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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(49): e18260, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804361

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Nasal-type extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma is a highly unusual disease with no standard curative managements yet. Our focus is to emphasize a very rare case of nasal-type extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma with onset of the mass on the buttock successfully operated by combination of surgical excision together with chemotherapy. The management of these unique cases is of great clinical guiding significance. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 20-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of continuous and progressive severe pain on her left buttock. Since December 2017, the patient developed nasal congestion, accompanied with mild pain in the left eye, and new subcutaneous nodules on both cheeks. DIAGNOSIS: Postoperative pathology confirmed the diagnosis of extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma. This is an extremely rare presentation of nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma. INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent enlarged resection of the tumor on the buttock. After the diagnosis of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma was established, the patient received chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. OUTCOMES: The patient's symptoms improved significantly after the surgery, and the postoperative period was uneventful at the 1-year follow-up visit. There were no complications associated with the operation and adjuvant therapies during the follow-up period. LESSONS: Taken together, the lesion's clinical features, imaging results, and pathological characteristics are unique. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, although rare, should be part of the differential diagnosis when the patient presents with the mass on the buttock. We recommend enlarged excision of the extranodal lymphoma. Combined of surgical excision of the extranodal lymphoma, chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are good choice for proper treatment.


Assuntos
Nádegas , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/diagnóstico , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/patologia , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/terapia , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 321, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrence and metastasis are the leading causes of tumour-related death in patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Tumour-infiltrating natural killer cells (NK cells) display powerful cytotoxicity to tumour cells and play a pivotal role in tumour therapy. However, the phenotype and functional regulation of NK cells in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains largely unknown. METHODS: Single cell suspensions from blood and tissue samples were isolated by physical dissociation and filtering through a 70 µm cell strainer. Flow cytometry was applied to profile the activity and function of NK cells, and an antibody chip experiment was used to identify and quantitate cytokine levels. We studied IL-6 and IL-8 function in primary oesophageal squamous carcinoma and NK cell co-cultures in vitro and by a xenograft tumour model in vivo. Western blotting was used to quantitate STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) and p-STAT3 levels. Finally, we performed an IHC array to analyse IL-6/IL-8 (interleukin 6/interleukin 8) expression in 103 pairs of tumours and matched adjacent tissues of patients with ESCC to elucidate the correlation between IL-6 or IL-8 and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: The percentages of NK cells in both peripheral blood and tumour tissues from patients with ESCC were significantly increased in comparison with those in the controls and correlated with the clinical characteristics. Furthermore, the decrease in activating receptors and increase in inhibitory receptors on the surface of tumour-infiltrating NK cells was confirmed by flow cytometry. The level of granzyme B, the effector molecule of tumour-infiltrating NK cells, was also decreased. Mechanistically, primary ESCC cells activated the STAT3 signalling pathway on NK cells through IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, leading to the downregulation of activating receptors (NKp30 and NKG2D) on the surface of NK cells. An ex vivo study showed that blockade of STAT3 attenuated the IL-6/IL-8-mediated impairment of NK cell function. Moreover, the expression of IL-6 or IL-8 in tumour tissues was validated by immunohistochemistry to be positively correlated with tumour progression and poor survival, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Tumour cell-secreted IL-6 and IL-8 impair the activity and function of NK cells via STAT3 signalling and contribute to oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma malignancy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/genética , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-8/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Análise de Célula Única , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
5.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(8): 2149-2156, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: First-line rituximab therapy together with chemotherapy is the standard care for patients with advanced follicular B-cell lymphoma, as rituximab together with chemotherapy prolongs progression-free and overall survival (Herold et al. 2007; Marcus et al. 2005). However, as not all patient subgroups benefit from combined immuno-chemotherapy, we asked whether the microenvironment may predict benefit from rituximab-based therapy. DESIGN: To address this question, we performed a retrospective immunohistochemical analysis on pathological specimens of 18 patients recruited into a randomized clinical trial, where patients with advanced follicular lymphoma were randomized into either chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy with rituximab (Herold et al. 2007). RESULTS: We show here that rituximab exerts beneficial effects, especially in the subgroup of follicular lymphoma patients with low intrafollicular CD3, CD5, CD8, and ZAP70 and high CD56 and CD68 expression. CONCLUSION: Rituximab may overcome immune-dormancy in follicular lymphoma in cases with lower intrafollicular T-cell numbers and higher CD56 and CD68 cell counts. As this was a retrospective analysis on a small subgroup of patients, these data need to be corroborated in larger clinical trials.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Linfoma Folicular/diagnóstico , Linfoma Folicular/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Folicular/imunologia , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos T/patologia , Clorambucila/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitoxantrona/administração & dosagem , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(6): e1007784, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194857

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells are implicated as important anti-viral immune effectors in varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection. VZV can productively infect human NK cells, yet it is unknown how, or if, VZV can directly affect NK cell function. Here we demonstrate that VZV potently impairs the ability of NK cells to respond to target cell stimulation in vitro, leading to a loss of both cytotoxic and cytokine responses. Remarkably, not only were VZV infected NK cells affected, but VZV antigen negative NK cells that were exposed to virus in culture were also inhibited. This powerful impairment of function was dependent on direct contact between NK cells and VZV infected inoculum cells. Profiling of the NK cell surface receptor phenotype by multiparameter flow cytometry revealed that functional receptor expression is predominantly stable. Furthermore, inhibited NK cells were still capable of releasing cytotoxic granules when the stimulation signal bypassed receptor/ligand interactions and early signalling, suggesting that VZV paralyses NK cells from responding. Phosflow examination of key components in the degranulation signalling cascade also demonstrated perturbation following culture with VZV. In addition to inhibiting degranulation, IFN-γ and TNF production were also repressed by VZV co-culture, which was most strongly regulated in VZV infected NK cells. Interestingly, the closely related virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), was also capable of efficiently infecting NK cells in a cell-associated manner, and demonstrated a similar capacity to render NK cells unresponsive to target cell stimulation-however HSV-1 differentially targeted cytokine production compared to VZV. Our findings progress a growing understanding of pathogen inhibition of NK cell function, and reveal a previously unreported strategy for VZV to manipulate the immune response.


Assuntos
Herpes Simples/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 3/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Infecção pelo Vírus da Varicela-Zoster/imunologia , Animais , Herpes Simples/patologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Células Vero
7.
Gastroenterology ; 157(4): 1067-1080.e9, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Bile duct tumors are rare and have poor prognoses. Natural killer (NK) cells are frequent in human liver and infiltrate these tumors but do not control their progression. Responses of NK cells are regulated by NK immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), which interact with HLA class I ligands. We aimed to characterize the features of the KIR gene loci and their ligands in patients with bile duct cancer (BDC). METHODS: We performed combined multidimensional characterization of genes that encode KIRs and their ligands in blood samples from patients with BDC from Sweden, followed for up to 8 years after diagnosis (n = 148), in 2 geographically matched cohorts of healthy individuals from Northern Europe (n = 204 and n = 900), and in healthy individuals from 6 geographically unrelated populations (n = 2917). We used real-time polymerase chain reaction, RNA sequencing, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry to evaluate NK-cell presence, as well as KIR and KIR-ligand expression in bile duct tumors and control tissues. RESULTS: Patients with bile duct tumors had multiple alterations at the KIR gene loci. KIR loci are grouped into genotypes that encode more inhibitory (group A) and more activating (group B) receptors, which can be subdivided into centromeric and telomeric fragments. Patients with BDC had a lower prevalence of KIR2DL3, which was linked to disequilibrium in centromeric A/B and B/B genotypes, compared with control individuals. The associations between KIRs and KIR ligands differed between patients with BDC and control individuals; patients had an altered balance between activating and inhibitory KIRs. KIR-positive NK cells infiltrated biliary tumors that expressed matched KIR ligands. CONCLUSIONS: In a multidimensional analysis of DNA from blood samples of patients with BDC in Europe, we found patients to have multiple alterations at the KIR and HLA gene loci compared with control individuals. These alterations might affect NK-cell tumor surveillance. NK cells from bile duct tumors expressed KIRs and were found in tumors that expressed cognate ligands. This should be considered in development of immune-based therapies for BDC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/genética , Antígenos HLA/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Receptores KIR/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ásia , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/sangue , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/imunologia , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Antígenos HLA/sangue , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Ligantes , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Receptores KIR/sangue , Receptores KIR/imunologia , Receptores KIR2DL3/genética , Receptores KIR2DL3/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , América do Sul , Fatores de Tempo
8.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(6): e1007797, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220194

RESUMO

During viral infection, tight regulation of CD8+ T-cell functions determines the outcome of the disease. Recently, others and we determined that the natural killer (NK) cells kill hyperproliferative CD8+ T cells in the context of viral infection, but molecules that are involved in shaping the regulatory capability of NK cells remain virtually unknown. Here we used mice lacking the Fc-receptor common gamma chain (FcRγ, FcεRIγ, Fcer1g-/- mice) to determine the role of Fc-receptor and NK-receptor signaling in the process of CD8+ T-cell regulation. We found that the lack of FcRγ on NK cells limits their ability to restrain virus-specific CD8+ T cells and that the lack of FcRγ in Fcer1g-/- mice leads to enhanced CD8+ T-cell responses and rapid control of the chronic docile strain of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Mechanistically, FcRγ stabilized the expression of NKp46 but not that of other killer cell-activating receptors on NK cells. Although FcRγ did not influence the development or activation of NK cell during LCMV infection, it specifically limited their ability to modulate CD8+ T-cell functions. In conclusion, we determined that FcRγ plays an important role in regulating CD8+ T-cell functions during chronic LCMV infection.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Vírus da Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Receptores Fc/imunologia , Doença Aguda , Animais , Antígenos Ly/genética , Antígenos Ly/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Doença Crônica , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/genética , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Receptor 1 Desencadeador da Citotoxicidade Natural/genética , Receptor 1 Desencadeador da Citotoxicidade Natural/imunologia , Receptores Fc/genética
9.
Radiat Oncol ; 14(1): 78, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common invasive tumor in women worldwide and the second cause of cancer-related deaths. After breast conserving surgery the tumor bed gets irradiated. Radiation-induced tumor cell death has been found to be associated with the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) including free Hsp70 that can stimulate inflammatory immune responses. Therefore, Hsp70 serum levels as well as the composition of lymphocyte subpopulations have been measured in breast cancer patients during therapy and in the follow-up period as potential predictors for clinical outcome. METHODS: The serum of 40 breast cancer patients, who received a breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) was examined for soluble, free Hsp70 using the R&D Human HSP70 DuoSet and lipHsp70 ELISA. Lymphocyte subpopulations and total lymphocyte counts were analysed by multiparameter flow cytometry in the peripheral blood. Blood samples were collected before (t1), after 30 Gy (t2) and 60 Gy (t3), 6 weeks (t4), 6 months (t5) and 1 year (t6) after RT. Clinical responses were assessed regularly up to 5 years after RT. RESULTS: Patients who developed a contralateral recurrence or metastases within the first 2 years after RT had significantly higher serum Hsp70 values at the end of RT (t3; p = 0.03) up to 6 weeks after RT (t4; p = 0.007) compared to patients who either remained disease-free or developed a secondary endometrial carcinoma. Clinicopathological parameters such as age, tumor size, grading and TNM-stage of the resected tumors, adjuvant chemotherapy and irradiation dose did not affect serum Hsp70 levels. Elevated free Hsp70 levels might be indicative for a chronic inflammatory response which could support tumor recurrence. Lymphocyte subpopulation analysis revealed lower NK cell counts after RT in recurrence/metastases patients as compared to disease-free patients. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in the proportion of T and B cells. CONCLUSION: Longitudinal elevated serum levels of free Hsp70 up to 6 weeks after RT and dropping NK cell counts might be predictive for an unfavourable prognosis in patients with breast cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/sangue , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Radioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/etiologia , Prognóstico
10.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 41(5): e277-e283, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107368

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening disease associated with immune system hyperactivation and the appearance of serious systemic disturbances. The purpose of this study was an assessment of natural killer (NK) cell disturbances in a group of children with clinical signs of HLH. A total of 43 children with HLH and 17 healthy children were enrolled in the study. NK phenotyping, intracellular perforin staining, and cytotoxicity tests were performed by using the flow cytometry method. HLH patients were divided into 6 HLH types: 9% infection-related HLH; 7% malignancy-related HLH; 21% macrophage activating syndrome; 12% familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis; 2% X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome; and 49% as HLH of unknown background. A positive correlation was observed between cytotoxicity and NK cells in children with HLH (P=0.01). In all HLH groups, the percentage of NK cells was significantly lower than in the control population. The spontaneous cytotoxicity was significantly lower in HLH patients. The results presented in this study indicate the importance of impaired function and the number of NK cells in the pathogenesis of HLH. Nonetheless, the background of disturbances seems to be different in various cases.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Testes Imunológicos de Citotoxicidade , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/epidemiologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/etiologia , Masculino , Perforina/metabolismo , Polônia
11.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 55(5): 374-380, 2019 May 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137150

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the clinicopathological features of ocular natural killer(NK)/T cell lymphoma. Methods: Data of 21 patients (22 eyes) with ocular NK/T cell lymphoma treated at Eye & ENT Hospital of Fudan University from January 2006 to March 2018 were retrospectively analyzed for clinical data, morphology, immunophenotype and outcomes. Results: There were 10 males and 11 females with ages from 3 to 77 years (mean, 43 years). There were 20 unilateral cases (10 left eyes and 10 right eyes) and 1 bilateral case. Except for 1 case of corneal perforation resulting from the involvement of the conjunctiva and cornea, the other cases all involved the orbit (including eyelids and conjunctiva) as demonstrated by radiologic studies, with the lacrimal sac involved in 3 cases, and the nasal cavity or maxillary sinus involved in 2 cases. Three patients had been previously diagnosed sinonasal NK/T cell lymphoma with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Two patients had a history of ovarian NK/T cell lymphoma with chemotherapy. One patient had multiple ulcers of skin and mucosa at presentation. There were 13 primary ocular NK/T cell lymphomas without evidence of nasal or systemic involvement. All patients presented with eyelid swelling and decreased visual acuity. There were proptosis in 18 cases, motility restriction in 13 cases, eyelid ulceration in 3 cases, and fever in 4 cases. They had all been previously diagnosed as orbital pseudotumor or cellulitis and there was no response to steroids and antibiotics. Pathological examination showed atypical lymphoid infiltration with an angioinvasive growth pattern causing coagulative necrosis. Cytologically, the medium-sized neoplastic cells showed irregular folded nuclei. The neoplastic cells were positive for cytoplasmic CD3ε, CD56, and cytotoxic molecules and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA (EBER) in situ hybridization. Seven patients were lost to follow-up. Ten patients died 2.0 to 17.0 months after diagnosis (mean, 6.3 months) despite treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Conclusions: Ocular NK/T cell lymphoma is a rare form of ocular lymphoma. There are primary NK/T cell lymphoma and secondary ocular NK/T cell lymphoma with nasal or systemic involvement. The rarity of this tumor and inflammatory signs make it challenging to identify these tumors early. The neoplastic cells are positive for cytoplasmic CD3ε, CD56, cytotoxic molecules and EBER in situ hybridization. Despite aggressive therapy, it demonstrates high lethality with poor prognosis. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2019, 55: 374-380).


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/patologia , Neoplasias Oculares/patologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Linfoma de Células B , Linfoma de Células T/patologia , Neoplasias Orbitárias/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Neoplasias Oculares/imunologia , Neoplasias Oculares/terapia , Neoplasias Oculares/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Linfoma de Células T/imunologia , Linfoma de Células T/terapia , Linfoma de Células T/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 62(2): 279-282, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971555

RESUMO

Griscelli syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by hypopigmentation, silver colored hair, and associated immunological deficiency, which proves fatal in the absence of timely intervention. Our patients diagnosed with Griscelli syndrome-2 presented with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and deranged hematological and biochemical parameters. Both cases underwent detailed investigations comprising of hair mount microscopic examination, degranulation assay, and mutational studies. Our cases showed defective degranulation activity by NK cells and gene mutation analysis revealed RAB27A mutation that causes defect of cytotoxic granule exocytosis from natural killer (NK) and T-cells, manifesting clinically as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in one of the patients resulted in stable chimerism; however, the second case relapsed within a month after SCT. Stem cell transplantation is the only curative therapeutic option for GS2; thus, improvement in posttransplantation management may reduce mortality and posttransplant complications. Hence, any child who presents with partial albinism and clinical features suggestive of HLH, a peripheral blood, hair shaft mount examination along with basic immunological NK and T-cell cytotoxicity assay by flow cytometry will help clinch the diagnosis early. It can subsequently be confirmed by molecular study. Timely therapeutic intervention can prevent relapses and severe infection and improve outcome in these cases.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/genética , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/terapia , Piebaldismo/genética , Piebaldismo/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Cabelo , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/patologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/patologia , Masculino , Mutação , Piebaldismo/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteínas rab27 de Ligação ao GTP/genética
13.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(11): 1305-1313, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL), nasal type, is an aggressive entity within the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid tumors. The International Prognostic Index is reported to be prognostically meaningful for ENKTL, but lacks discriminatory power for stage I/II ENKTL with extensive local invasion. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic effects of local invasion by site and tissue type in patients with ENKTL. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data of 86 patients who were diagnosed with ENKTL by the Department of Pathology of Beijing Tongren Hospital from June 2002 to April 2016, and ascertained tumor infiltration of adjacent structures (AS), bone, and soft tissue for each patient, using physical findings and imaging scans. We used univariate and multivariate analysis to assess the association of each involved tissue or site with patients' overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Of the 86 patients, 71 (82.6%) experienced invasion of AS, 22 (25.6%) of soft tissue, and 26 (30.2%) had bone involvement. Overall, patients with AS involvement did not show significantly shorter survival than those without AS involvement (Log rank χ = 1.177, P = 0.278); however, patients who had involved eyeballs or brains showed significantly lower 2-year OS rates than those without eyeball involvement (Log rank χ = 4.105, P = 0.043) or brain involvement (Log rank χ = 7.126, P = 0.008). Patients with involved local soft tissue or bones, respectively, showed lower 2-year OS rates than those without involved local soft tissue (Log rank χ = 10.390, P = 0.001) or bones (Log rank χ = 8.993, P = 0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that involvement of the cheek or facial muscles (hazard ratio, HR = 5.471, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.466-20.416, P = 0.011) and the maxilla bone (HR = 6.120, 95% CI: 1.517-24.694, P = 0.011) were significantly independent predictors of lower 2-year OS rates. CONCLUSIONS: Imaging can accurately detect ENKTL invasion of AS, soft tissue, and bone. Involvement of local soft tissue or bone was significantly associated with lower 2-year OS rates. Involvements of the cheek or facial muscle, as well as maxilla bone, are independent predictors of lower 2-year OS rates in ENKTL patients.


Assuntos
Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Músculos Faciais/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculos Faciais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Dokl Biochem Biophys ; 484(1): 92-94, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012024

RESUMO

Tag7 (PGRP-S) is an innate immune protein that is involved in the antibacterial and antitumor defense and stimulates the maturation of cytotoxic lymphocyte subpopulations. It was found that the incubation of lymphocytes with Tag7 for 3 days promotes the appearance of cytotoxic NK cells that are active against a number of tumor cell lines.


Assuntos
Citocinas/imunologia , Imunidade Celular , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Humanos , Células K562 , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Neoplasias/patologia
15.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 52(5): 1192-1202, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The extracellular ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) is involved in the production of immunosuppressive adenosin (Ado), which can influence different immune cells through the specific adenosine receptors. The main aim of this work was to characterize immune cell populations as well as serum cytokine level in healthy CD73-deficient mice compared to healthy wild-type animals. METHODS: Profound immnophenotyping of splenocytes from healthy CD73-deficient and wild-type mice was done using flow cytometry (FACS analysis). Cytokine measurement in the serum of the animals was carried out with a Bio-Plex assay. RESULTS: The CD73-deficience leads to an increase in a percentage of NK cells and pDC, as well as influences expression of the costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86. The knockout mice in opposite to wild-type animals show high amount of effector CD4+ T-cells in the spleens. No changes have been found in the subpopulations of CD8+ T-cells. Besides, CD73-deficience leads to a decrease in the percentage of regulatory T cells. Compared with the wild-type animals we found that CD73 knockout mice possess low serum concentration of IL-6. CONCLUSION: This in vivo study clear demonstrated certain immunological changes in the CD73-deficient mice and thus immunoregulatory potential of CD73 molecule. This makes this extracellular enzyme to a real immune check point molecule, attractive for further investigations and clinical studies.


Assuntos
5'-Nucleotidase/deficiência , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Baço/imunologia , 5'-Nucleotidase/imunologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-1/genética , Antígeno B7-1/imunologia , Antígeno B7-2/genética , Antígeno B7-2/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/patologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Baço/patologia
16.
Mol Cancer ; 18(1): 29, 2019 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813924

RESUMO

The immune system plays important roles in tumor development. According to the immune-editing theory, immune escape is the key to tumor survival, and exploring the mechanisms of tumor immune escape can provide a new basis for the treatment of tumors. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of natural killer group 2D (NKG2D) receptor and NKG2D ligand (NKG2DL) in tumor immune responses.Natural killer (NK) cells are important cytotoxic cells in the immune system, and the activated NKG2D receptor on the NK cell surface can bind to NKG2DL expressed in tumor cells, enabling NK cells to activate and kill tumor cells. However, tumors can escape the immune clearance mediated by NKG2D receptor/NKG2DL through various mechanisms. The expression of NKG2D receptor on NK cells can be regulated by cells, molecules, and hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment. Tumor cells regulate the expression of NKG2DL at the level of transcription, translation, and post-translation and thereby escape recognition by NK cells. In particular, viruses and hormones have special mechanisms to affect the expression of NKG2D receptor and NKG2DL. Therefore, NKG2D\NKG2DL may have applications as targets for more effective antitumor therapy.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Subfamília K de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Evasão Tumoral/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Imunoterapia/métodos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Subfamília K de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
17.
Hematology ; 24(1): 405-412, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907293

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The mechanism of non-severe aplastic anemia (NSAA) is not clear. It may be different from severe aplastic anemia (SAA). CD56bright NK cells (regulatory NK cells) is a subgroup of NK cells that produce immunoregulatory cytokines and express high-affinity IL-2 receptor. To investigate CD56bright NK cells quantities and function in patients with NSAA and to explore how CD56bright NK cells participate in the progress of this disease. METHODS: In this study, we analyzed the quantitative and functional changes of CD56bright NK cells in peripheral blood of patients with NSAA by using Flow Cytometry (FCM) before and after immunosuppressive therapy (IST). The expressions of activating receptor (NKG2D, NKp46, NKp44), inhibitory receptor (NKG2A, CD158a, CD158b) and perforin and granzyme B were detected by FCM. IL-2 and IL-18 levels in serum were detected by ELISA. The correlation between these parameters and clinical indicators of patients were evaluated. RESULTS: We found that the percentage of CD56bright NK cells in newly diagnosed NSAA patients was higher than that in normal controls (p = .011, p < .05). The median expression of NKG2D in patients with NSAA was higher compared to that in normal controls (p = .021, p < .05), and the expression of CD158a was lower (p = .047, p < .05). The concentrations of IL-2 and IL-18 in the serum of patients with NSAA were higher than those in normal group. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that increased and activated CD56bright NK cells might play a protective role in the pathogenesis of NSAA.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica/sangue , Anemia Aplástica/diagnóstico , Antígeno CD56/sangue , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anemia Aplástica/patologia , Criança , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(6): 883-895, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847498

RESUMO

We recently reported that pretreatment of IL-2 activated human natural killer (NK) cells with the drugs dimethyl fumarate (DMF) and monomethyl fumarate (MMF) upregulated the expression of surface chemokine receptor CCR10. Ligands for CCR10, namely CCL27 and CCL28, induced the chemotaxis of these cells. Here, we performed a bioinformatics analysis to see which chemokines might be expressed by the human HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells. We observed that, in addition to CCL27 and CCL28, HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells profoundly express CXCL16 which binds CXCR6. Consequently, NK92 cells were treated with DMF and MMF for 24 h to investigate in vitro chemotaxis towards CXCL16, CCL27, and CCL28. Furthermore, supernatants collected from HCT-116 cells after 24 or 48 h incubation induced the chemotaxis of NK92 cells. Similar to their effects on human IL-2-activated NK cells, MMF and DMF enhanced the expression of CCR10 and CXCR6 in NK92 cells. Neutralizing anti-CXCL16 or anti-CCL28 inhibited the chemotactic effects of 24 and 48 supernatants, whereas anti-CCL27 only inhibited the 48 h supernatant activity, suggesting that 24 h supernatant contains CXCL16 and CCL28, whereas HCT-116 secretes all three chemokines after 48 h in vitro cultures. CXCL16, CCL27, and CCL28, as well as the supernatants collected from HCT-116, induced the mobilization of (Ca)2+ in NK92 cells. Cross-desensitization experiments confirmed the results of the chemotaxis experiments. Finally, incubation of NK92 cells with HCT-116 induced the lysis of the tumor cells. In summary, these results might have important implications in directing the anti-tumor effectors NK cells towards tumor growth sites.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Quimiocinas/biossíntese , Espaço Intracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Receptores de Quimiocinas/biossíntese , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quimiocinas/imunologia , Quimiocinas/farmacologia , Quimiotaxia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Fumarato de Dimetilo/farmacologia , Fumaratos/química , Fumaratos/farmacologia , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia
19.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0212455, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840664

RESUMO

Glioblastoma is the leading malignant glioma with a poor prognosis. This study aimed to investigate the antitumor effects of natural killer cells in combination with temozolomide as the standard chemotherapeutic agent for glioblastoma. Using a simple, feeder-less, and chemically defined culture method, we expanded human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and assessed the receptor expression, natural killer cell activity, and regulatory T cell frequency in expanded cells. Next, using the standard human glioblastoma cell lines (temozolomide-sensitive U87MG, temozolomide-resistant T98G, and LN-18), we assessed the ligand expressions of receptors on natural killer cells. Furthermore, the antitumor effects of the combination of the expanded natural killer cells and temozolomide were assessed using growth inhibition assays, apoptosis detection assays, and senescence-associated ß-galactosidase activity assays in the glioblastoma cell lines. Novel culture systems were sufficient to attain highly purified (>98%), expanded (>440-fold) CD3-/CD56+ peripheral blood-derived natural killer cells. We designated the expanded population as genuine induced natural killer cells. Genuine induced natural killer cells exhibited a high natural killer activity and low regulatory T cell frequency compared with lymphokine-activated killer cells. Growth inhibition assays revealed that genuine induced natural killer cells inhibited the glioblastoma cell line growth but enhanced temozolomide-induced inhibition effects in U87MG. Apoptosis detection assays revealed that genuine induced natural killer cells induced apoptosis in the glioblastoma cell lines. Furthermore, senescence-associated ß-galactosidase activity assays revealed that temozolomide induced senescence in U87MG. Genuine induced natural killer cells induce apoptosis in temozolomide-sensitive and temozolomide-resistant glioblastoma cells and enhances temozolomide-induced antitumor effects in different mechanisms. Hence, the combination of genuine induced natural killer cells and temozolomide may prove to be a promising immunochemotherapeutic approach in patients with glioblastoma if the antitumor effects in vivo can be demonstrated.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Glioblastoma/imunologia , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/imunologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glioblastoma/terapia , Humanos , Células K562 , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia
20.
Int J Hematol ; 109(5): 603-611, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850927

RESUMO

X-Linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) is a severe form of primary immunodeficiency characterized by absence of T cells and NK cells. X-SCID is caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the IL2RG gene that encodes common gamma chain (γc), which plays an essential role in lymphocyte development. We report the first case of hypomorphic X-SCID caused by a synonymous mutation in the IL2RG gene leading to a splice anomaly, in a family including two patients with diffuse cutaneous warts, recurrent molluscum contagiosum, and mild respiratory infections. The mutation caused aberrant splicing of IL2RG mRNA, subsequently resulted in reduced γc expression. The leaky production of normally spliced IL2RG mRNA produced undamaged protein; thus, T cells and NK cells were generated in the patients. Functional assays of the patients' T cells and NK cells revealed diminished cytokine response in the T cells and absent cytokine response in the NK cells. In addition, the TCR repertoire in these patients was limited. These data suggest that a fine balance between aberrant splicing and leaky production of normally spliced IL2RG mRNA resulted in late-onset combined immunodeficiency in these patients.


Assuntos
Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina , Mutação , Sítios de Splice de RNA , Processamento de RNA , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/genética , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/imunologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/genética , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Masculino , Processamento de RNA/genética , Processamento de RNA/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/patologia
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