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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3931-3937, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893591

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of ligustilide, the main active ingredient in Ligusticum wallichii, on mitochondria fission after PC12 cell injury induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation/reperfusion(OGD/R). In the experiment, an OGD/R model was established in vitro, and PC12 cells were pre-treated with ligustilide for 3 h, and then the cell viability was detected by CCK-8 method. The effect of different concentrations of ligustilide on the morphology of PC12 cells after OGD/R injury was observed under an inverted microscope. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the mitochondrial fission of PC12 cells after OGD/R injury. DCFH-DA immunofluorescence staining method was used to detect intracellular reactive oxygen species(ROS) changes. Changes in mitochondria membrane potential(MMP) were detected by flow cytometry. Hochest 33258 was used to observe the apoptosis of PC12 cells. Western blot was used to detect changes in cytochrome C(Cyt C) content in mitochondria and cytoplasm, and mitochondrial fission-related proteins Drp 1 and Fis 1. All results showed that compared with the model group, ligustilide significantly increased the survival rate of PC12 cells and the number of cells. Further experiments showed that ligustilide inhibited the release of ROS and decline of mitochondrial membrane potential in PC12 cells after OGD/R injury. Moreover, ligustilide reduced the release of Cyt C and promoted the expressions of Drp1 and Fis1 in mitochondrial fission proteins. Verification experiments showed that mitochondrial fission inhibitor mdivi-1 decreased cell survival rate and inhibited fission. The results indicated that ligustilide exerted neuro-protective effects by promoting mitochondrial fission and reducing cell damage. It preliminary proves that the mechanism of ligustilide on ischemic brain injury may be related to the promotion of mitochondrial fission and the maintenance of cell homeostasis.


Assuntos
Glucose , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , 4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , Animais , Apoptose , Sobrevivência Celular , Mitocôndrias , Oxigênio , Células PC12 , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
2.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(7): 1023-1028, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895169

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of stachydrine (STA) on apoptosis of Aß25-35-induced PC12 cells mimicking Alzheimer's disease and explore the mechanisms. METHODS: The differential genes of STA were analyzed based on GSE85871 data, and the target genes of STA were identified using STITCH database. PC12 cells were treated with Aß25-35 to establish a cell model of Alzheimer's disease, and the changes in cell viability and cell cycle in response to STA treatment were assessed using MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the relevant gene or protein expressions in the treated cells. RESULTS: GSE85871 data showed 37 up-regulated genes and 48 down-regulated genes in cells following treatment with STA. Analysis of the data from the STITCH database indicated that RPS8 and EED were the target genes of STA. Treatment of PC12 cells with Aß25-35 significantly lowered the cell viability (P < 0.05) and the expressions of RPS8 and EED at both the mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.05), and obviously inhibited the expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2 and p53 (P < 0.05). STA treatment of the cells significantly reversed the effect of Aß25-35 and induced cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase, causing also significantly increases in the expression levels of RPS8, EED, Bcl-2 and p53 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: STA plays an important role in inhibiting the apoptosis of PC12 cells induced by Aß25-35 possibly by regulating RPS8 and EED expression to promote the expressions of Bcl-2 and p53.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Animais , Apoptose , Sobrevivência Celular , Células PC12 , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Ratos
3.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(8): 660-669, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734729

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is an essential factor underlying neonatal death and disability. This study sought to explore the role of miR-146b-5p in regulating neonatal HIE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro and in vivo HIE models were established in PC12 cells and 10-day neonatal Sprague Dawley rats, respectively. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to assess miR-146b-5p expression and inflammatory factors [interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] in brain lesions and PC12 cells, while enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was employed to detect the expression of oxidative stress factors (SOD and GSH-Px). Gain- and loss-assays of miR-146b-5p were conducted to verify its role in modulating the viability and apoptosis of PC12 cells under oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) treatment. Expression of TLR4, IRAK1, TRAF6, TAK1, and NF-κB were examined by qRT-PCR and/or Western blot. Dual luciferase activity assay was conducted to identify relationships between miR-146b-5p and IRAK1. RESULTS: In the HIE models, significant oxidative stress and inflammatory responses emerged upon upregulation of TLR4/IRAK1/TRAF6/TAK1/NF-κB signaling. Overexpression of miR-146b-5p greatly inhibited OGD-induced PC12 cell injury, inflammatory responses, and oxidative stress. Inhibiting miR-146b-5p, however, had the opposite effects. IRAK1 was found to be a target of miR-146b-5p, and miR-146b-5p overexpression suppressed the activation of IRAK1/TRAF6/TAK1/NF-κB signaling. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that miR-146b-5p overexpression alleviates HIE-induced neuron injury by inhibiting the IRAK1/TRAF6/TAK1/NF-κB pathway.


Assuntos
Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Apoptose/genética , Sequência de Bases , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Glucose/deficiência , Inflamação/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxigênio , Células PC12 , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
4.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 40(7): 1023-1028, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701248

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of stachydrine (STA) on apoptosis of Aß25-35-induced PC12 cells mimicking Alzheimer's disease and explore the mechanisms. METHODS: The differential genes of STA were analyzed based on GSE85871 data, and the target genes of STA were identified using STITCH database. PC12 cells were treated with Aß25-35 to establish a cell model of Alzheimer's disease, and the changes in cell viability and cell cycle in response to STA treatment were assessed using MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the relevant gene or protein expressions in the treated cells. RESULTS: GSE85871 data showed 37 up-regulated genes and 48 down-regulated genes in cells following treatment with STA. Analysis of the data from the STITCH database indicated that RPS8 and EED were the target genes of STA. Treatment of PC12 cells with Aß25-35 significantly lowered the cell viability (P < 0.05) and the expressions of RPS8 and EED at both the mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.05), and obviously inhibited the expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2 and p53 (P < 0.05). STA treatment of the cells significantly reversed the effect of Aß25-35 and induced cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase, causing also significantly increases in the expression levels of RPS8, EED, Bcl-2 and p53 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: STA plays an important role in inhibiting the apoptosis of PC12 cells induced by Aß25-35 possibly by regulating RPS8 and EED expression to promote the expressions of Bcl-2 and p53.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Apoptose , Prolina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Biológicos , Células PC12 , Prolina/farmacologia , Ratos
5.
Anticancer Res ; 40(7): 3685-3696, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Although chemotherapy agents, such as oxaliplatin, cisplatin, paclitaxel and bortezomib frequently cause severe peripheral neuropathy, very few studies have reported the effective strategy to prevent this side effect. In this study, we first investigated whether these drugs show higher neuropathy compared to a set of 15 other anticancer drugs, and then whether antioxidants, such as sodium ascorbate, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, and vitamin B12 have any protective effect against them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat PC12 cells were induced to differentiate into neuronal cells by repeated overlay of serum-free medium supplemented with nerve growth factor. The cytotoxic levels of anticancer drugs against four human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, three normal oral cells, and undifferentiated and differentiated PC12 cells were determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. Cells were sorted for apoptotic cells (distributed into subG1 phase) and cells at different stages of cell cycle (G1, S and G2/M). RESULTS: All 19 anticancer drugs showed higher cytotoxicity against PC12 compared to oral normal cells. Among them, bortezomib showed the highest cytotoxicity against both undifferentiated and differentiated PC12 cell and, committed them to undergo apoptosis. Sodium ascorbate and N-acetyl-L-cysteine, but not vitamin B12, completely reversed the cytotoxicity of bortezomib. CONCLUSION: Bortezomib-induced neuropathy might be ameliorated by antioxidants.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bortezomib/efeitos adversos , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Bortezomib/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Células PC12 , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/metabolismo , Ratos
6.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 34(2): 421-433, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515177

RESUMO

Naringenin is a flavonoid compound with antioxidant effects. It is used to treat oxidative stress-related diseases, but its mechanism is unclear. In this experiment, we explored whether naringenin can increase the expression of superoxide dismutase 1(SOD1), reduce the oxidative stress of PC12 cells induced by homocysteine (Hcy), and decrease the apoptosis of PC12 cells induced by Hcy by inhibiting the expression of mir-224-3p. Different concentrations of Hcy (1, 3, 5, 8, and 10 mmol/L) was used to analyze effect of homocysteine on PC12 cells. A total of 5 mmol/L Hcy was used to induce the excitatory and neurotoxicity model of PC12 cells in vitro. The cells were divided into normal control, Hcy induction, Hcy + Naringenin (25 µM), Hcy + Naringenin (50 µM), Hcy + Naringenin (75 µM), Hcy + Naringenin (100 µM), and Hcy + Naringenin (150 µM) groups. The relative survival rate and activities of the PC12 cells were determined by the MTT method, and the apoptosis rate of the PC12 cells was determined by using flow cytometry. The Western blot method was used to determine the expressions of SOD1, Bax, Caspase-3, Caspase-8, and Bcl-2 in the PC12 cells induced by Hcy. The expressions of SOD1 mRNA and miR-224-3p in the Hcy-induced PC12 cells were determined by RT-PCR. Results found that Hcy increased the expression of miR-224-3p in a dose-dependent manner but decreased that of SOD1 mRNA and protein. Hcy also increased oxidative stress in the PC12 cells and the proapoptotic proteins Bax, Caspase-3, and Caspase-9. Furthermore, it decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the activity and survival rate of the HT22 cells, but it increased the apoptosis of the PC12 cells. The treatment of Hcy-induced PC12 cells with different concentrations of naringenin for 24 h decreased the expression of miR-224-3p in a dose-dependent manner and increased the expressions of SOD1 mRNA and protein. The treatment also decreased the oxidative stress in the PC12 cells and the expressions of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, Caspase-3, and Caspase-9; increased the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl- 2; decreased the apoptosis of the PC12 cells; and increased the PC12 cells.The results suggest that Naringenin can decrease the apoptosis and oxidative stress of PC12 cells induced by Hcy and increase the activities and survival rates of PC12 cells. The mechanism may be related to naringenin decreasing the expression of miR-224-3p in PC12 cells induced by Hcy and increasing the expressions of SOD1 mRNA and protein.


Assuntos
Flavanonas/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Neuroproteção , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Animais , Apoptose , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9 , Homocisteína , Estresse Oxidativo , Células PC12 , Ratos , Regulação para Cima , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2
7.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 36(1): 62-66, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles on the viabilities of nerve cells PC12 and SH-SY5Y. METHODS: CeO2 nanoparticles were synthesized, structures were characterized and properties were evaluated. PC12 cells and SH-SY5Y cells were treated with CeO2 nanoparticles at different concentrations (1, 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150 µg/ml) for 24 h and the cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Then PC12 cells and SH-SY5Y cells were co-treated with CeO2 and active oxygen scavenger NAC and the cells were stained with DCFH-DA probe for ROS. The number of cells and the fluorescence intensity were observed under a fluorescent inverted microscope. Differences were assessed by one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: After treatment with CeO2 nanoparticles, the viabilities of both PC12 cells (P<0.01) and SH-SY5Y cells (P<0.01) were decreased comparing with the control group. After staining with DCFH-DA probe, the fluorescence intensity of the nerve cells was enhanced depending on the concentration of CeO2 nanoparticles suggesting that CeO2 induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The fluorescence intensity of PC12 cells was decreased after CeO2 nanoparticles (100 µg/ml) co-treatment with active oxygen scavenger NAC. Compared with CeO2 nanoparticles alone at 25 µg/ml (P<0.01), 50 µg/ml (P<0.01), 75 µg/ml (P<0.01), 100 µg/ml (P<0.01), the cell viability was significantly increased after co-treatment with NAC. CONCLUSION: CeO2 nanoparticles has a negative effect on the viabilities of nerve cells PC12 and SH-SY5Y, and the effect might be depend on ROS.


Assuntos
Sobrevivência Celular , Cério/farmacologia , Nanopartículas , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Células PC12 , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110849, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559690

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are extensively used as brominated flame retardants in various factory products. As environmental pollutants, the adverse effects of PBDEs on human health have been receiving considerable attention. However, the precise fundamental mechanisms of toxicity induced by PBDEs are still not fully understood. In this study, the mechanism of cytotoxicity induced by 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) was investigated by combining Seahorse XFp analysis and mass spectrometry-based metabolomics and flux approaches in PC12 cells, one of the most widely used neuron-like cell lines for investigating cytotoxic effects. The Seahorse results suggest that BDE-47 significantly attenuated mitochondrial respiration and enhanced glycolysis in PC12 cells. Additionally, metabolomics results revealed the reduction of TCA metabolites such as citrate, succinate, aconitate, malate, fumarate, and glutamate after BDE-47 exposure. Metabolic flux analysis showed that BDE-47 exposure reduced the oxidative metabolic capacity of mitochondria in PC12 cells. Furthermore, various altered metabolites were found in multiple metabolic pathways, especially in glycine-serine-threonine metabolism and glutathione metabolism. A total of 17 metabolic features were determined in order to distinguish potentially disturbed metabolite markers of BDE-47 exposure. Our findings provide possible biomarkers of cytotoxic effects induced by BDE-47 exposure, and elicit a deeper understanding of the intramolecular mechanisms that could be used in further studies to validate the potential neurotoxicity of PBDEs in vivo. Based on our results, therapeutic approaches targeting mitochondrial function and the glycolysis pathway may be a promising direction against PBDE exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Células PC12 , Ratos
9.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 121(4): 263-270, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356440

RESUMO

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) have recently been predicted to have a major therapeutic potential due to secretion of soluble factors and the release of cytokines and growth factors, which could mediate the cellular communication to induce cell differentiation/maturity. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of mBM condition medium on morphine-induced cell death in PC12, U87, AGS and MCF-7 cell lines. The condition media were harvested as mBM soup (mBM soup 24 and mBM soup 48h, respectively). To investigate the effect of mBM soup on cell lines, morphological changes were studied with an inverted microscope, the viability of cells was determined with trypan blue staining and MTT assay, the type of cell death was determined using Hoescht / PI staining, and NO secretion analysis. Viability assay showed that mBM soup (24 and 48 h) in time-dependent manner increased cell viability (pndings suggest that mBM soup can enhance the proliferation and growth of cell lines and can suppress cell death induced by morphine (Fig. 8, Ref. 59). Text in PDF www.elis.sk. Keywords: morphine, BM-MSC soup, cell viability, cell death, NO.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/química , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/química , Morfina/farmacologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Células PC12 , Ratos
10.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 121(4): 271-277, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356441

RESUMO

AIM: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of morphine in chronic manner on neuroglial differentiation in PC12 cells. METHODS: PC12 cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 culture medium including 0.02 % bovine serum albumin together with different concentrations of morphine for 12 days. Cytotoxicity was performed by lactate dehydrogenase assay. Cell death was performed by PI/Hoechst staining assay. Neuroglial differentiation was performed by Nestin, Tuj-1, MAP-2, S-100 and GFAP Immunocytochemistry assay. RESULTS: Data showed that morphine either at low or high concentration activated opioid  receptors, which  resulted in a decrease of cytotoxicity and cell death and induction of Nestin, Tuj-1, MAP-2, Neurofilament-M (NF-M), GFAP and S-100 protein expression as compared in treated cells  with the control (untreated cells) (p<005). CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that low concentrations of morphine in chronic manner stimulate the neuroglial-like differentiation by activating protein expression and survival-promoting signaling in PC12 cells with opioid receptor-dependent mechanism (Fig. 8, Ref. 36). Text in PDF www.elis.sk.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Morfina/farmacologia , Neuroglia/citologia , Neuroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Morte Celular , Células PC12 , Ratos
11.
Mol Immunol ; 123: 74-87, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idebenone is a well-appreciated mitochondrial protectant while the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) remain elusive. It has been manifested NLRP3 inflammasom activation contributed to I/R induced damage. It raises questions how exactly NLRP3 inflammasom was activated in microglia and neuron and whether idebenone reverses the process in I/R. METHODS: I/R rat model was utilized and BV2, primary microglia and PC12 cells were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Then, western-blotting, q-PCR, immunofluorescence staining, ELISA, flow cytometry and immunoprecipitation analysis were performed. RESULTS: We found ROS-NLRP3 singaling was activated in BV2 cells at OGD/R 24 h. Importantly, microglial NLRP3 activation was essential for NLRP3 activation in PC12 cells under microglial-neuronal co-culture circumstance, which has been confirmed to induced neuronal apoptosis. Further, we found mitochondrial dysfunction in OGD/R led to mt-DNA translocation as well as generation of mt-ROS, resulting cytosolic accumulation of oxidized mt-DNA. Ultimately, oxidized mt-DNA binding to NLRP3 contributed to further activation of NLRP3 and dramatically augmented inflammation in BV2 and PC12 cells. Furthermore, idebenone treatment inhibited the process, thus suppressing the NLRP3-mediated inflammatory injury after OGD/R. In vivo, NLRP3 was activated in microglia of I/R rats and inhibition of NLRP3 was observed in idebenone treatment group, which had less neurological deficit and less infarct volume. INTERPRETATION: Our data revealed the anti-inflammatory effects of idebenone via suppressing activation of NLRP3 and ameliorating NLRP3-mediating damage in I/R, which may provide new insight in therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Encefalite/prevenção & controle , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Neuroproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/imunologia , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Encefalite/etiologia , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células PC12 , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/complicações , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/imunologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Ubiquinona/farmacologia , Ubiquinona/uso terapêutico
12.
Nanotoxicology ; 14(6): 757-773, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393089

RESUMO

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are one of the most broadly used engineered nanomaterials. The toxicity potential of ZnO NPs has been explored in several studies; however, its neurotoxicity, especially its molecular mechanism, has not been studied in depth. In this study, we have used a cellular model of neuronal differentiation (nerve growth factor differentiated PC12 cells) to compare the effect of ZnO NPs exposure on neuronal (differentiated or mature neurons) and non-neuronal (undifferentiated) cells. Our studies have shown that the noncytotoxic concentration of ZnO NPs causes neurite shortening and degeneration in differentiated PC12 cells. Brain-specific microRNA (miRNA) array and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are used to carry out profiling of miRNAs and proteins in PC12 cells exposed with ZnO NPs. Exposure of ZnO NPs produced significant deregulation of a higher number of miRNAs (15) and proteins (267) in neuronal cells in comparison to miRNAs (8) and proteins (207) of non-neuronal cells (8). In silico pathway analysis of miRNAs and proteins deregulated in ZnO NPs exposed differentiated PC12 cells have shown pathways leading to neurodegenerative diseases and mitochondrial dysfunctions are primarily targeted pathways. Further, a bioenergetics study carried out using Seahorse XFp metabolic flux analyzer has confirmed the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunctions in ZnO NPs exposed differentiated PC12 cells. In conclusion, differentiated PC12 cells (neuronal) were found more vulnerable than undifferentiated (non-neuronal PC12 cells) toward the exposure of ZnO NPs and deregulation of miRNAs and mitochondrial dysfunctions play a significant role in its toxicity.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteoma/metabolismo , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Neurônios/metabolismo , Células PC12 , Ratos
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(24): 13468-13479, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467162

RESUMO

The functions of nervous and neuroendocrine systems rely on fast and tightly regulated release of neurotransmitters stored in secretory vesicles through SNARE-mediated exocytosis. Few proteins, including tomosyn (STXBP5) and amisyn (STXBP6), were proposed to negatively regulate exocytosis. Little is known about amisyn, a 24-kDa brain-enriched protein with a SNARE motif. We report here that full-length amisyn forms a stable SNARE complex with syntaxin-1 and SNAP-25 through its C-terminal SNARE motif and competes with synaptobrevin-2/VAMP2 for the SNARE-complex assembly. Furthermore, amisyn contains an N-terminal pleckstrin homology domain that mediates its transient association with the plasma membrane of neurosecretory cells by binding to phospholipid PI(4,5)P2 However, unlike synaptrobrevin-2, the SNARE motif of amisyn is not sufficient to account for the role of amisyn in exocytosis: Both the pleckstrin homology domain and the SNARE motif are needed for its inhibitory function. Mechanistically, amisyn interferes with the priming of secretory vesicles and the sizes of releasable vesicle pools, but not vesicle fusion properties. Our biochemical and functional analyses of this vertebrate-specific protein unveil key aspects of negative regulation of exocytosis.


Assuntos
Exocitose , Fosfatidilinositol 4,5-Difosfato/metabolismo , Proteína 2 Associada à Membrana da Vesícula/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Animais , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Células Cromafins/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Fusão de Membrana , Células PC12 , Domínios de Homologia à Plecstrina , Ligação Proteica , Ratos , Proteínas SNARE/metabolismo , Proteína 25 Associada a Sinaptossoma/metabolismo , Sintaxina 1/metabolismo , Vertebrados , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/química , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 200: 110756, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464442

RESUMO

Arsenic is a recognized highly toxic contaminant, responsible for numerous human diseases and affecting many millions of people in different parts of the world. Contrarily, curcumin is a natural dietary polyphenolic compound and the main active ingredient in turmeric. Recently it has drawn great attention due to its diverse biological activities, strong antioxidant properties and therapeutic potential against many human ailments. In this study, we aimed to explore the protective effects and the regulatory role of curcumin on arsenic-induced toxicity and gain insights into biomolecular mechanism/s. Arsenic (10 µM) treatment in PC12 cells for 24 h induced cytotoxicity by decreasing cell viability and intracellular glutathione level and increasing lactate dehydrogenase activity and DNA fragmentation. In addition, arsenic caused apoptotic cell death in PC12 cells, which were confirmed from flow cytometry results. Moreover, arsenic (10 µM) treatment significantly down-regulated the inhibition factors of autophagy/apoptosis; mTOR, Akt, Nrf2, ERK1, Bcl-x, Xiap protein expressions, up-regulated the enhanced factors of autophagy/apoptosis; ULK, LC3, p53, Bax, cytochrome c, caspase 9, cleaved caspase 3 proteins and eventually caused autophagic and apoptotic cell death. However, curcumin (2.5 µM) pretreatment with arsenic (10 µM) effectively saves PC12 cells against arsenic-induced cytotoxicity through increasing cell viability, intracellular GSH level and boosting the antioxidant defense system, and limiting the LDH activity and DNA damage. Furthermore, pretreatment of curcumin with arsenic expressively alleviated arsenic-induced toxicity and cell death by reversing the expressions of proteins; mTOR, Akt, Nrf2, ERK1, Bcl-x, Xiap, ULK, LC3, p53, Bax, cytochrome c, caspase 9 and cleaved caspase 3. Our findings indicated that curcumin showed antioxidant properties through the Nrf2 antioxidant signaling pathway and alleviates arsenic-triggered toxicity in PC12 cells by regulating autophagy/apoptosis.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Arsênico/toxicidade , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcumina/farmacologia , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Células PC12 , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Cell Prolif ; 53(6): e12817, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396704

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cadmium (Cd) induces mitophagy in neuronal cells, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate these mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of Cd on the mitophagy in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells were detected, and the role of PINK1/Parkin pathway in Cd-induced mitophagy was also analysed by using PINK1 siRNA. In order to explore the relationship between AMPK and PINK1/Parkin in Cd-induced mitophagy in PC12 cells, the CRISPR-Cas9 system was used to knock down AMPK expression. RESULTS: The results showed that Cd treatment triggered a significant increase in mitophagosome formation and the colocalization of mitochondria and lysosomes, which was further proved by the colocalization of LC3 puncta and its receptors NDP52 or P62 with mitochondria in PC12 cells. Moreover, an accumulation of PINK1 and Parkin was found in mitochondria. Additionally, upon PINK1 knock-down using PINK1 siRNA, Cd-induced mitophagy was efficiently suppressed. Interestingly, chemical or genetic reversal of AMPK activation: (a) significantly inhibited the activation of mitophagy and (b) promoted NLRP3 activation by inhibiting PINK/Parkin translocation. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that Cd induces mitophagy via the PINK/Parkin pathway following AMPK activation in PC12 cells. Targeting the balanced activity of AMPK/PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy signalling may be a potential therapeutic approach to treat Cd-induced neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Cádmio/farmacologia , Mitofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Animais , Ativação Enzimática , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Células PC12 , Ratos
16.
Toxicol Lett ; 331: 82-91, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461003

RESUMO

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a critical nuclear transcription factor for adaptation to hypoxia; its regulatable subunit, HIF-1α, is a cytoprotective regulatory factor. We examined the effects of methylmercury (MeHg) in rat adrenal pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells and the rat hepatocyte cell line BRL. MeHg treatment led to time- and concentration-dependent toxicity in both lines with statistically significant cytotoxic effects at 5 µM and 10 µM in PC12 and BRL, respectively, at 0.5 h. HIF-1α protein levels were significantly decreased at 2.5 (PC12) and 5 (BRL) µM MeHg. Furthermore, MeHg reduced the protein levels of HIF-1α and its target genes (glucose transporter-1, vascular endothelial growth factor-A and erythropoietin). Overexpression of HIF-1α significantly attenuated MeHg-induced toxicity in both cell types. Notably, cobalt chloride, a pharmacological inducer of HIF-1α, significantly attenuated MeHg-induced toxicity in BRL but not PC12. In both cell lines, an inhibitor of prolyl hydroxylase, 3, 4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and the proteasome inhibitor carbobenzoxy-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucinal(MG132), antagonized MeHg toxicity, while 2-methoxyestradiol, a HIF-1α inhibitor, significantly increased it. These data establish that: (a) neuron-like PC12 cells are more sensitive to MeHg than non-neuronal BRL cells; (b) HIF-1α plays a similar role in MeHg-induced toxicity in both cell lines; and (c) upregulation of HIF-1α offers general cytoprotection against MeHg toxicity in PC12 and BRL cell lines.


Assuntos
Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Células PC12 , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação para Cima
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(7)2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276316

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation is considered to be one of the potential causes for the development of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we evaluated the effect of four newly synthesized pyrrolo[3,4-d]pyridazinone derivatives on the neuron-like PC12 cells under simulated inflammation conditions by preincubation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our novel derivatives are selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors and have similar effects to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We assessed viability (LDH assay), metabolic activity (MTT assay), DNA damage (number of double-strand breaks measured by fast halo assay), and the neuronal features of cells (average neurite length and neurite outgrowth measured spectrofluorimetrically). DCF-DA and Griess assays were also performed, which allowed determining the impact of the tested compounds on the level of oxygen free radicals and nitrites. LPS administration significantly negatively affected the results in all tests performed, and treatment with the tested derivatives in most cases significantly reduced this negative impact. Multiple-criteria decision analysis indicated that overall, the best results were observed for compounds 2a and 2b at a concentration of 10 µM. The new derivatives showed intense activity against free oxygen radicals and nitrites. Reduced reactive oxygen species level also correlated with a decrease in the number of DNA damage. The compounds improved neuronal features, such as neurite length and outgrowth, and they also increased cell viability and mitochondrial activity. Our results suggest that derivatives 2a and 2b may also act additionally on mechanisms other than 3a and 3b.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridazinas/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer , Animais , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Neurônios/patologia , Células PC12 , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Ratos
18.
Chemosphere ; 252: 126589, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234630

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are common heavy metals in the environment, exerting detrimental effects on central nervous system. Although increasing evidence demonstrated the Pb and Cd-induced neurotoxicity, the exact epigenetic mechanisms induced by combined exposure (co-exposure) of Pb and Cd are still unclear. In this study, the neurotoxicity of individual exposure and co-exposure to Pb and Cd in vivo (150 ppm and 5 ppm respectively) and in vitro (10 µM and 0.1 µM respectively) was investigated. The results showed that neurite outgrowth was inhibited by either individual or combined exposure to Pb/Cd, whereas the co-exposure aggravated the inhibitory effect in PC12 cells. The results of Morris Water Maze (MWM), Y maze and Golgi-Cox staining showed that either Pb or Cd alone exposure damaged the ability of learning and memory and decreased the dendritic spine density in both the hippocampal CA1 and DG area of Sprague---Dawley (SD) rats, and that the co-exposure aggravated the damages. Subsequently, histone deacetylase (HDAC) 2 was significantly increased in both hippocampal tissues and PC12 cells co-exposed to Pb and Cd, and the treatment of trichostatin A (TSA) and HDAC2-knocking down construct (shHDAC2) could markedly prevent neurite outgrowth impairment in PC12 cells. In summary, HDAC2 plays essential regulatory roles in neurotoxicity induced by the co-exposure to Pb and Cd, providing a potential molecular target for neurological intervention.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Histona Desacetilase 2/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Sistema Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Espinhas Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos , Chumbo/metabolismo , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndromes Neurotóxicas , Células PC12 , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 72(2): 249-254, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328619

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of edaravone (Eda) on the balance of mitochondrial fusion and fission in Parkinson's disease (PD) cell model. A cell model of PD was established by treating PC12 cells with 500 µmol/L 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). Thiazole blue colorimetry (MTT) was used to detect the effect of different concentrations of Eda on the survival rate of PC12 cells exposed to MPP+. The mitochondrial morphology was determined by laser confocal microscope. Western blot was used to measure the protein expression levels of mitochondrial fusion- and fission-related proteins, including OPA1, MFN2, DRP1 and Fis1. The results showed that pretreatment with different concentrations of Eda antagonized MPP+-induced PC12 cell damage in a dose-dependent manner. The PC12 cells treated with MPP+ showed mitochondrial fragmentation, up-regulated DRP1 and Fis1 protein expression levels, and down-regulated MFN2 and OPA1 protein expression levels. Eda could reverse the above changes in the MPP+-treated PC12 cells, but did not affect Fis1 protein expression. These results suggest that Eda has a protective effect on the mitochondrial fusion disruption induced by MPP+ in PC12 cells. The mechanism may be related to the up-regulation of OPA1/MFN2 and down-regulation of DRP1.


Assuntos
Edaravone/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinâmica Mitocondrial , 1-Metil-4-fenilpiridínio , Animais , Dinaminas , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases , Proteínas Mitocondriais , Células PC12 , Doença de Parkinson , Ratos , Regulação para Cima
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 4895-4906, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229112

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the protection conferred by lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, and ß-lactoglobulin in cerebral ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. Rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells were used to construct an oxygen and glucose deprivation model in vitro, and ICR mice underwent carotid artery "ligation-relaxation" to construct a cerebral I/R injury model in vivo. The levels of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and downstream factors including nuclear factor-κB, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-1ß were measured. Metabonomics detection and data mining were conducted to identify the specific metabolic sponsor of the 3 proteins. The results showed that lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, and ß-lactoglobulin protected neurons from cerebral I/R injury by increasing the level of bopindolol and subsequently inhibiting the TLR4-related pathway to different degrees; ß-lactoglobulin had the strongest activity of the 3 proteins. In summary, this study is the first to investigate and compare the protective effects of lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, and ß-lactoglobulin in a cerebral stroke model. The results implicate TLR4 as a novel target of the 3 bioactive proteins to prevent cerebral I/R injury.


Assuntos
Lactalbumina/uso terapêutico , Lactoferrina/uso terapêutico , Lactoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Animais , Glucose/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Lactalbumina/metabolismo , Lactoferrina/metabolismo , Lactoglobulinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Células PC12 , Ratos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
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