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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4810, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968061

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) therapy is a promising immunotherapeutic strategy for treating multiple refractory blood cancers, but further advances are required for solid tumor CAR therapy. One challenge is identifying a safe and effective tumor antigen. Here, we devise a strategy for targeting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, one of the deadliest malignancies). We report that T and NK cells transduced with a CAR that recognizes the surface marker, CD147, also known as Basigin, can effectively kill various malignant HCC cell lines in vitro, and HCC tumors in xenograft and patient-derived xenograft mouse models. To minimize any on-target/off-tumor toxicity, we use logic-gated (log) GPC3-synNotch-inducible CD147-CAR to target HCC. LogCD147-CAR selectively kills dual antigen (GPC3+CD147+), but not single antigen (GPC3-CD147+) positive HCC cells and does not cause severe on-target/off-tumor toxicity in a human CD147 transgenic mouse model. In conclusion, these findings support the therapeutic potential of CD147-CAR-modified immune cells for HCC patients.


Assuntos
Basigina/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Basigina/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
2.
Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem ; 76(Pt 9): 874-882, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887858

RESUMO

Five 2-aroyl-5-bromobenzo[b]furan-3-ol compounds (two of which are new) and four new 2-aroyl-5-iodobenzo[b]furan-3-ol compounds were synthesized starting from salicylic acid. The compounds were characterized by mass spectrometry and 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies of four compounds, namely, (5-bromo-3-hydroxybenzofuran-2-yl)(4-fluorophenyl)methanone, C15H8BrFO3, (5-bromo-3-hydroxybenzofuran-2-yl)(4-chlorophenyl)methanone, C15H8BrClO3, (5-bromo-3-hydroxybenzofuran-2-yl)(4-bromophenyl)methanone, C15H8Br2O3, and (4-bromophenyl)(3-hydroxy-5-iodobenzofuran-2-yl)methanone, C15H8BrIO3, were also carried out. The compounds were tested for their in vitro cytotoxicity on the four human cancer cell lines KB, Hep-G2, Lu-1 and MCF7. Six compounds show good inhibiting abilities on Hep-G2 cells, with IC50 values of 1.39-8.03 µM.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Benzofuranos/síntese química , Células Hep G2/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Benzofuranos/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008131, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866196

RESUMO

Invasion of hepatocytes by Plasmodium sporozoites initiates the pre-erythrocytic step of a malaria infection. Subsequent development of the parasite within hepatocytes and exit from them is essential for starting the disease-causing erythrocytic cycle. Identification of signaling pathways that operate in pre-erythrocytic stages provides insight into a critical step of infection and potential targets for chemoprotection from malaria. We demonstrate that P. berghei homologs of Calcium Dependent Protein Kinase 1 (CDPK1), CDPK4 and CDPK5 play overlapping but distinct roles in sporozoite invasion and parasite egress from hepatocytes. All three kinases are expressed in sporozoites. All three are required for optimal motility of sporozoites and consequently their invasion of hepatocytes. Increased cGMP can compensate for the functional loss of CDPK1 and CDPK5 during sporozoite invasion but cannot overcome loss of CDPK4. CDPK1 and CDPK5 expression is downregulated after sporozoite invasion. CDPK5 reappears in a subset of late stage liver stages and is present in all merosomes. Chemical inhibition of CDPK4 and depletion of CDPK5 in liver stages implicate these kinases in the formation and/or release of merosomes from mature liver stages. Furthermore, depletion of CDPK5 in merosomes significantly delays initiation of the erythrocytic cycle without affecting infectivity of hepatic merozoites. These data suggest that CDPK5 may be required for the rupture of merosomes. Our work provides evidence that sporozoite invasion requires CDPK1 and CDPK5, and suggests that CDPK5 participates in the release of hepatic merozoites.


Assuntos
Regulação para Baixo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Malária/epidemiologia , Merozoítos/enzimologia , Plasmodium berghei/enzimologia , Proteínas Quinases/biossíntese , Proteínas de Protozoários/biossíntese , Esporozoítos/enzimologia , Animais , Eritrócitos/enzimologia , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/parasitologia , Malária/patologia , Camundongos
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4489, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895384

RESUMO

We report a covalent chemistry-based hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-specific extracellular vesicle (EV) purification system for early detection of HCC by performing digital scoring on the purified EVs. Earlier detection of HCC creates more opportunities for curative therapeutic interventions. EVs are present in circulation at relatively early stages of disease, providing potential opportunities for HCC early detection. We develop an HCC EV purification system (i.e., EV Click Chips) by synergistically integrating covalent chemistry-mediated EV capture/release, multimarker antibody cocktails, nanostructured substrates, and microfluidic chaotic mixers. We then explore the translational potential of EV Click Chips using 158 plasma samples of HCC patients and control cohorts. The purified HCC EVs are subjected to reverse-transcription droplet digital PCR for quantification of 10 HCC-specific mRNA markers and computation of digital scoring. The HCC EV-derived molecular signatures exhibit great potential for noninvasive early detection of HCC from at-risk cirrhotic patients with an area under receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.86 to 1.00; sensitivity = 94.4%, specificity = 88.5%).


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/isolamento & purificação , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Química Click/instrumentação , Química Click/métodos , Química Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Progressão da Doença , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/instrumentação , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Biópsia Líquida/instrumentação , Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanofios/química , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/isolamento & purificação , Curva ROC , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/instrumentação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos
5.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(9): 780-788, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882762

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This research was designed to investigate how miR-542-5p regulates the progression of hyperglycemia and hyperlipoidemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An in vivo model with diabetic db/db mice and an in vitro model with forskolin/dexamethasone (FSK/DEX)-induced primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells were employed in the study. Bioinformatics analysis was conducted to identify the expression of candidate miRNAs in the liver tissues of diabetic and control mice. H&E staining revealed liver morphology in diabetic and control mice. Pyruvate tolerance tests, insulin tolerance tests, and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test were utilized to assess insulin resistance. ELISA was conducted to evaluate blood glucose and insulin levels. Red oil O staining showed lipid deposition in liver tissues. Luciferase reporter assay was used to depict binding between miR-542-5p and forkhead box O1 (FOXO1). RESULTS: MiR-542-5p expression was under-expressed in the livers of db/db mice. Further in vitro experiments revealed that FSK/DEX, which mimics the effects of glucagon and glucocorticoids, induced cellular glucose production in HepG2 cells and in primary hepatocytes cells. Notably, these changes were reversed by miR-542-5p. We found that transcription factor FOXO1 is a target of miR-542-5p. Further in vivo study indicated that miR-542-5p overexpression decreases FOXO1 expression, thereby reversing increases in blood glucose, blood lipids, and glucose-related enzymes in diabetic db/db mice. In contrast, anti-miR-542-5p exerted an adverse influence on blood glucose and blood lipid metabolism, and its stimulatory effects were significantly inhibited by sh-FOXO1 in normal control mice. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our results indicated that miR-542-5p inhibits hyperglycemia and hyperlipoidemia by targeting FOXO1.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , MicroRNAs/genética , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glucose/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Células Hep G2 , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/farmacologia
6.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 2095-2107, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757647

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Apo (apolipoprotein) CIII mediates the metabolism of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins. High levels of plasma apoCIII are positively correlated with the plasma TG levels and increase the cardiovascular risk. However, whether apoCIII is directly involved in the development of atherosclerosis has not been fully elucidated. Approach and Results: To examine the possible roles of apoCIII in lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis, we generated apoCIII KO (knockout) rabbits using ZFN (zinc finger nuclease) technique. On a normal standard diet, apoCIII KO rabbits exhibited significantly lower plasma levels of TG than those of WT (wild type) rabbits while total cholesterol and HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels were unchanged. Analysis of lipoproteins isolated by sequential ultracentrifugation revealed that reduced plasma TG levels in KO rabbits were accompanied by prominent reduction of VLDLs (very-low-density lipoproteins) and IDLs (intermediate-density lipoproteins). In addition, KO rabbits showed faster TG clearance rate after intravenous fat load than WT rabbits. On a cholesterol-rich diet, KO rabbits exhibited constantly and significantly lower levels of plasma total cholesterol and TG than WT rabbits, which was caused by a remarkable reduction of ß-VLDLs-the major atherogenic lipoproteins. ß-VLDLs of KO rabbits showed higher uptake by cultured hepatocytes and were cleared faster from the circulation than ß-VLDLs isolated from WT rabbits. Both aortic and coronary atherosclerosis was significantly reduced in KO rabbits compared with WT rabbits. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that apoCIII deficiency facilitates TG-rich lipoprotein catabolism, and therapeutic inhibition of apoCIII expression may become a novel means not only for the treatment of hyperlipidemia but also for atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Apolipoproteína C-III/deficiência , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/prevenção & controle , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Doenças da Aorta/genética , Doenças da Aorta/metabolismo , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Apolipoproteína C-III/genética , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , VLDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipoproteínas IDL/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Oxirredução , Placa Aterosclerótica , Coelhos
7.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 39(2): 179-189, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749126

RESUMO

Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 conveys an anticancer effect, but little is known regarding its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our study aims to determine the anticancer effect of EGb761 on HCC cell lines and clarify the underlying molecular mechanism. We explore biological functions of EGb761 in HCC using morphological observation, the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and cytotoxic analysis. We investigate the effects of EGb761 on proliferation and apoptosis of HCC cells using plate clone formation, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase d-untranslated protein nick end labeling assays. Protein expressions of the NF-κB/p53 signal pathway were detected and identified using immunohistochemistry. The effect of EGb761 on the p53 signaling pathway was further confirmed by adding pifithrin (PFT)-α, an inhibitor of p53. We determine that EGb761 inhibits cell growth, reduces cell viability, and promotes apoptosis of HCC cells. In addition, EGb761 reduces proliferation and increases apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinomas (HepG2) cells in a dose-dependent manner. We also find that EGb761 exerts an anticancer effect on HepG2 cells by activating p53 and inhibiting nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathways. This study confirms that EGb761 inhibits proliferation and triggers apoptosis of HCC cells through the NF-κB/p53 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5017-5026, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764933

RESUMO

Background: Molecular imaging is of great benefit to early disease diagnosis and timely treatment. One of the most striking innovations is the development of multimodal molecular imaging technology, which integrates two or more imaging modalities, largely in view of making the best of the advantages of each modality while overcoming their respective shortcomings. Hence, engineering a versatile and easily prepared nanomaterial with integrating multimodal molecular imaging function holds great promise, but is still a great challenge. Materials and Methods: We firstly designed and synthesized a BDT-DPP conjugated polymer and then noncovalent self-assembly with phospholipid-polyethylene glycol endowed BDT-DPP with water solubility and biocompatibility. Followed by [Cu] labeling, the acquired multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) were studied in detail for the photophysical property. The cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of DPP-BDT NPs were examined through MTT assay and H&E stained analysis. In addition, we investigated the accumulation of the NPs in HepG2 tumor models by positron emission tomography (PET) and photoacoustic (PA) dual-mode imaging. Results and Discussion: The DPP-BDT NPs exhibited excellent optical stability, strong near-infrared (NIR) light absorption as well as fine biocompatibility. After tail vein injection into the living mice, the PA signals in the neoplastic tissues were gradually increased and reached to the maximum at the 4-h post-injection, which was consistent with the PET analysis. Such strong PA and PET signals were attributed to the efficient NPs accumulation resulting from the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Conclusion: The biocompatible DPP-BDT NPs demonstrated to be strong NIR absorption property and PAI sensitivity. Besides, these novel DPP-BDT NPs can act not only as a PA imaging contrast agent but also as an imaging agent for PET.


Assuntos
Cetonas/química , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias Experimentais/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas Fotoacústicas/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Pirróis/química , Animais , Meios de Contraste/química , Radioisótopos de Cobre/administração & dosagem , Radioisótopos de Cobre/farmacocinética , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Injeções , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Células NIH 3T3 , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polímeros/química , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/química , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
9.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5203-5215, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801686

RESUMO

Introduction: Metformin is an ideal candidate to treat the liver tumor with insulin resistance because of its good performance in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and the advantage in cancer therapy. We aim to develop a delivery system with higher efficiency than free drug. Methods: Metformin-bovine serum albumin (met-BSA) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared using the anti-solvent precipitation method with a stabilizer of BSA for particle growth. The therapeutic effect of the drug was tested by the insulin-resistant HepG2 cells and C57BL/6J mice at a glucose starvation condition. The interaction mechanism of the drug and the protein during the formation of the NPs was tested using a series of spectroscopy. Results: Metformin and BSA formed nonporous and spherical particles of about 200 nm with proper lognormal distribution and thermostability. The cellular uptake, as well as the anti-liver cancer activities of met-BSA, was enhanced dramatically compared with the free drug. The thermodynamic studies suggested that the weak binding of metformin to BSA was governed by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces. Moreover, the results of synchronous, circular dichroism (CD) and three-dimensional fluorescence demonstrated that the BSA skeleton and chromophore microenvironments were changed in the presence of metformin. Conclusion: Therefore, met-BSA has been proved as a simple yet effective therapeutic agent for cancer with insulin resistance, promising for future clinic translations in cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Resistência à Insulina , Metformina/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Soroalbumina Bovina/farmacologia , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Dicroísmo Circular , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Metformina/química , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Termodinâmica , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
Life Sci ; 258: 118252, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791149

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to analyze the impact of four synthesized benzoxazinone derivatives as screening drugs on c-Myc-overexpressed cancer cells (H7402, HeLa, SK-RC-42, SGC7901, and A549) and to explore their interaction mechanisms in detail. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using morphological analysis, real-time cytotoxicity analysis, wound healing assay, reverse transcription PCR, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and circular dichroism spectroscopy techniques. KEY FINDINGS: Results revealed that these four compounds could inhibit proliferation of SK-RC-42, SGC7901, and A549 cells in five cancer cell lines to varying degrees and significantly hinder migration. More importantly, the RT-PCR assay showed that the compounds could surprisingly downregulate the expression of c-Myc mRNA in a dose-dependent manner in the five cancer cells, which may be one of the causes of cancer cell proliferation in vitro inhibition. Further EMSA assays demonstrated that at the molecular level of DNA, four compounds can induce the formation of G-quadruplexes (G4-DNAs) in the c-Myc gene promoter. In addition, the CD result of compound 1 clearly indicates that it specifically induces a c-Myc GC-rich 36mer double-stranded DNA in the c-Myc promoter to form a G-quadruplex hybrid configuration. In conclusion, the compounds studied could dose-dependently inhibit the growth and migration of the cancer cells being investigated. This is positively associated with the reduction of overexpression of the c-Myc gene, which may be significantly regulated by the association of compounds with the G-quadruplexes produced in the c-Myc gene promoter region. SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that three compounds merit further study, particularly against non-small-cell lung cancer, as leading compounds of anticancer drugs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Benzoxazinas/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Quadruplex G/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Células A549 , Células HT29 , Células HeLa , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Células MCF-7
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236704, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790777

RESUMO

The hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope is composed of a lipid bilayer and three glycoproteins, referred to as the large (L), middle (M), and small (S) hepatitis B virus surface antigens (HBsAg). S protein constitutes the major portion of the viral envelope and an even greater proportion of subviral particles (SVP) that circulate in the blood. Recombinant S proteins are currently used as a preventive vaccine, while plasma fractions isolated from vaccinated people, referred to as hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG), are used for short-term prophylaxis. Here, we characterized a recombinant human IgG1 type anti-S antibody named Lenvervimab regarding its binding property to a variety of cloned S antigens. Immunochemical data showed an overall consistent avidity of the antibody to S antigens of most viral genotypes distributed worldwide. Further, antibody binding was not affected by the mutations in the antigenic 'a' determinant found in many clinical variants, including the immune escape mutant G145R. In addition, mutations in the S gene sequence that confer drug resistance to the viral polymerase did not interfere with the antibody binding. These results support for a preventive use of the antibody against HBV infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Reações Antígeno-Anticorpo , Linhagem Celular , Farmacorresistência Viral , Genótipo , Células Hep G2 , Hepatite B/patologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/metabolismo , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/química , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/genética , Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação
12.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008752, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760121

RESUMO

Members of the family of pyrin and HIN domain containing (PYHIN) proteins play an emerging role in innate immunity. While absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) acts a cytosolic sensor of non-self DNA and plays a key role in inflammasome assembly, the γ-interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) restricts retroviral gene expression by sequestering the transcription factor Sp1. Here, we show that the remaining two human PYHIN proteins, i.e. myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA) and pyrin and HIN domain family member 1 (PYHIN1 or IFIX) share this antiretroviral function of IFI16. On average, knock-down of each of these three nuclear PYHIN proteins increased infectious HIV-1 yield from human macrophages by more than an order of magnitude. Similarly, knock-down of IFI16 strongly increased virus transcription and production in primary CD4+ T cells. The N-terminal pyrin domain (PYD) plus linker region containing a nuclear localization signal (NLS) were generally required and sufficient for Sp1 sequestration and anti-HIV-1 activity of IFI16, MNDA and PYHIN1. Replacement of the linker region of AIM2 by the NLS-containing linker of IFI16 resulted in a predominantly nuclear localization and conferred direct antiviral activity to AIM2 while attenuating its ability to form inflammasomes. The reverse change caused nuclear-to-cytoplasmic relocalization of IFI16 and impaired its antiretroviral activity but did not result in inflammasome assembly. We further show that the Zn-finger domain of Sp1 is critical for the interaction with IFI16 supporting that pyrin domains compete with DNA for Sp1 binding. Finally, we found that human PYHIN proteins also inhibit Hepatitis B virus and simian vacuolating virus 40 as well as the LINE-1 retrotransposon. Altogether, our data show that IFI16, PYHIN1 and MNDA restrict HIV-1 and other viral pathogens by interfering with Sp1-dependent gene expression and support an important role of nuclear PYHIN proteins in innate antiviral immunity.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , HIV-1/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Núcleo Celular/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Células HEK293 , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Inflamassomos/genética , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/virologia , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/genética , Replicação Viral
13.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008802, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822428

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a worldwide health problem without curative treatments. Investigation of the regulation of HBV biosynthesis by class I and II histone deacetylases (HDACs) demonstrated that catalytically active HDAC5 upregulates HBV biosynthesis. HDAC5 expression increased both the stability and splicing of the HBV 3.5 kb RNA without altering the translational efficiency of the viral pregenomic or spliced 2.2 kb RNAs. Together, these observations point to a broader role of HDAC5 in regulating RNA splicing and transcript stability while specifically identifying a potentially novel approach toward antiviral HBV therapeutic development.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Vírus da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Hepatite B/virologia , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Viral/biossíntese , RNA Viral/química , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Células Hep G2 , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Humanos , Transcrição Genética , Replicação Viral
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236491, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735635

RESUMO

Selenoprotein P (SEPP1) is a kind of secretory glycoproteins with an antioxidant effect during the development of some diseases. In this study, we attempted to observe the expression of SEPP1 in livers from the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and explore its effect on HCC cells. All the tissues from patients with HCC were obtained from Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University. Western blot and immunohistochemical results showed that SEPP1 was reduced in HCC liver tissues. Its expression was negatively correlated with Ki67 expression in tissues. The expression of SEPP1 in normal liver cell line was significantly higher than those in the liver cancer cell lines. Serum starvation and release experiment demonstrated that SEPP1 expression was reduced and PCNA expression was increased, when the serum was re-added into cell culture system and the cells were on a proliferation state. After SEPP1 over-expression plasmid was transfected into HepG2 cells, cell proliferation of HepG2 cells and PCNA expression level were all inhibited by SEPP1. Results obtained via 8-isoprostane ELISA further indicated that inhibited ROS level was found in HepG2 cells transfected with SEPP1 over-expression plasmid. In addition, RT-qPCR results demonstrated that GPX1 expression levels increased in HepG2 cells transfected with SEPP1 over-expression plasmid. In conclusion, SEPP1 may inhibit the proliferation of HCC cells, accompanied by the reduction of ROS production and the increasing of GPX1 expression.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Selenoproteína P/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Proliferação de Células/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111110, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810646

RESUMO

ZIF-8 nanoparticles (NPs) has been demonstrated with good potential in drug delivery, which causes an increasing attention on relevant toxicity study. In this work, MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide), glutathione (GSH), reactive oxygen species (ROS), stain analysis and gene detection assays were performed on ZIF-8 (50, 90 and 200 nm) incubated HepG2 cells. Moreover, time-resolved inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (TRA-ICP-MS) was applied for single cell analysis; the variation in cellular zinc amount and the proportion of zinc up-taken cells was investigated as a function of NPs size, incubation concentration/time and elimination. Smaller size of ZIF-8 NPs would lead to higher zinc accumulation and toxicity. The function of ZIF-8 on cells is assumed to be mainly related to zinc intracellular accumulation. The possible action path is presented as high accumulation of zinc in ZIF-8 incubated cells lead to high ROS level and cellular inflammation, ultimately inducing necrocytosis. For better understanding of the bio-effect of ZIF-8, ZnO NPs and Zn2+ incubated HepG2 cells were evaluated in the same way. Higher accumulation of zinc in larger part of the cell population was found in ZIF-8 incubated cells than that in ZnO NPs incubated cells. It demonstrated higher bioavailability for ZIF-8 over ZnO NPs. While, in drug delivery application, the possible risk of the remained intracellular ZIF-8 cannot be ignored.


Assuntos
Imidazóis/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade , Zinco/química , Bioensaio , Disponibilidade Biológica , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glutationa/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Óxido de Zinco/química
16.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4825-4845, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753868

RESUMO

Background: Nanosized drug delivery systems (NDDSs) have shown excellent prospects in tumor therapy. However, insufficient penetration of NDDSs has significantly impeded their development due to physiological instability and low passive penetration efficiency. Methods: Herein, we prepared a core cross-linked pullulan-modified nanosized system, fabricated by visible-light-induced diselenide bond cross-linked method for transporting ß-Lapachone and doxorubicin prodrug (boronate-DOX, BDOX), to improve the physiological stability of the NDDSs for efficient passive accumulation in tumor blood vessels (ß-Lapachone/BDOX-CCS). Additionally, ultrasound (US) was utilized to transfer ß-Lapachone/BDOX-CCS around the tumor vessel in a relay style to penetrate the tumor interstitium. Subsequently, ß-Lapachone enhanced ROS levels by overexpressing NQO1, resulting in the transformation of BDOX into DOX. DOX, together with abundant levels of ROS, achieved synergistic tumor therapy. Results: In vivo experiments demonstrated that ultrasound (US) + cross-linked nanosized drug delivery systems (ß-Lapachone/BDOX-CCS) group showed ten times higher DOX accumulation in the tumor interstitium than the non-cross-linked (ß-Lapachone/BDOX-NCS) group. Conclusion: Thus, this strategy could be a promising method to achieve deep penetration of NDDSs into the tumor.


Assuntos
Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas/química , Naftoquinonas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Pró-Fármacos/uso terapêutico , Ultrassonografia , Animais , Ácidos Borônicos/química , Permeabilidade Capilar/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Doxorrubicina/farmacocinética , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Glucanos/química , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Naftoquinonas/farmacocinética , Tamanho da Partícula , Pró-Fármacos/farmacocinética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Redox Biol ; 36: 101682, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810737

RESUMO

There is an urgent need to identify antivirals against the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in the current COVID-19 pandemic and to contain future similar emergencies early on. Specific side-chain cholesterol oxidation products of the oxysterols family have been shown to inhibit a large variety of both enveloped and non-enveloped human viral pathogens. Here we report on the in vitro inhibitory activity of the redox active oxysterol 27-hydroxycholesterol against SARS-CoV-2 and against one of the common cold agents HCoV-OC43 human coronavirus without significant cytotoxicity. Interestingly, physiological serum levels of 27-hydroxycholesterol in SARS-CoV-2 positive subjects were significantly decreased compared to the matched control group, reaching a marked 50% reduction in severe COVID-19 cases. Moreover, no correlation at all was observed between 24-hydroxycholesterol and 25-hydroxycholesterol serum levels and the severity of the disease. Opposite to that of 27-hydroxycholesterol was the behaviour of two recognized markers of redox imbalance, i.e. 7-ketocholesterol and 7ß-hydroxycholesterol, whose serum levels were significantly increased especially in severe COVID-19. The exogenous administration of 27-hydroxycholesterol may represent in the near future a valid antiviral strategy in the worsening of diseases caused by present and emerging coronaviruses.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Hidroxicolesteróis/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Idoso , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Hidroxicolesteróis/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Células Vero
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110951, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678752

RESUMO

The growing use of rare-earth doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) has caused increasing concern about their biosafety. Here, to understand the toxicity of UCNPs and their mechanism in HepG2 cells, we systematically study the cytotoxicity, uptake and elimination behaviors of three types of UCNPs combined multiple cytotoxicity evaluation means with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. Sodium yttrium fluoride, doped with 18% (molar ratio) ytterbium and 2% erbium (NaYF4: Yb3+, Er3+) was selected as the model UCNPs with two sizes (35 and 55 nm), and the poly(acrylic acid) and polyethylenimine were selected as the representatives of negative and positive surface coating of UCNPs, respectively. UCNPs were found to induce cytotoxicity in time- and dose-dependent manners, which might be mediated by reactive oxygen species generation and oxidative stress. Apoptosis, inflammation, and metabolic process were enhanced after cells exposed to 200 mg/L UCNPs for 48 h. Increase in the protein levels of cleaved caspased-9, cleaved caspase-3 and Bax and decrease in the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2 suggested that the mitochondria mediated pathway was involved in UCNP-induced apoptosis. With the aid of ICP-MS, it demonstrated that the cytotoxicity was associated with internalized amount of UCNPs, which largely relied on their surface properties rather than size in the tested range. By comparing UCNPs with Y3+ ions, it demonstrated that NPs properties played a nonnegligible role in the cytotoxicity of UCNPs. These findings provide new insights for fundamental understanding of cytotoxicity of UCNPs and may contribute to more rational use of these materials in the future.


Assuntos
Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Érbio/toxicidade , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Itérbio/toxicidade , Ítrio/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Érbio/química , Érbio/metabolismo , Fluoretos/química , Fluoretos/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície , Itérbio/química , Itérbio/metabolismo , Ítrio/química , Ítrio/metabolismo
19.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3983-3999, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606660

RESUMO

Introduction: In recent years, the use of cost-effective, multifunctional, environmentally friendly and simple prepared nanomaterials/nanoparticles have been emerged considerably. In this manner, different synthesizing methods were reported and optimized, but there is still lack of a comprehensive method with multifunctional properties. Materials and Methods: In this study, we aim to synthesis the copper oxide nanoparticles using Achillea millefolium leaf extracts for the first time. Catalytic activity was investigated by in situ azide alkyne cycloaddition click and also A3 coupling reaction, and optimized in terms of temperature, solvent, and time of the reaction. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of the synthesized nanoparticles was screened in terms of degradation methylene blue dye. Biological activity of the synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated in terms of antibacterial and anti-fungal assessments against Staphylococcus aureus, M. tuberculosis, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabili, C. diphtheriae and S. pyogenes bacteria's and G. albicans, A. flavus, M. canis and G. glabrata fungus. In the next step, the biosynthesized CuO-NPs were screened by MTT and NTU assays. Results: Based on our knowledge, this is a comprehensive study on the catalytic and biological activity of copper oxide nanoparticles synthesizing from Achillea millefolium, which presents great and significant results (in both catalytic and biological activities) based on a simple and green procedure. Conclusion: Comprehensive biomedical and catalytic investigation of the biosynthesized CuO-NPs showed the mentioned method leads to synthesis of more eco-friendly nanoparticles. The in vitro studies showed promising and considerable results, and due to the great stability of these nanoparticles in a green media, effective biological activity considered as an advantageous.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica , Cobre/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Achillea/química , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Catálise , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Reação de Cicloadição , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Solventes/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Difração de Raios X
20.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127579, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679375

RESUMO

As important emerging contaminants, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most intensively prescribed pharmaceuticals introduced to drinking water due to their incomplete removal in wastewater treatment. While concentrations of NSAIDs in drinking water are generally low, they have been attracting increasing concern as a result of their disinfection byproducts (DBPs) generated in drinking water disinfection. In this work, detection methods were set up for four representative indole-derivative NSAIDs (indomethacin, acemetacin, sulindac, and etodolac) using ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadruple mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-tqMS). ESI+ was better for detection of indomethacin and sulindac, whereas ESI- was suitable to detection of acemetacin and etodolac. With optimized MS parameters, the instrument detection and quantitation limits of the four indole derivatives were achieved to be 1.1-24.6 ng/L and 3.7-41.0 ng/L, respectively. During chlorination, indomethacin and acemetacin could undergo five major reaction types (chlorine substitution, hydrolysis, decarboxylation, C-C coupling, and C-N cleavage) to form a series of DBPs, among which 19 were proposed/identified with structures. Based on the revealed structures of DBPs, transformation pathways of indomethacin and acemetacin in chlorination were partially elucidated. Notably, individual and mixture toxicity of indomethacin and acemetacin before/after chlorination were evaluated using a well-established acute toxicity assessment and a Hep G2 cell cytotoxicity assay, respectively. Results showed that the predicted acute toxicity of a few chlorination DBPs were higher than their precursors; chlorination substantially enhanced the mixture cytotoxicity of indomethacin by over 10 times and slightly increased the mixture cytotoxicity of acemetacin.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Desinfecção/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Cloro/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Desinfetantes/química , Água Potável/química , Halogenação , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Indóis/análise , Indóis/química , Indóis/toxicidade , Indometacina/análogos & derivados , Indometacina/análise , Indometacina/química , Indometacina/toxicidade , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Purificação da Água/métodos
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