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1.
Life Sci ; 245: 117365, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001267

RESUMO

AIMS: Hyperglycemia in combination with oxidative stress plays a significant pathophysiological role in diabetic testicular dysfunction, often leading to infertility. Activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been reported to mediate oxidative stress during diabetes. However, engagement of the TLR4 signaling pathway in diabetic testicular dysfunction has not been previously explored. Herein, we investigated the role of TLR4 in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and in the phosphorylation status of ERK1/2 in primary Leydig cells exposed to high glucose and in testis isolated from diabetic rats. MAIN METHODS: Testicular levels of TLR4 and phospho-ERK1/2 were determined by Western blotting. ROS production was detected with a fluorescent probe. Additionally, primary Leydig cells were exposed to normal (5.5 mmol/l) or elevated (33 mmol/l) glucose concentrations and treated with or without a TLR4 inhibitor, CLI095 (10-5 mol/l) for 24 h, followed by evaluation of TLR4 and phospho-ERK1/2 expression levels by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. KEY FINDINGS: We show that high glucose induces the expression of TLR4 in Leydig cells. Additionally, we demonstrate that blockade of this receptor in this cell population reduces oxidative stress and restores the levels of phospho-ERK1/2. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings provide new insight into TLR4 interaction with ROS and MEK/ERK pathway in Leydig cells exposed to high glucose and present a rationale for the development of new therapeutics for diabetic testicular dysfunction.


Assuntos
Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Western Blotting , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
2.
Life Sci ; 246: 117431, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061868

RESUMO

Melatonin is an endogenous indoleamine hormone involved in various physiological processes. However, the mechanism of melatonin in mediating Leydig cells function has not been fully explained. In this study, we investigated the mechanism through which melatonin inhibits apoptosis in mouse Leydig cells by activating the retinoic acid-related orphan nuclear receptor (ROR) α/p53 signaling pathway. We confirmed the expression and localization of RORα in mouse Leydig cells using immunofluorescence. After treatment with 10 ng/mL melatonin for 36 h, RORα mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased (P < 0.01). TUNEL and flow cytometry showed that melatonin significantly decreased the TUNEL-positive cell ratio and apoptosis rate (P < 0.05). Moreover, melatonin decreased BAX expression and increased BCL-2 expression (P < 0.05). However, the RORα inhibitor SR1001 reversed the inhibitory effects of melatonin on apoptosis (P < 0.05). Additionally, analysis of p53 expression showed that melatonin inhibited p53 mRNA and protein expression (P < 0.05), whereas SR1001 reversed these effects. p53 reversed the anti-apoptotic process involving RORα-mediated melatonin in mouse Leydig cells. Collectively, our findings suggested that melatonin inhibited apoptosis via the RORα/p53 pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Membro 1 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Animais , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos
3.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125036, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606569

RESUMO

Dimethoate is an organophosphate pesticide. It is widely used in agriculture. However, whether it blocks pubertal development of Leydig cells remains unknown. In the current study, we exposed male Sprague Dawley rats with 7.5 and 15 mg kg-1 dimethoate from postnatal day 35-56. We also exposed Leydig cells isolated from 35-day-old rats for 3 h. Dimethoate reduced serum testosterone levels at 7.5 and 15 mg kg-1 but increased serum luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone levels at 15 mg kg-1. Dimethoate did not influence Leydig cell number but reduced Leydig cell size and down-regulated Star, Cyp11a1, and Hsd3b1 in Leydig cells as well as their protein expression. Dimethoate inhibited basal androgen output in a dose-dependent manner with the inhibition starting at 0.05 µM. It significantly inhibited luteinizing hormone and 8Br-cAMP stimulated androgen outputs at 50 µM. It significantly inhibited 22R-hydroxycholesterol and progesterone-mediated androgen outputs at 50 µM. Further study demonstrated that dimethoate also down-regulated the expression of Star, Cyp11a1, and Hsd3b1 at 5 or 50 µM in vitro. Dimethoate did not directly inhibit rat testicular steroidogenic enzyme activities at 50 µM. In conclusion, dimethoate targets Star, Cyp11a1, and Hsd3b1 transcription, thus blocking Leydig cell differentiation during puberty.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/genética , Dimetoato/farmacologia , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/citologia , Puberdade , Androgênios/metabolismo , Animais , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Masculino , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Progesterona Redutase/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Esteroide Isomerases/genética , Testosterona/sangue , Transcrição Genética
4.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113438, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672359

RESUMO

It is very important to explore the potential harm and underlying mechanism of fluoride due to the extensive distribution and the significant health risks of fluoride in environment. The objective of this study to investigate whether fluoride can induce mitochondrial impairment and mitophagy in testicular cells. For this, 40 male mice were randomly divided into four groups treated with 0, 0.6, 1.2, 2.4 mM NaF deionized water, respectively, for 90 days continuously. The results showed that mitophagy was triggered by F in testicular tissues, especially in the Leydig cells by transmission electron microscopy and mitophagy receptor PHB2 locations by immunofluorescence. Furthermore, TM3 Leydig cells line was employed and treated with 0, 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mM NaF for 24 h. The mitochondrial function indicators and mitophagy maker PHB2, COX IV and regulator PINK1 in transcript and protein levels in Leydig cells were examined by the methods of qRT-PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence co-localization. The results showed that fluoride decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential with a concomitant increase in the number of lysosomes. Meanwhile, fluoride exposure also increased the expressions of PINK1 and PHB2 in TM3 Leydig cells. These results revealed that fluoride could induce mitochondrial impairment and excessive PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in testicular cells, especially in Leydig cells, which could contribute to the elucidation of the mechanisms of F-induced male reproductive toxicity.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/fisiologia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Fluoretos/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases
5.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(10)2019 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614839

RESUMO

We have previously reported that glyoxalase domain-containing protein 4 (GLOD4) is expressed in sheep testes by proteome analysis, but its roles during testicular development remain unclear. The aim of this study was to understand the expression characteristics and biological functions of the GLOD4 gene in developmental Tibetan sheep testes. The cDNA sequence of the Tibetan sheep GLOD4 gene was cloned by the RT-PCR method, and the structural characteristics of the GLOD4 protein were analyzed using relevant bioinformatics software, including ProtParam, TMHMM, Signal P 4.1, SOPMA, and phyre2. The expression patterns and immunolocalization of GLOD4 were examined in developmental testes derived from three-month-old (3M), one-year-old (1Y), and three-year-old (3Y) Tibetan sheep using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence staining. The sequence analysis showed that the coding sequence (CDS) region of the GLOD4 gene was 729 bp in length and encoded 242 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis found that the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of Tibetan sheep GLOD4 exhibited the highest sequence similarity with goat and chiru, and the least with zig-zag eel, of the species compared. GLOD4 expressions at both the mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in the testes of the 1Y and 3Y groups than those in the 3M group (p < 0.01). Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence results indicated that the GLOD4 protein was mainly localized in the cytoplasm of Leydig cells from Tibetan sheep testes throughout the development stages. These results taken together suggest that the GLOD4 gene may be implicated in the development of the Leydig cells of Tibetan sheep during different stages of maturity.


Assuntos
Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Proteínas/genética , Ovinos/genética , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antílopes/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Cabras/genética , Masculino , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Diferenciação Sexual , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Tibet
6.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 195: 105483, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550505

RESUMO

Hydroxysteroid 17-Beta Dehydrogenase 3 (Hsd17b3), primarily expressed in Leydig cells (LCs) of the mammalian testes, is essential for testosterone biosynthesis and male fertility. The aim of our study was to profile the expression, splice variants (SV) and novel insertion/deletion (indel) of Hsd17b3 in boars. Quantitative analysis showed that the expression level of Hsd17b3 in the testis was significantly highest. Among different testicular cell types, the Hsd17b3 mRNA expression level of LCs was significantly higher than that of SSCs (spermatogonial stem cells) and SCs (Sertoli cells). Furthermore, the SV was firstly identified in pigs and it was highly expressed in LCs comparing with SSCs and SCs. In addition, two mutations were identified in pig Hsd17b3 gene promotor and intron, respectively, which were associated with male reproductive traits (P <  0.05). In conclusion, both transcripts of Hsd17b3 gene were highly expressed in pig testes and LCs; the two novel indel variants of Hsd17b3 gene can be used as potential DNA makers for the marker-assisted selection in pigs. All these findings would enrich the study of Hsd17b3 gene in pig genetic breeding.


Assuntos
17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/genética , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Reprodução/genética , Sus scrofa/genética , Células-Tronco Germinativas Adultas/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo , Animais , Variação Genética , Mutação INDEL , Masculino , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Células de Sertoli/metabolismo
7.
Chem Biol Interact ; 312: 108817, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499053

RESUMO

Aconitine might have reproductive toxicity and the effects of aconitine on androgen synthesis in Leydig cells remain unclear. Here, we explore how aconitine affects androgen synthesis and metabolism in rat immature Leydig cells in vitro. Immature Leydig cells were isolated from 35-day-old male Sprague Dawley rats and cultured with 0-50 µM aconitine for 3 h in combination with LH, 8Br-cAMP, 22R-hydroxycholesterol, pregnenolone, progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone, respectively. Medium androgens were measured. The levels of Leydig cell mRNAs, Lhcgr, Scarb1, Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1, Hsd17b3, Srd5a1, and Akr1c14, were measured by qPCR. ROS and apoptosis were determined after 24-h aconitine treatment. Aconitine inhibited basal androgen production in Leydig cells at 0.05 µM and the higher concentrations. Aconitine blocked pregnenolone, progesterone, and androstenedione mediated androgen outputs without affecting 22R-hydroxycholesterol-mediated androgen production at 5 µM. Aconitine also inhibited LH and 8Br-cAMP stimulated androgen outputs at 5 µM. Further investigation showed that aconitine blocked androgen synthesis via down-regulating the expression of Scarb1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1, and Hsd17b3. At 50 µM, aconitine also induced ROS generation and increased apoptotic rate of Leydig cells. Aconitine lowered serum testosterone levels at 1.5 mg/kg after 7 days of oral exposure from postnatal day 35. In conclusion, aconitine inhibits androgen synthesis.


Assuntos
Aconitina/farmacologia , Androgênios/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/citologia , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores do LH/genética , Receptores do LH/metabolismo , Receptores Depuradores Classe B/genética , Receptores Depuradores Classe B/metabolismo , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/farmacologia
8.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 17(1): 71, 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Palmitic acid (PA) is a common saturated fatty acid that induces apoptosis in various types of cells, including testicular Leydig cells. There is evidence suggesting that PA is increased in patients with obesity and that PA-induced cell apoptosis may play an important role in obesity-related male infertility. Curcumin, a natural polyphenol, has been reported to exert cytoprotective effects in various cell types. However, the cytoprotective effect of curcumin against PA-induced apoptosis in Leydig cells remains unknown. Therefore, the current study was performed to investigate the protective effects of curcumin in response to PA-induced toxicity and apoptosis in murine Leydig tumor cell line 1 (MLTC-1) cells and explore the mechanism underlying its anti-apoptotic action. METHODS: MLTC-1 cells were cultured in Roswell Park Institute-1640 medium and divided into five groups. First four groups were treated with 50-400 µM PA, 400 µM PA + 5-40 µM curcumin, 400 µM PA + 500 nM 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inhibitor), and 500 nM thapsigargin (TG, an ER stress inducer) + 20 µM curcumin, respectively, followed by incubation for 24 h. Effects of PA and/or curcumin on viability, apoptosis, and ER stress in MLTC-1 cells were then determined by cell proliferation assay, flow cytometry, and western blot analysis. The fifth group of MLTC-1 cells was exposed to 400 µM of PA and 5 IU/mL of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for 24 h in the absence and presence of curcumin, followed by measurement of testosterone levels in cell-culture supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with or without curcumin for 4 weeks, and the testosterone levels were detected by ELISA. RESULTS: Exposure to 100-400 µM PA reduced cell viability, activated caspase 3, and enhanced the expression levels of the apoptosis-related protein BCL-2-associated X protein (BAX) and ER stress markers glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) in MLTC-1 cells. Treating cells with 500 nM 4-PBA significantly attenuated PA-induced cytotoxicity through inhibition of ER stress. Curcumin (20 µM) significantly suppressed PA- or TG-induced decrease in cell viability, caspase 3 activity, and the expression levels of BAX, CHOP, and GRP78. In addition, treating MLTC-1 cells with 20 µM curcumin effectively restored testosterone levels, which were reduced in response to PA exposure. Similarly, curcumin treatment ameliorated the HFD-induced decrease in serum testosterone level in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that PA induces apoptosis via ER stress and curcumin ameliorates PA-induced apoptosis by inhibiting ER stress in MLTC-1 cells. This study suggests the application of curcumin as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of obesity-related male infertility.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcumina/farmacologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Palmítico/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/citologia , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Fenilbutiratos/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testículo/citologia
9.
Chem Biol Interact ; 312: 108792, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491373

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is an important toxic chemical due to its increasing levels in the environment and bioaccumulation in humans and animals. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of long-term exposure to 1, 10, or 100 µg/L Cd in drinking water on the development, reproduction and neurotoxicity of offspring when administered to mice from parental puberty to postnatal 10 weeks in offspring. The development parameters measured in offspring included physical development, reflex ontogeny, body weight and body size. The reproductive indices measured consisted of anogenital distances (AGDs), estrous cycle, sperm quality, specific gene expression in Leydig or Sertoli cells, seminiferous epithelium cycle, sex hormone levels, histological morphology and apoptosis in testis or ovary, and the levels of oxidative stress. The determination of neurotoxicity included learning and memory ability, anxiety, and related serum indicators. In addition, blood lipid level, liver and kidney function were also determined by serum biochemical assays. The results showed that exposure to Cd in the present model had no adverse effects on development, but had some reproductive toxicity and neurotoxicity, including alteration of spermatogenic epithelial staging in testis and inducing anxiety in offspring. Furthermore, the levels of total protein, globulins, total bile acid and direct bilirubin were also significantly altered, especially in female offspring. The present study suggested that long-term exposure to low doses of Cd had adverse effects on the health of the next generation, and some harmful effects showed gender differences in offspring. The present study demonstrated that attention should be paid to Cd pollution in the environment, especially before pregnancy.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue , Feminino , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/metabolismo , Ovário/patologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Células de Sertoli/efeitos dos fármacos , Células de Sertoli/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/genética , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/patologia
10.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 284: 113268, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491376

RESUMO

CPFX is a highly effective antibiotic, but it has been reported to significantly impair both testicular function and structure in rats. In this study, we assessed reversal of CPFX-induced variation in mice testicular structure and testosterone synthesis by probiotic microbes in the infected model and normal model. We detected testicular weight, testicular structure and Leydig cell variables in numbers. We detected the levels of serum testosterone and steroidogenic enzymes, as well as DBC1, Sirt1, NF-κB, and related redox state and inflammatory response in the testes. The results showed that probiotic microbes had significantly elevated serum testosterone levels and steroidogenic enzymes, higher Sirt1, anti-oxidative enzymes and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression, and lower NF-κB, DBC1, oxidative damage, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. The results suggest that the testis-protective, antiinflammatory and antioxidation effects of probiotics largely resulted from its ability to decrease oxidative stress and preserve antioxidant activity by stabilizing antioxidant defense systems, reducing oxidative damage and inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Probióticos/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/microbiologia , Testosterona/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Epitélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Peso Molecular , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(16)2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430870

RESUMO

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have shown adverse health impact on the human male reproductive system, with evidence of inducing apoptosis. However, whether or not ZnO NPs could promote autophagy, and the possible role of autophagy in the progress of apoptosis, remain unclear. In the current study, in vitro and in vivo toxicological responses of ZnO NPs were explored by using a mouse model and mouse Leydig cell line. It was found that intragastrical exposure of ZnO NPs to mice for 28 days at the concentrations of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day disrupted the seminiferous epithelium of the testis and decreased the sperm density in the epididymis. Furthermore, serum testosterone levels were markedly reduced. The induction of apoptosis and autophagy in the testis tissues was disclosed by up-regulating the protein levels of cleaved Caspase-8, cleaved Caspase-3, Bax, LC3-II, Atg 5, and Beclin 1, accompanied by down-regulation of Bcl 2. In vitro tests showed that ZnO NPs could induce apoptosis and autophagy with the generation of oxidative stress. Specific inhibition of autophagy pathway significantly decreased the cell viability and up-regulated the apoptosis level in mouse Leydig TM3 cells. In summary, ZnO NPs can induce apoptosis and autophagy via oxidative stress, and autophagy might play a protective role in ZnO NPs-induced apoptosis of mouse Leydig cells.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido de Zinco/efeitos adversos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/citologia , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos
12.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450679

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of melatonin on apoptosis and oxidative stress in mouse Leydig cells and to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for these effects. Our results indicated that 10 ng/mL of melatonin significantly promoted cell viability, the ratio of EdU-positive (5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine) cells, and increased the mRNA expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin D1(CCND1), and cell division control protein 42 (CDC42) (p < 0.05). We also observed that melatonin inhibited apoptosis of mouse Leydig cells, accompanied with increased B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) and decreased BCL2 associated X (BAX) mRNA and protein expression. Moreover, addition of melatonin significantly decreased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels, while it increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels (p < 0.05). In addition, we also found that melatonin increased the expression of SIRT1 (Silent information regulator 1) (p < 0.05). To explore the role of SIRT1 signaling in melatonin-induced cells, mouse Leydig cells were pretreated with EX527, an inhibitor of SIRT1. The protective effects of melatonin on mouse Leydig cells were reversed by EX527, as shown by decreased cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis and oxidative stress. In summary, our results demonstrated that melatonin inhibited apoptosis and oxidative stress of mouse Leydig cells through a SIRT1-dependent mechanism.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Melatonina/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Masculino , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 207: 21-35, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266599

RESUMO

Organotypic culture of testicular fragments from 7-day-old male pigs (Polish White Large) was used. Tissues were treated with an antagonist of G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) (G-15; 10 nM), and bisphenol A (BPA), and its analogs (TBBPA, TCBPA; 10 nM) alone or in combination and analyzed using electron and light (stainings for collagen fibers, lipid droplet and autophagy markers) microscopes. In addition, mRNA and protein abundances and localization of molecules required for miRNA biogenesis and function (Drosha, Exportin 5; EXPO5, Dicer, and Argonaute 2; AGO2) were assessed together with calcium ion (Ca2+) and estradiol concentrations. Regardless of GPER blockade and/or treatment with BPA, TBBPA and TCBPA, there were no changes in Leydig cell morphology. Also, there were no changes in lipid droplet content and distribution but there were changes in lipid and autophagy protein abundance. In the interstitial tissue, there was an increase of collagen content, especially after treatment with BPA analogs and G-15 + BPA. Independent of the treatment, there was downregulation of EXPO5 and Dicer genes but the Drosha and AGO2 genes were markedly upregulated as a result of treatment with G-15 + BPA and TCBPA, respectively. There was always a lesser abundance of EXPO5 and AGO2 proteins regardless of treatment. There was markedly greater abundances of Drosha after G-15 + BPA treatment, and this also occurred for Dicer after treatment with G-15 + TCBPA. Immunolocalization of miRNA proteins indicated there was a cytoplasmic-nuclear pattern in control and treated cells. There was an increase of Ca2+ concentrations after treatment with G-15 and BPA analogs. Estradiol secretion decreased after antagonist and chemical treatments when these were administered alone, however, there was an increase in estradiol secretion after treatment with combinations of these compounds.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Receptores Estrogênicos/fisiologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/fisiologia , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Masculino , MicroRNAs/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Maturidade Sexual/genética , Suínos , Testículo/metabolismo
14.
Toxicol Lett ; 314: 53-62, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319113

RESUMO

Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) is a widely used plasticizer and has raised public health concerns. Here, we report the effects of BBP on the testis development during rat puberty. BBP (0, 10, 100 or 1000 mg/kg) was gavaged to 35-day-old male Sprague Dawley rats for 21 days. The serum testosterone levels, Leydig cell number, the expressions of Leydig and Sertoli cell genes and proteins were measured. The in vitro effects on steroidogenesis and gene expression in immature Leydig cells were observed. BBP significantly increased serum testosterone level at 10 mg/kg but lowered its level at 1000 mg/kg without affecting serum luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels. BBP increased Leydig cell number at all doses but inhibited steroidogenic capacity per Leydig cell at 1000 mg/kg. BBP significantly increased the ratio of phosphos-AKT2 (pAKT2)/AKT2, and phosphos-ERK1/2 (pERK1/2)/ERK1/2 in the testis. Mono-benzyl phthalate (the metabolite of BBP) inhibited steroidogenesis but BBP did not affect androgen production in immature Leydig cells in vitro. In conclusion, BBP non-linearly regulates Leydig cell development by increasing Leydig cell number but inhibiting steroidogenesis.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Plastificantes/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/biossíntese , Fatores Etários , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/patologia , Masculino , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Depuradores Classe B/genética , Receptores Depuradores Classe B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/sangue
15.
Chemosphere ; 235: 271-279, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260867

RESUMO

Sertoli and Leydig cells provide key supporting roles in spermatogenesis. Various toxins have been studied in the TM3 and TM4 mouse testis cell lines to identify their regulatory effects. Alpha-solanine (α-solanine), a toxic compound found in the potato, has cytotoxic effects on various cells, including cancer cells. However, the effect of α-solanine on testis function has not been identified. In this study, we verified for the first time the anti-proliferative effect of α-solanine in mouse testes. α-Solanine reduced cell viability in TM3 and TM4 cells and reduced the expression of the cell cycle checkpoint genes Ccnd1 and Ccne1. We also detected changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and in the cytosolic calcium and intracellular signal pathways in both cell lines. α-Solanine induced AKT, P70S6K, S6, ERK1/2, and JNK activation in mouse testis cells. In addition, the inhibition of AKT with a pharmacological inhibitor (LY294002) demonstrated more synergic anti-proliferative effects than in the TM3 and TM4 cell lines treated only with α-solanine. Inha and Inhba mRNA expression also decreased in both cell lines and α-solanine i.p. injected mouse testes. Collectively, the results from this study verify the toxic effects of α-solanine on testes and male reproductive function.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Solanina/toxicidade , Testículo/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas In Vitro , Inibinas/genética , Inibinas/metabolismo , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/patologia , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Espermatogênese , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/patologia
16.
Physiol Res ; 68(4): 689-693, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342755

RESUMO

The increasing worldwide production of bisphenols has been associated to several human diseases, such as chronic respiratory and kidney diseases, diabetes, breast cancer, prostate cancer, behavioral troubles and reproductive disorders in both sexes. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the potential impact bisphenols A, B, S and F on the cell viability and testosterone release in TM3 Leydig cell line. Mice Leydig cells were cultured in the presence of different concentrations of bisphenols (0.04-50 µg.ml-1) during 24 h exposure. Quantification of the cell viability was assessed using the metabolic activity assay, while the level of testosterone in cell culture media was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Within the panel of substances under investigations, the higher experimental concentrations (10; 25 and 50 µg.ml-1) significantly (P<0.001) decreased Leydig cells viability, while the same doses of BPA and BPB also reduced testosterone production significantly (P<0.001). Taken together, the results of our study reported herein is a consistent whit the conclusion that higher experimental doses of bisphenols have a cytotoxic effect and could have a dose-dependent impact on testosterone production.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Testosterona/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/administração & dosagem , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Disruptores Endócrinos/administração & dosagem , Estrogênios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Estrogênios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fenóis/administração & dosagem , Testosterona/metabolismo
17.
Life Sci ; 233: 116694, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351970

RESUMO

AIMS: The hypoxia-stimulated response of the endocrine system depends on the kind and duration of hypoxia. Hypoxia has been reported to stimulate testosterone (T) production in rats, but the mechanisms remain to be investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male rats were divided into two groups. The rats exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) at 8 h/day were housed in a hypoxic chamber (12% O2) for 14 days. Normoxic rats were used as control animals. T was measured after challenging the rat Leydig cells (LCs) with different stimulators, including hCG (0.01 IU/ml), forskolin (10-5 M), 8-bromo-cAMP (10-4 M), A23187 (10-5 M), cyclopiazonic acid (10-4 M), and androstenedione (10-8 M). Meanwhile, the LCs were incubated with trilostane (10-5 M) and/or 25-OH-hydroxycholesterol (10-5 M); thereafter the media were collected for pregnenolone assay. KEY FINDINGS: In the CIH group, plasma T levels were increased, but the serum luteinizing hormone (LH) was decreased. Furthermore, at several time intervals after hCG injection, plasma T levels were higher in the CIH group. The evoked-release of T and pregnenolone were significantly increased in the CIH group. Compared with the normoxic group, the CIH group had higher mRNA and protein expression levels of the LH receptor and CYP11A1 but not StAR. The plasma and testicular microvasculature VEGF levels were increased in the CIH group. The testicular vessel distribution was more obvious in CIH rats. SIGNIFICANCE: CIH-induced T secretion might be partially mediated by mechanisms involving the induction of LH receptor expression, testicular angiogenesis, CYP11A1 activity, 17ß-HSD activity, and calcium-related pathway.


Assuntos
Hipóxia Celular/fisiologia , Colforsina/farmacologia , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/genética , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/metabolismo , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/citologia , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores do LH/genética , Receptores do LH/metabolismo , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
18.
Andrologia ; 51(9): e13372, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347712

RESUMO

The aim of this investigation was to evaluate changes in testosterone and some of the functional and regulatory molecules of testis such as P450scc, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1α (IL-1α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and nerve growth factor (NGF) following exposure to 900 MHz radio frequency (RF). Thirty adult male Sprague Dawley rats (190 ± 20 g BW) were randomly classified in three equal groups, control (sham, without any exposure), short-time exposure (2 hr) (STE) and long-time exposure (4 hr) (LTE). The exposure was performed for 30 consecutive days. The testosterone level in both exposed groups was significantly less than control (p < .05). Level of TNF-α in both exposed groups was significantly greater than control (p < .05). IL-1α and NGF levels in LTE were significantly higher than the STE and control groups (p < .05). Level of IL-1ß in LTE was significantly higher than control (p < .05). Expression of both P450scc and StAR mRNA was significantly down-regulated in both exposed groups compared to control (p < .05). Our results showed that RFW can affect testis and reproductive function through changes in factors, which are important during steroidogenesis, and also through changes in inflammatory factors, which regulate Leydig cell functions.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos da radiação , Ondas de Rádio/efeitos adversos , Reprodução/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Telefone Celular , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/análise , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/biossíntese , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Regulação para Baixo , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Fosfoproteínas/análise , Fosfoproteínas/biossíntese , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testosterona/análise , Testosterona/biossíntese , Fatores de Tempo
19.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(9): 1285-1290, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341134

RESUMO

In the testes of the Sunda porcupine (Hystrix javanica), the expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and steroidogenic enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc), 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3ß-HSD), cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase (P450c17) and cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom), was immunohistochemically examined to clarify the location of steroidogenesis. In this study, complete spermatogenesis (spermiogenesis) was observed in the testes of the examined Sunda porcupine, and spermatozoa of the Sunda porcupine had a spatulate sperm head unlike that of rats and mice which has an apical hook. On immunostaining of StAR, P450scc, 3ß-HSD, P450c17 and P450arom, immunoreactivity for all proteins was only detected in the Leydig cells and not observed within the seminiferous tubules, suggesting that the Leydig cells can synthesize both androgen and estrogen from cholesterol in the Sunda porcupine testes.


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos/fisiologia , Espermatogênese/fisiologia , Testículo/metabolismo , Animais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Masculino , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/citologia , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Testículo/enzimologia
20.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217519, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163038

RESUMO

Fluoxetine (FLX), a widely used antidepressant primarily acting as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), has been shown to exhibit other mechanisms of action in various cell types. Consequently, it might have unexpected adverse effects not related to its intended use, possibly in the endocrine regulation of reproduction. We show in the present report that after a 1-hour preincubation of MLTC-1 Leydig cells with FLX, the intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) responses to Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and forskolin (FSK) are reduced through AMPK-dependent and -independent pathways respectively. FLX at low concentrations (12.5µM and 25µM) induced this inhibition without triggering AMPK phosphorylation, while higher FLX concentrations (50µM and 100µM) induced AMPK phosphorylation and lowered ATP concentration similarly to Metformin. Pretreatment with the specific AMPK inhibitor Compound C (CpdC), significantly diminished the inhibition of cAMP synthesis caused by high concentration of FLX. Moreover, as expected FLX also caused a decline of steroidogenesis which is under the control of cAMP. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the inhibition of cAMP synthesis by FLX is dose-dependent and occurs in MLTC-1 cells through two mechanisms, AMPK-independent and AMPK-dependent, at low and high concentrations, respectively. FLX also inhibited hormone-induced steroidogenesis in MLTC-1 cells and mouse testicular Leydig cells, suggesting similar mechanisms in both cell types.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , AMP Cíclico/biossíntese , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Hormônio Luteinizante/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Colforsina/farmacologia , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/citologia , Masculino , Metformina/farmacologia , Camundongos
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