
5.
Life Sci ; 258: 118252, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791149

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to analyze the impact of four synthesized benzoxazinone derivatives as screening drugs on c-Myc-overexpressed cancer cells (H7402, HeLa, SK-RC-42, SGC7901, and A549) and to explore their interaction mechanisms in detail. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using morphological analysis, real-time cytotoxicity analysis, wound healing assay, reverse transcription PCR, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and circular dichroism spectroscopy techniques. KEY FINDINGS: Results revealed that these four compounds could inhibit proliferation of SK-RC-42, SGC7901, and A549 cells in five cancer cell lines to varying degrees and significantly hinder migration. More importantly, the RT-PCR assay showed that the compounds could surprisingly downregulate the expression of c-Myc mRNA in a dose-dependent manner in the five cancer cells, which may be one of the causes of cancer cell proliferation in vitro inhibition. Further EMSA assays demonstrated that at the molecular level of DNA, four compounds can induce the formation of G-quadruplexes (G4-DNAs) in the c-Myc gene promoter. In addition, the CD result of compound 1 clearly indicates that it specifically induces a c-Myc GC-rich 36mer double-stranded DNA in the c-Myc promoter to form a G-quadruplex hybrid configuration. In conclusion, the compounds studied could dose-dependently inhibit the growth and migration of the cancer cells being investigated. This is positively associated with the reduction of overexpression of the c-Myc gene, which may be significantly regulated by the association of compounds with the G-quadruplexes produced in the c-Myc gene promoter region. SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that three compounds merit further study, particularly against non-small-cell lung cancer, as leading compounds of anticancer drugs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Benzoxazinas/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Quadruplex G/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Células A549 , Células HT29 , Células HeLa , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Células MCF-7
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4286, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855403

RESUMO

Intracellular galectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins capable of sensing and repairing damaged lysosomes. As in the physiological conditions glycosylated moieties are mostly in the lysosomal lumen but not cytosol, it is unclear whether galectins reside in lysosomes, bind to glycosylated proteins, and regulate lysosome functions. Here, we show in gut epithelial cells, galectin-9 is enriched in lysosomes and predominantly binds to lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (Lamp2) in a Asn(N)-glycan dependent manner. At the steady state, galectin-9 binding to glycosylated Asn175 of Lamp2 is essential for functionality of lysosomes and autophagy. Loss of N-glycan-binding capability of galectin-9 causes its complete depletion from lysosomes and defective autophagy, leading to increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress preferentially in autophagy-active Paneth cells and acinar cells. Unresolved ER stress consequently causes cell degeneration or apoptosis that associates with colitis and pancreatic disorders in mice. Therefore, lysosomal galectins maintain homeostatic function of lysosomes to prevent organ pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Galectinas/metabolismo , Proteína 2 de Membrana Associada ao Lisossomo/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Pâncreas/patologia , Celulas de Paneth/patologia , Células Acinares/metabolismo , Células Acinares/patologia , Animais , Autofagia/fisiologia , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/patologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Galectinas/genética , Células HT29 , Humanos , Proteína 2 de Membrana Associada ao Lisossomo/genética , Lisossomos/genética , Lisossomos/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Pancreatite/metabolismo , Pancreatite/patologia , Celulas de Paneth/metabolismo
7.
Life Sci ; 257: 118078, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663577

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the modulatory role of sex-related hormone estradiol on cancer stem cells with the origin of colorectal adenocarcinoma in vitro. Cancer stem cells were incubated with 100 nM estradiol for 48 h. The cell survival rate was analyzed using the MTT assay. Immunocytochemistry staining of Ki-67 and Inhibin and Apoptosis PCR array were done to measure proliferation/apoptosis. Cell migration was monitored via the Transwell Migration assay. The expression of exosome biogenesis genes was measured using a real-time PCR assay. The fatty acid profile was monitored using gas chromatography. The level of FAK, SQSTM1, ER, and SIRT1 was examined using Western blotting. Cancer stem-endothelial cell interaction was investigated using Surface Plasmon Resonance assay. Data showed no significant differences in cancer stem cell viability and proliferation between control and estradiol-treated groups (p>0.05). PCR array highlighted the up-regulation of both pro- and anti-apoptosis effectors in the treatment group compared to the control cells (p<0.05). Cell migration capacity was increased after treatment with estradiol (p<0.001). Both exocytosis and exosome biogenesis were decreased in cancer stem cells exposed to estradiol (p<0.05). Data showed the reduction of palmitic acid, and increase of Palmitoleic and Linolenic acids in estradiol-treated cells. Estrogen induced estrogen receptor, SQSTM1 proteins and decreased SIRT1 factor after 48 h. Surface Plasmon Resonance revealed the suppression of cancer stem-endothelial cell interaction and affinity. Estradiol could change the migration, juxtacrine and paracrine activities of cancer stem cells, showing the importance of sex-related hormones in the dynamic of cancer development.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Estradiol/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/fisiologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Estradiol/farmacologia , Células HT29 , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo
8.
Life Sci ; 257: 118087, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702442

RESUMO

AIMS: Recent studies suggest that direct exposure of cells to fractionated radiotherapy might induce radioresistance. However, the effects of fractionated radiotherapy on the non-irradiated bystander cells remain unclear. We hypothesized that fractionated radiotherapy could enhance radioresistance and proliferation of bystander cells. MAIN METHODS: Human tumor cell lines, including A549 and HT29 were irradiated (2 Gy per day). The irradiated cells (either A549 or HT29) were co-cultured with non-irradiated cells of the same line using transwell co-culture system. Tumor cell proliferation, radioresistance and apoptosis were measured using MTT assay, clonogenic survival assay and Annexin-V in bystander cells, respectively. In addition, activation of Chk1 (Ser 317), Chk2 (Thr 68) and Akt (Ser473) were measured via western blot. KEY FINDINGS: Irradiated HT29 cells induced conventional bystander effects detected as modulation of clonogenic survival parameters (decreased area under curve, D10 and ED50 and increased α) and proliferation in recipient neighbors. While, irradiated A549 cells significantly enhanced the radioresistance and proliferation of bystander cells. These changes were accompanied with enhanced activation of Chk1, Chk2 and Akt in non-irradiated bystander A549 cells. Moreover, both bystander effects (damaging and protective) were mediated through secreted factors. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that fractionated radiotherapy could promote proliferation and radioresistance of bystander cells probably through survival and proliferation pathways.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Efeito Espectador/efeitos da radiação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Tolerância a Radiação/efeitos da radiação , Células A549 , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células HT29 , Humanos
9.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 319(2): G253-G260, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628073

RESUMO

25-Hydroxyvitamin D3-3ß-glucuronic acid (25OHD-Gluc) is produced in the liver and is a constituent of human blood and bile. Bacterial glucuronidases (GUS) in mammalian digestive microbiota cleave glucuronide conjugates, such as 25OHD-Gluc, and release the free aglycone (i.e., 25OHD) inside the intestinal lumen. We hypothesized that 25OHD-Gluc would elicit a VDR-dependent mRNA response in the colon after cleavage by gut microbiota. The activity of 25OHD-Gluc was investigated by measuring expression of cytochrome P450 24A1 (Cyp24) mRNA both in vitro and in vivo. In cell culture, Caco2 cells responded to 25OHD-Gluc, whereas HT29 cells did not. When coincubated with GUS, both cell lines elicited a robust response as indicated by a 5 Ct (32-fold) increase in Cyp24 mRNA. In vitamin D-sufficient mice, we found that both oral and subcutaneous administration of 1 nmol 25OHD-Gluc induced expression of Cyp24 mRNA in the colon whereas 25OHD did not. In contrast, 25OHD, but not 25OHD-Gluc, was active in the duodenum. When the jejunum was surgically ligated to block flow of digesta to the colon, neither oral nor subcutaneous administration of 2 nmol 25OHD-Gluc was able to induce expression of Cyp24 in the colon. Our findings suggest that 25OHD-Gluc, a vitamin D metabolite found in bile, induces VDR-mediated responses in the colon by crossing the apical membrane of the colon epithelium.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We found that 25OHD-Gluc, an endogenously produced metabolite, is delivered to the colon via bile to induce vitamin D-mediated responses in the colon.


Assuntos
Colo/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Glucuronídeos , Células HT29 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Vitamina D/química , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Vitamina D/farmacologia
10.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(10): 2509-2517, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is now a major human cancer, and B-cell translocation gene 3 (BTG3) has been reported as a tumor-suppressor in CRC, but its upstream regulator has not been identified. METHODS: Endogenous expression levels of BTG3 were compared between normal colorectal cell line CCD-18Co and two CRC cell lines SW480 and HT29, as well as between CRC patient tumor and adjacent normal tissues. Analysis of BTG3 genomic region was performed which identified a putative hypoxia response element (HRE). Effects of hypoxia condition, BTG3 overexpression, and their combination on the radiation sensitivity of CRC cell lines were assessed. RESULTS: BTG3 was downregulated in CRC cell lines and patient tumor samples, via the HRE in its promoter region. Hypoxia and BTG3 overexpression could both induce radiation resistance in CRC cells. Combining hypoxia with BTG3 overexpression effectively rendered the resistance of CRC cells to radiation to a level lower than hypoxia alone and higher than normoxia alone, indicating the essential role of BTG3 in hypoxia-induced radiation resistance of CRC cells. CONCLUSION: We therefore propose a novel signaling cascade involving hypoxia/BTG3 to be a potential risk factor for CRC patients undergoing radiation therapy, which could possibly serve as therapeutic targets among CRC patients with acquired radiotherapy resistance.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/radioterapia , Idoso , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/biossíntese , Hipóxia Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células HT29 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Tolerância a Radiação , Elementos de Resposta
11.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545799

RESUMO

As of June 2020, the number of people infected with severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to skyrocket, with more than 6.7 million cases worldwide. Both the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations (UN) has highlighted the need for better control of SARS-CoV-2 infections. However, developing novel virus-specific vaccines, monoclonal antibodies and antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 can be time-consuming and costly. Convalescent sera and safe-in-man broad-spectrum antivirals (BSAAs) are readily available treatment options. Here, we developed a neutralization assay using SARS-CoV-2 strain and Vero-E6 cells. We identified the most potent sera from recovered patients for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. We also screened 136 safe-in-man broad-spectrum antivirals against the SARS-CoV-2 infection in Vero-E6 cells and identified nelfinavir, salinomycin, amodiaquine, obatoclax, emetine and homoharringtonine. We found that a combination of orally available virus-directed nelfinavir and host-directed amodiaquine exhibited the highest synergy. Finally, we developed a website to disseminate the knowledge on available and emerging treatments of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Testes de Neutralização/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Amodiaquina/farmacologia , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Emetina/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Células HT29 , Mepesuccinato de Omacetaxina/farmacologia , Humanos , Soros Imunes/imunologia , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Nelfinavir/farmacologia , Pandemias , Piranos/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Células Vero
12.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(9): 2205-2217, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488497

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cholecystokinin type 2 receptor (CCK2R), which mediates the action of gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK), has been demonstrated to promote the proliferation of colorectal cancer (CRC). A number of studies showed that CCK2R overexpressed in gastric cancer and pancreatic cancer but few in CRC. The correlation between CCK2R expression and clinicopathological characteristics is also not clear. METHODS: This study investigated CCK2R expression in a wide range of cell lines and clinical CRC samples, and explored expression pattern and prognostic value of CCK2R in relation to clinicopathological parameters. The location and expression levels of CCK2R were measured by immunocytochemical (ICC), qRT-PCR and Western blot. The druggability and antineoplastic effects of CCK2R as a therapeutic target were investigated using an anti-CCK2R targeting recombinant toxin named rCCK8PE38 by CCK-8 assay. RESULTS: Compared with paracarcinoma tissues, tumor samples showed overexpression of CCK2R (p = 0.028) including both CRC tissue and plasma samples, with plasma detection showing a significant indication for CCK2R evaluation. Aberrant expression correlated significantly with histological type (p = 0.032) and p53 status (p < 0.01), and patients with CCK2R overexpression had significantly lower disease-free survival. Application of rCCK8PE38 demonstrated the specificity and druggability of CCK2R as a therapeutic target, providing a strategy for clinical case screening of drugs targeting CCK2R. CONCLUSION: This study highlighted the aberrant expression and clinical correlation of CCK2R and reveals its diagnostic, prognostic and treatment value in CRC. We hypothesize that CCK2R serve as a target for the diagnosis and treatment of this cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Receptor de Colecistocinina B/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células HCT116 , Células HT29 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
13.
Food Chem ; 331: 127363, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590269

RESUMO

Rhubarb is a popular food in Europe with laxative properties attributed to anthraquinones. Long term usage of rhubarb anthraquinones has been linked to colonic toxicity, including the formation of melanosis coli, which is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. The major purgative anthraquinone in rhubarb is thought to be sennoside A, which is metabolised by colonic microflora. Here, we sought to identify the toxic metabolite responsible for melanosis coli in rats dosed with rhubarb anthraquinones for up to 90 days. Three metabolites were detected in rat faeces using HPLC. Of these, rhein was identified as the metabolite that accumulated most over time. Fecal flora from treated rats were capable of greater biotransformation of sennoside A to rhein compared to that from control rats. Cell culture experiments suggested that apoptosis and autophagy induced by rhein is the likely mechanism of chronic toxicity of rhubarb anthraquinones.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/farmacocinética , Antraquinonas/toxicidade , Rheum/química , Animais , Antraquinonas/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Biotransformação , Catárticos/química , Catárticos/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/patologia , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Fezes/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Células HT29 , Humanos , Laxantes/farmacocinética , Laxantes/toxicidade , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Senosídeos/farmacocinética , Senosídeos/toxicidade
14.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 401: 115079, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497534

RESUMO

Thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) and telomerase play key roles in the development and progression process of most tumors, and they both are promising drug therapy targets. We have, for the first time, discovered that Trx1 and telomerase had a dual-target synergistic effect. Based on that results, we designed a series of 6-dithio-2'-deoxyguanosine analogs (named as YLS00X) and verified whether they can inhibit Trx1 and telomerase simultaneously. TrxR1/Trx1 system activity and telomerase expression were significantly inhibited by 6-dithio-2'-deoxyguanosine analogs, especially YLS004. YLS004 can also cause ROS accumulation, and induce tumor cell apoptosis. The vitro antitumor activity of 6-dithio-2'-deoxyguanosine analogs using MTT assay on 11 different human cancer cells and found that human colon cancer cells(HCT116) and melanoma cells (A375) were the most sensitive cells to 6-dithio-2'-deoxyguanosine analogs treatment and vivo xenografts models also confirmed that. The serum biochemical parameters and multiple organs HE staining results of subacute experiments indicated that YLS004 might be mildly toxic to immune organs, including the thymus, spleen, and hematopoietic system. Besides, YLS004 was rapidly metabolized in the rats' blood. Our study revealed that YLS004, a Trx1 and telomerase inhibitor, has strong anti-tumor effects to colon cancer and melanoma cells and is a promising new candidate drug.


Assuntos
Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/agonistas , Telomerase/antagonistas & inibidores , Tiorredoxinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Células A549 , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células HCT116 , Células HT29 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Células K562 , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Telomerase/metabolismo , Tiorredoxinas/metabolismo
15.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 401: 115100, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512070

RESUMO

(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the main bioactive component in tea (Camellia sinensis) catechins, and exhibits potential antitumor activity against colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. We investigated the effects of EGCG on activities of CRC cells and the exact molecular mechanism. We used human colon cancer cells (HT-29) and exposed them to EGCG at various concentrations. The MTT assay, flow cytometry, and TUNEL staining were used to study the underlying mechanisms of EGCG (proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy). Western blotting was used to measure expression of marker proteins of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and autophagy. Using a combined microarray-based transcriptomic and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF/MS)-based metabolomic approach, we investigated the perturbed pathways induced by EGCG treatment at transcript and metabolite levels. Transcriptomic analyses showed that 486 genes were differentially expressed between untreated and EGCG-treated cells. Also, 88 differentially expressed metabolites were identified between untreated and EGCG-treated cells. The altered metabolites were involved in the metabolism of glutathione, glycerophospholipids, starch, sucrose, amino sugars, and nucleotide sugars. There was substantial agreement between the results of transcriptomics and metabolomics analyses. Our data indicate that the anticancer activity of EGCG against HT-29 cells is mediated by induction of cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy. EGCG modulates cancer-cell metabolic pathways. These results provide a platform for future molecular mechanistic studies of EGCG.


Assuntos
Anticarcinógenos/farmacologia , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticarcinógenos/uso terapêutico , Catequina/farmacologia , Catequina/uso terapêutico , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Células HT29 , Humanos , Transcriptoma/fisiologia
16.
Tumour Biol ; 42(5): 1010428320923856, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438863

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of single-nucleotide variant n.60G>C (rs2910164) of microRNA (miR)-146a, related to suppressing of BRCA1/2 DNA repair protein, with the risk and survival of colorectal cancer patients, as well as miR-146a and BRCA1/2 levels and miR binding efficiency. The genotypes were identified in 125 colorectal cancer patients and 276 controls using TaqMan polymerase chain reaction assay. The miR-146a and BRCA1/2 levels were assessed by quantitative-polymerase chain reaction protocols. Primary precursor of miR-146a containing G (wild-type) and C (variant) allele were cloned into pcDNA.3.3 vector and co-transfected in HT-29 colorectal cancer cell line. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to assess miR-146a binding to BRCA2 3'-untranslated region in HT-29. The differences between groups were calculated using chi-square or Fisher's exact test, logistic regression, and Mann-Whitney test. The prognostic impact of single-nucleotide variant genotypes on overall survival was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier estimate and Cox regression. The GC or CC genotypes prevalence was similar in patients and controls (50.4% vs 50.7%, p = 0.74). However, patients with tumors in advanced stage with miR-146a GG genotype had 2.41 more chance of dying than GC or CC genotypes. In addition, tumor tissues of patients with GG genotype presented higher miR-146a (p = 0.02) and lower BRCA1 (p = 0.01) and BRCA2 (p < 0.0001) levels when compared to those with GC or CC genotypes. In fact, pcDNA.3.3-miR-146a-G presented increased binding capacity to the 3'-untranslated region of BRCA2 (p = 0.001) compared to pcDNA.3.3-miR-146a-C. In addition, the G allele altered the binding affinity between miR-146a and its BRCA2 3'-untranslated region target (p < 0.001), thus enhancing suppression of BRCA2 expression. Our results suggest that single-nucleotide variant rs2910164 does not influence the colorectal cancer risk in Brazilian patients; however, the GG genotype could act as a factor of worse prognosis in patients with advanced disease due to suppression of BRCA1/2 modulated by miR-146a.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Células HT29 , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Prognóstico , Ligação Proteica
17.
Phytomedicine ; 72: 153236, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal obstruction (IO) is a kind of acute abdomen with high morbidity and mortality. Patients suffer from poor quality of life and tremendous financial pressure. Da-Cheng-Qi decoction (DCQD), a classical purgation prescription, has clinically been proven to be an effective treatment for IO. PURPOSE: Network pharmacology integrated with bioactive equivalence assessment was used to discover the quality marker (Q-marker) of DCQD against IO. METHODS: As there is hardly any targets recorded in database, thus the collection of IO targets was conducted by searching those of alternative diseases which have similar pathological symptoms with IO. In order to improve the reliability of the obtained targets, IO metabolomics data was introduced. Active compounds combination (ACC) was focused as potential Q-markers via component-target network analysis and function query from the identified components corresponding to the common targets. Bioequivalence between ACC and DCQD was assessed from the aspects of intestine motility (somatostatin secretion), inflammation (IL-6 secretion) and injury (wound healing assay) in vitro and was further validated in ileus rat model. PPI network analysis of core targets followed by gene pedigree classification and experimental validation confirmed the potential intervention pathway. RESULTS: A combination of 11 ingredients, including emodin, physcion, aloe-emodin, rhein, chrysophanol, gallic acid, magnolol, honokiol, naringenin, tangeretin, and nobiletin was finally confirmed bioequivalence with DQCD to some extent and could serve as Q-markers for DCQD to attenuate IO. PI3K/AKT was verified as a possible affected pathway that DCQD exerted the effectiveness against IO. CONCLUSION: For the disease with few recorded targets, searching those of alternative diseases which have similar pathological symptoms could be a feasible and effective approach. The proposed network pharmacology integrated bioactive equivalence evaluation paradigm is efficient to discover Q-marker of herbal formulae.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Obstrução Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Algoritmos , Animais , Antraquinonas/análise , Antraquinonas/farmacocinética , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/análise , Compostos de Bifenilo/análise , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacocinética , Mineração de Dados , Flavanonas/análise , Flavanonas/farmacocinética , Células HT29 , Humanos , Lignanas/análise , Lignanas/farmacocinética , Masculino , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Equivalência Terapêutica
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231948, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369483

RESUMO

In our search for bioactive mushrooms native to British Columbia, we determined that the ethanol extracts from fruiting bodies of the terrestrial polypore Albatrellus flettii had potent anti-cell viability activity. Using bioassay-guided fractionation, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance, we successfully isolated three known compounds (grifolin, neogrifolin and confluentin). These compounds represent the major anti-cell viability components from the ethanol extracts of A. flettii. We also identified a novel biological activity for these compounds, specifically in down-regulating KRAS expression in two human colon cancer cell lines. Relatively little is known about the anti-cell viability activity and mechanism of action of confluentin. For the first time, we show the ability of confluentin to induce apoptosis and arrest the cell cycle at the G2/M phase in SW480 human colon cancer cells. The oncogenic insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IMP1) has been previously shown to regulate KRAS mRNA expression in colon cancer cells, possibly through its ability to bind to the KRAS transcript. Using a fluorescence polarization assay, we show that confluentin dose-dependently inhibits the physical interaction between KRAS RNA and full-length IMP1. The inhibition also occurs with truncated IMP1 containing the KH1 to KH4 domain (KH1to4 IMP1), but not with the di-domain KH3 and KH4 (KH3&4 IMP1). In addition, unlike the control antibiotic neomycin, grifolin, neogrifolin and confluentin do not bind to KRAS RNA. These results suggest that confluentin inhibits IMP1-KRAS RNA interaction by binding to the KH1&2 di-domains of IMP1. Since the molecular interaction between IMP1 and its target RNAs is a pre-requisite for the oncogenic function of IMP1, confluentin should be further explored as a potential inhibitor of IMP1 in vivo.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/química , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Fenóis/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Resorcinóis/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HT29 , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Terpenos/farmacologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233208, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428030

RESUMO

To facilitate functional investigation of the role of NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) and associated reactive oxygen species in cancer cell signaling, we report herein the development and characterization of a novel mouse monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes the C-terminal region of the NOX1 protein. The antibody was validated in stable NOX1 overexpression and knockout systems, and demonstrates wide applicability for Western blot analysis, confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry. We employed our NOX1 antibody to characterize NOX1 expression in a panel of 30 human colorectal cancer cell lines, and correlated protein expression with NOX1 mRNA expression and superoxide production in a subset of these cells. Although a significant correlation between oncogenic RAS status and NOX1 mRNA levels could not be demonstrated in colon cancer cell lines, RAS mutational status did correlate with NOX1 expression in human colon cancer surgical specimens. Immunohistochemical analysis of a comprehensive set of tissue microarrays comprising over 1,200 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue cores from human epithelial tumors and inflammatory disease confirmed that NOX1 is overexpressed in human colon and small intestinal adenocarcinomas, as well as adenomatous polyps, compared to adjacent, uninvolved intestinal mucosae. In contradistinction to prior studies, we did not find evidence of NOX1 overexpression at the protein level in tumors versus histologically normal tissues in prostate, lung, ovarian, or breast carcinomas. This study constitutes the most comprehensive histopathological characterization of NOX1 to date in cellular models of colon cancer and in normal and malignant human tissues using a thoroughly evaluated monoclonal antibody. It also further establishes NOX1 as a clinically relevant therapeutic target in colorectal and small intestinal cancer.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/enzimologia , Neoplasias do Colo/enzimologia , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Intestino Delgado/enzimologia , NADPH Oxidase 1/biossíntese , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Células CACO-2 , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Células HT29 , Humanos , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Modelos Biológicos , NADPH Oxidase 1/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética
20.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(2): 211-218, 2020 Feb 29.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the protective effect of the novel postbiotic HM0539 from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG against intestinal infection by enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157: H7. METHODS: We performed adhesion and invasion experiments to evaluate whether HM0539 could block E. coli O157: H7 adhesion to HT-29 cells. The expressions of mucin2 and the tight junction proteins ZO-1 and Occludin in HM0539-treated HT-29 cells were analyzed using immunofluorescence assay and Western blotting. Animal experiments were conducted in mice to observe the survival rate and changes in body weight, intestinal morphology and the intestinal barrier function after the challenge and HM0539 treatment. RESULTS: HM0539 significantly inhibited the adhesion and invasion of E. coli O157: H7 to HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. HM0539 treatment 4 h prior to E. coli O157: H7 challenge significantly lowered the adhesion and invasion rates of bacteria as compared with the treatment administered at the same time of challenge (P < 0.05). E. coli O157: H7-induced down-regulation of mucin2 and tight junction proteins in HT-29 cells was obviously alleviated by HM0539 treatment of (P < 0.05). In the animal experiment, HM0539 treatment significantly inhibited body weight loss (P < 0.05), alleviated jejunal injury, and inhibited E. coli O157: H7-induced destruction of jejunal goblet cells in the challenged mice (P < 0.05). HM0539 also significantly up-regulated the expression of mucin2 and ZO-1 proteins in the jejunum of E. coli O157:H7-infected mice (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: HM0539 not only inhibits the adhesion and invasion of E. coli O157: H7 to HT-29 cells, but also enhances the resistance against E. coli O157: H7 infection in mice by attenuating the destruction of mucin and tight junction proteins.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli O157 , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Animais , Células HT29 , Humanos , Intestinos , Camundongos
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