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1.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(1): e13443, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To reveal detailed histopathological changes, virus distributions, immunologic properties and multi-omic features caused by SARS-CoV-2 in the explanted lungs from the world's first successful lung transplantation of a COVID-19 patient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 36 samples were collected from the lungs. Histopathological features and virus distribution were observed by optical microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Immune cells were detected by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Transcriptome and proteome approaches were used to investigate main biological processes involved in COVID-19-associated pulmonary fibrosis. RESULTS: The histopathological changes of the lung tissues were characterized by extensive pulmonary interstitial fibrosis and haemorrhage. Viral particles were observed in the cytoplasm of macrophages. CD3+ CD4- T cells, neutrophils, NK cells, γ/δ T cells and monocytes, but not B cells, were abundant in the lungs. Higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines iNOS, IL-1ß and IL-6 were in the area of mild fibrosis. Multi-omics analyses revealed a total of 126 out of 20,356 significant different transcription and 114 out of 8,493 protein expression in lung samples with mild and severe fibrosis, most of which were related to fibrosis and inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide novel insight that the significant neutrophil/ CD3+ CD4- T cell/ macrophage activation leads to cytokine storm and severe fibrosis in the lungs of COVID-19 patient and may contribute to a better understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis.


Assuntos
/patologia , Hemorragia/patologia , Transplante de Pulmão , Pulmão/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Linfócitos B/ultraestrutura , Linfócitos B/virologia , /metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Citometria de Fluxo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/ultraestrutura , Células Matadoras Naturais/virologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/ultraestrutura , Pulmão/virologia , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Linfonodos/ultraestrutura , Linfonodos/virologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/patologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/ultraestrutura , Macrófagos Alveolares/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/patologia , Monócitos/ultraestrutura , Monócitos/virologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Neutrófilos/ultraestrutura , Neutrófilos/virologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Proteômica , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/cirurgia , RNA-Seq , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Linfócitos T/patologia , Linfócitos T/ultraestrutura , Linfócitos T/virologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
2.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 208, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peri-implantitis is an inflammation that occurs around the implant, resulting in varying degrees of inflammatory damage to the soft and hard tissues. The characteristic criterion is the loss of the supporting bone in an inflammatory environment. However, the specific mechanisms and biomarkers involved in peri-implantitis remain to be further studied. Recently, competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNA) and immune microenvironment have been found to play a more important role in the inflammatory process. In our study, we analyzed the expression of immune related microRNAs (miRNAs), long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and message RNAs (mRNAs) in peri-implantitis by analyzing GSE33774 and GSE57631. METHODS: In this study, we explored the expression profile data of immune-related lncRNAs, miRNAs and mRNAs, and constructed immune-related ceRNA network involved in the pathogenesis of peri-implantitis. In addition, the CIBERSORT was used to evaluate the content of immune cells in normal tissues and peri-implantitis to detect the immune microenvironment of peri-implantitis. RESULTS: In the analysis, 14 DElncRNAs, 16 DEmiRNAs, and 18 DEmRNAs were used to establish an immune related ceRNA network and the immune infiltration patterns associated with peri-implantitis was discovered. Through the mutual verification of the two datasets, we found that GSK3B and miR-1297 may have important significance in the immune microenvironment and pathogenesis of peri-implantitis and GSK3B was closely related to four types of immune cells, especially with the highest correlation with resting mast cells (P = 0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: Through immune-related ceRNA network, immune-related genes (IRGs) and immune cell infiltration can further comprehensively understand the pathogenesis of peri-implantitis, which built up an immunogenomic landscape with clinical significance for peri-implantitis.


Assuntos
Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Peri-Implantite/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Implantes Dentários/efeitos adversos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Mastócitos/imunologia , Mastócitos/patologia , MicroRNAs/classificação , MicroRNAs/imunologia , Peri-Implantite/etiologia , Peri-Implantite/imunologia , Peri-Implantite/patologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/classificação , RNA Longo não Codificante/imunologia , RNA Mensageiro/classificação , RNA Mensageiro/imunologia , /patologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4997, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020472

RESUMO

Despite a deeper molecular understanding, human glioblastoma remains one of the most treatment refractory and fatal cancers. It is known that the presence of macrophages and microglia impact glioblastoma tumorigenesis and prevent durable response. Herein we identify the dual function cytokine IL-33 as an orchestrator of the glioblastoma microenvironment that contributes to tumorigenesis. We find that IL-33 expression in a large subset of human glioma specimens and murine models correlates with increased tumor-associated macrophages/monocytes/microglia. In addition, nuclear and secreted functions of IL-33 regulate chemokines that collectively recruit and activate circulating and resident innate immune cells creating a pro-tumorigenic environment. Conversely, loss of nuclear IL-33 cripples recruitment, dramatically suppresses glioma growth, and increases survival. Our data supports the paradigm that recruitment and activation of immune cells, when instructed appropriately, offer a therapeutic strategy that switches the focus from the cancer cell alone to one that includes the normal host environment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Glioma/metabolismo , Glioma/patologia , Interleucina-33/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Carcinogênese , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/mortalidade , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glioma/mortalidade , Humanos , Inflamação , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Microglia , Análise de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
4.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): ahead of print, 2020 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921739

RESUMO

Covid-19 infection was a possible causal factor in the exhaustion and decrease number of NK clonal cells, resulting in a evident improvement of signs, symptoms and clinical features related to NK lymphoma refractory to previous immuno-chemiotherapy. It has been shown that SARS-CoV2 binds to ACE2. Covid-19 may infect NK cells to suppress their functions, as NK cells express angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines in Covid-19 infection may have played a crucial role in lymphodepletion. Although not published in Covid-19, other RNA viruses that cause acute pulmonary infections promote NK cell apoptosis. In NK/T-cell lymphoma plasma EBV-DNA is a sensitive surrogate biomarker of lymphoma load. In this case, we also notice a dramatic transient reduction in plasmatic EBV-DNA viral copies during Covid-19 pneumonia other than NK clonal cells reduction, and after the infection resolution we described a lymphoma relapse as well as EBV-DNA increase and the rising in NK clonal cells count. Although the mechanism leading to spontaneous remission remain uncharacterized, we hypothezised that a favorable adaptive immunity against concurrent viral infection could render an enhanced anti-tumor effect. We suppose COVID-19 infection have induced a transient remission in this patient affected with NK neoplasm.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Linfoma/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Terapia Combinada , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Humanos , Linfoma/diagnóstico , Linfoma/terapia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
5.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 6873-6886, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32982239

RESUMO

Purpose: In a previous study, we demonstrated that the combination of fenretinide with lenalidomide, administered by a novel nanomicellar formulation (FLM), provided a strong antitumor effect in a neuroblastoma TrkB-expressing tumor. In this study, we tested the nanomicellar combination in an MYCN amplified neuroblastoma xenograft to assess its efficacy in different tumor genotypes and evaluate the interactions of the nanomicelles with the tumor cells. Experimental Design: FLM was administered to mice bearing human NLF xenografts to evaluate its efficacy in comparison with the nanomicelles containing fenretinide alone (FM). Confocal laser-scanning fluorescence microscopy images of the NLF cells treated with FLM and FM allowed us to estimate the nanomicelle ability to transport the encapsulated drugs inside the tumor cells. Flow cytometric analysis of the cells from treated tumors was performed to assess the effect of treatment on GD2 expression and NK cell infiltration. Results: FLM and FM decreased the growth of NLF xenografts at comparable extents during the treatment period. Afterwards, FLM induced a progressive tumor regression without regrowth, while FM treatment was followed by regrowth within 15-20 days after the end of treatment. Both FLM and FM were able to penetrate the tumor cells transporting the encapsulated drugs. FLM transported higher amount of fenretinide inside the cells. Also, FLM treatment strongly increased GD2 expression in treated tumors and slightly decreased the NK infiltration compared to FM. Conclusion: FLM treatment induced a superior antitumor response than FM in NLF xenografts, presumably due to the combined effects of fenretinide cytotoxicity and lenalidomide antiangiogenic activity. The ability of FLM to penetrate tumor cells, transporting the encapsulated drugs, substantially improved the therapeutic efficiency of this system. Moreover, the enhancement of GD2 expression in FLM treated tumors offers the possibility to further increase the antitumor effect by the use of anti-GD2 CAR-T cells and anti-GD2 antibodies in combination with FLM in multimodal therapies.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/genética , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Fenretinida/administração & dosagem , Fenretinida/química , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Lenalidomida/química , Camundongos Nus , Micelas , Microscopia Confocal , Nanoestruturas/química , Neuroblastoma/genética , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15167, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938973

RESUMO

Cells of the immune system are present in the adult cochlea and respond to damage caused by noise exposure. However, the types of immune cells involved and their locations within the cochlea are unclear. We used flow cytometry and immunostaining to reveal the heterogeneity of the immune cells in the cochlea and validated the presence of immune cell gene expression by analyzing existing single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNAseq) data. We demonstrate that cell types of both the innate and adaptive immune system are present in the cochlea. In response to noise damage, immune cells increase in number. B, T, NK, and myeloid cells (macrophages and neutrophils) are the predominant immune cells present. Interestingly, immune cells appear to respond to noise damage by infiltrating the organ of Corti. Our studies highlight the need to further understand the role of these immune cells within the cochlea after noise exposure.


Assuntos
Cóclea/imunologia , Cóclea/lesões , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Cóclea/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico/imunologia , Feminino , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/patologia , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/fisiopatologia , Imunidade Inata , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Órgão Espiral/imunologia , Órgão Espiral/lesões , Órgão Espiral/patologia , RNA-Seq , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia
7.
Immunity ; 53(4): 864-877.e5, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791036

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has resulted in millions of infections, yet the role of host immune responses in early COVID-19 pathogenesis remains unclear. By investigating 17 acute and 24 convalescent patients, we found that acute SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in broad immune cell reduction including T, natural killer, monocyte, and dendritic cells (DCs). DCs were significantly reduced with functional impairment, and ratios of conventional DCs to plasmacytoid DCs were increased among acute severe patients. Besides lymphocytopenia, although neutralizing antibodies were rapidly and abundantly generated in patients, there were delayed receptor binding domain (RBD)- and nucleocapsid protein (NP)-specific T cell responses during the first 3 weeks after symptoms onset. Moreover, acute RBD- and NP-specific T cell responses included relatively more CD4 T cells than CD8 T cells. Our findings provided evidence that impaired DCs, together with timely inverted strong antibody but weak CD8 T cell responses, could contribute to acute COVID-19 pathogenesis and have implications for vaccine development.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus/imunologia , Hipertensão/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/biossíntese , Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , Convalescença , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Células Dendríticas/patologia , Células Dendríticas/virologia , Complicações do Diabetes , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/virologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/virologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/virologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/patologia , Monócitos/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
Adv Biol Regul ; 77: 100737, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773100

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells are pivotal effectors of the innate immunity protecting an individual from microbes. They are the first line of defense against invading viruses, given their substantial ability to directly target infected cells without the need for specific antigen presentation. By establishing cellular networks with a variety of cell types such as dendritic cells, NK cells can also amplify and modulate antiviral adaptive immune responses. In this review, we will examine the role of NK cells in SARS-COV2 infections causing the ongoing COVID19 pandemic, keeping in mind the controversial role of NK cells specifically in viral respiratory infections and in inflammatory-driven lung damage. We discuss lessons learnt from previous coronavirus outbreaks in humans (caused by SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-COV).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Imunidade Inata , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/virologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Proteína 1 de Membrana Associada ao Lisossomo/genética , Proteína 1 de Membrana Associada ao Lisossomo/imunologia , Subfamília C de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/genética , Subfamília C de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/complicações , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13311, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770104

RESUMO

Q-fever is a flu-like illness caused by Coxiella burnetii (Cb), a highly infectious intracellular bacterium. There is an unmet need for a safe and effective vaccine for Q-fever. Correlates of immune protection to Cb infection are limited. We proposed that analysis by longitudinal high dimensional immune (HDI) profiling using mass cytometry combined with other measures of vaccination and protection could be used to identify novel correlates of effective vaccination and control of Cb infection. Using a vaccine-challenge model in HLA-DR transgenic mice, we demonstrated significant alterations in circulating T-cell and innate immune populations that distinguished vaccinated from naïve mice within 10 days, and persisted until at least 35 days post-vaccination. Following challenge, vaccinated mice exhibited reduced bacterial burden and splenomegaly, along with distinct effector T-cell and monocyte profiles. Correlation of HDI data to serological and pathological measurements was performed. Our data indicate a Th1-biased response to Cb, consistent with previous reports, and identify Ly6C, CD73, and T-bet expression in T-cell, NK-cell, and monocytic populations as distinguishing features between vaccinated and naïve mice. This study refines the understanding of the integrated immune response to Cb vaccine and challenge, which can inform the assessment of candidate vaccines for Cb.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Coxiella burnetii/imunologia , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Inata , Febre Q/prevenção & controle , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Antígenos HLA-DR/genética , Antígenos HLA-DR/imunologia , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Transgênicos , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/patologia , Febre Q/genética , Febre Q/imunologia , Febre Q/patologia , Linfócitos T/patologia
10.
Am J Hematol ; 95(12): 1590-1598, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857869

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) for myeloid leukemia remains one of the most effective anti-tumor treatments available, capable of curing an increasingly higher proportion of patients. Alloreactivity generated by T cells has limited efficacy in the early post-transplant period while most patients will relapse within 6 months after transplantation. Prior studies in T cell depleted grafts showed that, with the elimination of T cells, natural killer (NK) cells provide most of the anti-tumor effect in the early post-transplant period. Administration of unmodified T cells to mitigate infections and relapse will expose the patient to a high risk of graft-vs-host disease (GvHD). Post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy), initially used for haploidentical (haplo) donor transplants, is now also increasingly utilized in HLA matched donor transplants to prevent GvHD. In most patients, PTCy eliminates, at least in part, alloreactive T and NK cells early post-transplant. Administration of modified NK cells in the early post-transplant period makes intuitive sense to enhance the anti-tumor effect of the graft and thereby prevent relapse. Effective application of cellular therapy early after transplant has opened a new direction and could revolutionize the field of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.


Assuntos
Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Efeito Enxerto vs Leucemia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Aloenxertos , Efeito Enxerto vs Leucemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeito Enxerto vs Leucemia/imunologia , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/imunologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Recidiva , Linfócitos T/patologia
11.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 17(9): 995-997, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612152

Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Apirase/antagonistas & inibidores , Apirase/genética , Apirase/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Subfamília C de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/antagonistas & inibidores , Subfamília C de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/genética , Subfamília C de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/genética , Pneumonia/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/genética , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/patologia
12.
Clin Immunol ; 218: 108524, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659373

RESUMO

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2-associated pneumonia, a disease called COVID-19, has caused a pandemic worldwide. To investigate the immune responses after infection of SARS-CoV-2 in non-critical patients may help to better understand the disease progression. We collected 334 confirmed COVID-19 cases including 212 still in hospital with nucleic acid test positive on halfway for SARS-CoV-2 and 122 discharged from hospital, compared specific antibodies, immune cells, and cytokine changes between the hospitalized and discharged patients. The hospitalized patients had a longer illness time compared with discharged patients. Analysis of viral loads explained long-term or persistent infection of SARS-CoV-2, which existed with the median time of 18.5 days of the positive nucleic acid test. Serum analysis showed that the specific anti-N IgG antibody was positive in all detected patients after infection of two weeks. Neutrophils, Monocytes, NK cells, and CD4+ T cells significantly increased, while total lymphocytes and CD8+ T cells decreased from non-critical hospitalized patients after longer-term infection. Further analysis of the cytokines showed that IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 from the hospitalized patients were significantly higher, indicating a potential of the increased CD4+ T cell differentiation.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Pneumopatias/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Convalescença , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus/virologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/virologia , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/patologia , Pneumopatias/virologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/patologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/patologia , Monócitos/virologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/virologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Neutrófilos/virologia , Pandemias , Alta do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Tempo , Carga Viral/imunologia
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3410, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641700

RESUMO

COVID-19 is associated with 5.1% mortality. Although the virological, epidemiological, clinical, and management outcome features of COVID-19 patients have been defined rapidly, the inflammatory and immune profiles require definition as they influence pathogenesis and clinical expression of COVID-19. Here we show lymphopenia, selective loss of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and NK cells, excessive T-cell activation and high expression of T-cell inhibitory molecules are more prominent in severe cases than in those with mild disease. CD8+ T cells in patients with severe disease express high levels of cytotoxic molecules. Histochemical studies of lung tissue from one fatality show sub-anatomical distributions of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and massive infiltration of T cells and macrophages. Thus, aberrant activation and dysregulation of CD8+ T cells occur in patients with severe COVID-19 disease, an effect that might be for pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and indicate that immune-based targets for therapeutic interventions constitute a promising treatment for severe COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/virologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
14.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1638, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32695123

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV2 (COVID-19) pandemic and uncertainties in developing a vaccine have created an urgent need for new therapeutic approaches. A key question is whether it is possible to make rational predictions of new therapies based on the presently available scientific and medical information. In this regard, I have noticed an omission in the present analysis in the literature related to the exploitation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) as a therapeutic approach. This is based on two key observations, that GSK-3 inhibitors can simultaneously block SARs viral replication, while boosting CD8+ adaptive T-cell and innate natural killer (NK) responses. Firstly, it is already clear that GSK-3 phosphorylation of SARs CoV1 N protein on key serine residues is needed for viral replication such that small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) of GSK-3 can inhibit viral replication. In comparing protein sequences, I show here that the key sites in the N protein of SARs CoV1 N for replication are conserved in SARs CoV2. This strongly suggests that GSK-3 SMIs will also inhibit SARs Cov2 replication. Secondly, we and others have previously documented that GSK-3 SMIs markedly enhance CD8+ cytolytic T-cell (CTL) and NK cell anti-viral effector functions leading to a reduction in both acute and chronic viral infections in mice. My hypothesis is that the repurposing of low-cost inhibitors of GSK-3 such as lithium will limit SARS-CoV2 infections by both reducing viral replication and potentiating the immune response against the virus. To date, there has been no mention of this dual connection between GSK-3 and SARs CoV2 in the literature. To my knowledge, no other drugs exist with the potential to simultaneously target both viral replication and immune response against SARs CoV2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/enzimologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/enzimologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/enzimologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/enzimologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia
15.
Clin Immunol ; 218: 108516, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is posing a huge threat to human health worldwide. We aim to investigate the immune status of CD8+ T and NK cells in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: The count and immune status of lymphocytes were detected by flow cytometry in 32 COVID-19 patients and 18 healthy individuals. RESULTS: As the disease progression in COVID-19 patients, CD8+ T and NK cells were significantly decreased in absolute number but highly activated. After patients' condition improved, the count and immune status of CD8+ T and NK cells restored to some extent. GrA+CD8+ T and perforin+ NK cells had good sensitivity and specificity for assisting diagnosis of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: As the disease progression, the declined lymphocytes in COVID-19 patients might lead to compensatory activation of CD8+ T and NK cells. GrA+CD8+ T and perforin+ NK cells might be used as meaningful indicators for assisting diagnosis of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Granzimas/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Perforina/genética , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Granzimas/sangue , Granzimas/imunologia , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/virologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Perforina/sangue , Perforina/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/patologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/virologia
16.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(8): 1979-1992, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447483

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Esophageal cancer (EC) is one of the most lethal gastrointestinal malignancies. Immunotherapy is a promising treatment modality for this disease. However, broader implementation of EC immunotherapy has been discouraged because of insufficient understanding of tumor interactions with the immune system. As with other malignancies, the current research on EC focuses on deciphering the immune cell signatures within the tumor microenvironment. However, the disease-elicited immune cell profiles in the paratumoral compartments are largely unknown. METHODS: We examined the immune cell signatures in 62 tissue samples from 16 EC patients in different esophageal tissue compartments: tumor tissue, peritumoral tissue, healthy esophageal tissue, and adjacent lymph nodes. We analyzed the proportions and distribution patterns of NK cells and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as well as their death receptor (FasR, FasR/DR3)-expressing subpopulations. The analyzed data were then compared and correlated with the patients' clinicopathological data. RESULTS: We found that the FasR+ NK cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells infiltrated lymph nodes at the lowest levels and that the FasR+DR3+ CD4+ T cells were enhanced in tumors. The comparisons with the clinicopathological data revealed a major impact of active smoking on the reduction in paratumoral NK cells and the upregulation of FasR in tumor-infiltrating NK and CD8+ T cells. The lymph node metastatic stage, tumor stage, and Mandard grade correlated with the compartmental proportions of the evaluated immune cells. CONCLUSION: The novel association of the disease state with tumoral and paratumoral immune cell signatures suggests new possibilities for personalized immunotherapy for EC patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/imunologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Idoso , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Linfonodos/imunologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfócitos/patologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/patologia , Receptor fas/imunologia
17.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(10): 2021-2031, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405793

RESUMO

Following excision of colorectal tumors, metastatic disease is prevalent, primarily occurs in the liver, and is highly predictive of poor prognosis. The perioperative period is now recognized as critical in determining the incidence of postoperative metastases and long-term cancer outcomes. Thus, various perioperative prophylactic interventions are currently studied during this time frame. However, immune stimulation during the perioperative period has rarely been attempted due to specific contraindications to surgery and various adverse effects. Here, to prevent liver metastases, we perioperatively employed a TLR-9 agonist, CpG-C, which exhibits minimal pyrogenic and other adverse effects in patients. We found that marginating-hepatic (MH) cells in BALB/c mice contained high percentage of NK cells, but exhibited negligible NK cytotoxicity, as previously reported in humans. However, a single CpG-C administration (25-100 µg/mouse) doubled MH-NK cell numbers, increased NK cell activation and maturation markers (NKp46, CD11b), decreased the inhibitory NKG2A ligand, and dramatically increased MH-NK-cell cytotoxicity against the syngeneic CT26 colon cancer line. Moreover, in operated mice, this innocuous intervention also markedly improved resistance to CT26 and MC38 hepatic metastases in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, respectively. Beneficial effects of CpG-C were mediated through activation of MH-NK cells, as indicated by an in vivo NK depletion study. Last, CpG-C protected against surgery-induced suppression of MH-NK cytotoxicity and improved their activation indices. Thus, we suggest that systemic perioperative CpG-C treatment should be considered and studied as a novel therapeutic approach to improve long-term cancer outcomes in colorectal cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/prevenção & controle , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/prevenção & controle , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias do Colo/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Nus , Período Perioperatório , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Immunology ; 160(3): 261-268, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460357

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory disorder caused by the highly contagious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The immunopathological characteristics of patients with COVID-19, either systemic or local, have not been thoroughly studied. In the present study, we analysed both the changes in the number of various immune cell types as well as cytokines important for immune reactions and inflammation. Our data indicate that patients with severe COVID-19 exhibited an overall decline of lymphocytes including CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells and natural killer cells. The number of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells was moderately increased in patients with mild COVID-19. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10 and C-reactive protein were remarkably up-regulated in patients with severe COVID-19. In conclusion, our study shows that the comprehensive decrease of lymphocytes, and the elevation of IL-6, IL-10 and C-reactive protein are reliable indicators of severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Idoso , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Linfócitos/patologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia
19.
Clin Chim Acta ; 508: 122-129, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The underlying changes of peripheral blood inflammatory cells (PBICs) in COVID-19 patients are little known. Moreover, the risk factors for the underlying changes of PBICs and their predicting role in severe COVID-19 patients remain uncertain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study including two cohorts: the main cohort enrolling 45 patients of severe type serving as study group, and the secondary cohort enrolling 12 patients of no-severe type serving as control group. The PBICs analysis was based on blood routine and lymphocyte subsets. The inflammatory cell levels were compared among patients according to clinical classifications, disease-associated phases, as well as one-month outcomes. RESULTS: Compared with patients of non-severe type, the patients of severe type suffered from significantly decreased counts of lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils, but increased counts of neutrophils. These PBICs alterations got improved in recovery phase, but persisted or got worse in aggravated phase. Compared with patients in discharged group, the patients in un-discharged/died group suffered from decreased counts of total T lymphocytes, CD4 + T lymphocytes, CD8 + T lymphocytes, as well as NK cells at 2 weeks after treatment. Clinical classification-critically severe was the independently risk factor for lymphopenia (OR = 7.701, 95%CI:1.265-46.893, P = 0.027), eosinopenia (OR = 5.595, 95%CI:1.008-31.054, P = 0.049), and worse one-month outcome (OR = 8.984; 95%CI:1.021-79.061, P = 0.048). CONCLUSION: Lymphopenia and eosinopenia may serve as predictors of disease severity and disease progression in COVID-19 patients, and enhancing the cellular immunity may contribute to COVID-19 treatment. Thus, PBICs might become a sentinel of COVID-19, and it deserves attention during COVID-19 treatment.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Eosinófilos/patologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/patologia , Linfopenia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Contagem de Células , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Progressão da Doença , Eosinófilos/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/virologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/virologia , Linfopenia/sangue , Linfopenia/fisiopatologia , Linfopenia/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/patologia , Monócitos/virologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Neutrófilos/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
Blood Cancer J ; 10(4): 42, 2020 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321919

RESUMO

The molecular pathogenesis of chronic lymphoproliferative disorder of natural killer (NK) cells (CLPD-NK) is poorly understood. Following the screening of 57 CLPD-NK patients, only five presented STAT3 mutations. WES profiling of 13 cases negative for STAT3/STAT5B mutations uncovered an average of 18 clonal, population rare and deleterious somatic variants per patient. The mutational landscape of CLPD-NK showed that most patients carry a heavy mutational burden, with major and subclonal deleterious mutations co-existing in the leukemic clone. Somatic mutations hit genes wired to cancer proliferation, survival, and migration pathways, in the first place Ras/MAPK, PI3K-AKT, in addition to JAK/STAT (PIK3R1 and PTK2). We confirmed variants with putative driver role of MAP10, MPZL1, RPS6KA1, SETD1B, TAOK2, TMEM127, and TNFRSF1A genes, and of genes linked to viral infections (DDX3X and RSF1) and DNA repair (PAXIP1). A truncating mutation of the epigenetic regulator TET2 and a variant likely abrogating PIK3R1-negative regulatory activity were validated. This study significantly furthered the view of the genes and pathways involved in CLPD-NK, indicated similarities with aggressive diseases of NK cells and detected mutated genes targetable by approved drugs, being a step forward to personalized precision medicine for CLPD-NK patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Evolução Clonal , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/genética , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/patologia , Mutação , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
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