Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.676
Filtrar
1.
Molecules ; 25(20)2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066442

RESUMO

The activation of NOD-, LRR-, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and/or its components is associated with the physio-pathogenesis of many respiratory diseases including asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), SARS Cov-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), and in several autoimmune diseases. Hibiscus noldeae Baker f. has been widely reported to be traditionally used in the treatment of different ailments, some of which are of inflammatory background such as asthma, wounds, headache, etc. However, the claims have not been supported by evidence at the molecular and functional levels. Here, we report on the bio-guided fractionation of H. noldeae and assessment of the inhibitory properties of some fractions and purified compounds on NLRP3 inflammasome and Interleukin 6 (IL-6). The activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome was determined by detecting the activity of caspase-1 and the production of Interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ATP-stimulated Tamm-Horsfall Protein 1 (THP-1) macrophages, while the production of IL-6 was studied in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. It was observed that hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of the crude extract of the aerial parts of H. noldeae, as well as caffeic acid, isoquercetin, and ER2.4 and ER2.7 fractions revealed significant inhibitory effects on Caspase-1 activities, and on IL-1ß and IL-6 production. The ER2.4 and ER2.7 fractions downregulated the production of IL-1ß and IL-6, in a similar range as the caspase-1 inhibitor AC-YVAD-CHO and the drug Dexamethasone, both used as controls, respectively. Overall, our work does provide the very first scientific based evidence for Hibiscus noldeae anti-inflammatory effects and widespread use by traditional healers in Rwanda for a variety of ailments.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Hibiscus/química , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7
2.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 39(3): 235-245, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865915

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an intractable ailment, in which may chronic inflammations/ulcerations may develop in the mucosal lining of the colon with multiple recurrences. Various drugs such as steroids, immunosuppressants, and antibiotics are extensively used to treat UC. The patients suffer from adverse effects of these advanced drugs. So, they need a harmless therapeutic agent from natural sources. The therapeutic D-carvone has an anti-inflammatory action against the investigational colon cancer models. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of D-carvone on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) provoked colitis model in mice as follows: Group I: noncolitis healthy control mice; Group II: ulcerative colitis mice models; Group III: D-carvone (40 mg/kg) + ulcerative colitis models; Group IV: sulfasalazine (50 mg/kg) + ulcerative colitis models. On the 8th day, the experimental study was terminated and serum samples and colon tissues were processed for further analysis. The effect of D-carvone at different concentration was studied on the LPS challenged RAW 264.7 cell lines. The D-carvone (40 mg/kg) treatment maintained the colon length and decreased disease activity index (DAI) score in UC animals. The increased antioxidant enzymes status and decreased oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory markers were noted in the D-carvone (40 mg/ kg) + UC mice. Histopathological study of colon tissue of D-carvone (40 mg/kg) treated UC mice displayed less mucosal damage and improved crypt integrity and goblet cells compared with DSS only provoked mice. The im-munohistochemical expression of iNOS and COX-2 was drastically diminished in the D-carvone treated UC mice. D-carvone (40 mg/kg) treatment appreciably diminished the LPS provoked NO production and pro-inflammatory modulators in the RAW 264.7 macrophage cell lines. These findings proved that D-carvone has a potential therapeutic effect to prevent LPS induced inflammation in in vitro cells and chemically induced ulcerative colitis in vivo models.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/uso terapêutico , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite Ulcerativa/imunologia , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/imunologia , Colo/patologia , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/administração & dosagem , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Lipopolissacarídeos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008575, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment failure and resistance to the commonly used drugs remains a major obstacle for successful chemotherapy against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Since the development of novel therapeutics involves exorbitant costs, the effectiveness of the currently available antitrypanosomatid drug suramin has been investigated as an antileishmanial, specifically for VL,in vitro and in animal model experiments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL: Leishmania donovani promastigotes were treated with suramin and studies were performed to determine the extent and mode of cell mortality, cell cycle arrest and other in vitro parameters. In addition, L. donovani infected BALB/c mice were administered suramin and a host of immunological parameters determined to estimate the antileishmanial potency of the drug. Finally, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and enzymatic assays were used to probe the interaction of the drug with one of its putative targets namely parasitic phosphoglycerate kinase (LmPGK). FINDINGS: The in vitro studies revealed the potential efficacy of suramin against the Leishmania parasite. This observation was further substantiated in the in vivo murine model, which demonstrated that upon suramin administration, the Leishmania infected BALB/c mice were able to reduce the parasitic burden and also generate the host protective immunological responses. ITC and enzyme assays confirmed the binding and consequent inhibition of LmPGK due to the drug. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: All experiments affirmed the efficacy of suramin against L. donovani infection, which could possibly lead to its inclusion in the repertoire of drugs against VL.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Suramina/farmacologia , Suramina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Leishmania donovani/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fosfoglicerato Quinase/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4840, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973129

RESUMO

Immunotherapies revolutionized cancer treatment by harnessing the immune system to target cancer cells. However, most patients are resistant to immunotherapies and the mechanisms underlying this resistant is still poorly understood. Here, we report that overexpression of BMP7, a member of the TGFB superfamily, represents a mechanism for resistance to anti-PD1 therapy in preclinical models and in patients with disease progression while on immunotherapies. BMP7 secreted by tumor cells acts on macrophages and CD4+ T cells in the tumor microenvironment, inhibiting MAPK14 expression and impairing pro-inflammatory responses. Knockdown of BMP7 or its neutralization via follistatin in combination with anti-PD1 re-sensitizes resistant tumors to immunotherapies. Thus, we identify the BMP7 signaling pathway as a potential immunotherapeutic target in cancer.


Assuntos
Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 7/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 7/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Folistatina/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7 , Proteína Smad1/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(4): 573-579, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on osteoclasts at different stages of differentiation. METHODS: Raw264.7 cells cultured in vitro were induced for osteoclastogenesis using RANKL, and the stages of differentiation of the osteoclasts were determined with TRAP staining. The cells were then randomly divided into control group, early-stage AGEs intervention group and late-stage AGEs intervention group. The viability of the cells after AGEs treatment was assessed using CCK-8 method. The cells were examined after the induction for osteoclastogenesis using TRAP staining, and the expression levels of RANK, NFATC-1, TRAF-6, TRAP and CTSK mRNAs were tested with RT-PCR; the expressions of CTSK and RANK proteins were detected using Western boltting. RESULTS: We defined the initial 3 days of induction as the early stage of differentiation and the time beyond 3 days as the late stage of differentiation of Raw264.7 cells. Intervention with AGEs at 100 mg/L produced no significant effects on the viability of the cells, but AGEs suppressed the cell proliferation at a concentration exceeding 100 mg/L. The number of osteolasts in the early- and late-stage intervention groups was greater than that in the control group, but the cell count differed significantly only between the early-stage intervention group and control group (P < 0.05). The gene expressions of RANK, NFATC-1, TRAF-6, TRAP and CTSK all increased after the application of AGEs in both the early and late stages of differentiation, but the changes were significant only in the early-stage intervention group (P < 0.05). The changes in CTSK and RANK protein expressions were consistent with their mRNA expressions. CONCLUSIONS: AGEs can affect the differentiation of osteoclasts differently when applied at different stages, and intervention with AGEs at the early stage produces stronger effect to promote osteoclast differentiation than its application at a late stage.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea , Osteoclastos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Camundongos , Ligante RANK , Células RAW 264.7 , Receptor Ativador de Fator Nuclear kappa-B
6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 6183-6200, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922001

RESUMO

Purpose: Diethylaminoethyl-chitosan (DEAE-CH) is a derivative with excellent potential as a delivery vector for gene therapy applications. The aim of this study is to evaluate its toxicological profile for potential future clinical applications. Methods: An endotoxin-free chitosan (CH) modified with DEAE, folic acid (FA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used to complex small interfering RNA (siRNA) and form nanoparticles (DEAE12-CH-PEG-FA2/siRNA). Based on the guidelines from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), and the Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL), we evaluated the effects of the interaction between these nanoparticles and blood components. In vitro screening assays such as hemolysis, hemagglutination, complement activation, platelet aggregation, coagulation times, cytokine production, and reactive species, such as nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), were performed on erythrocytes, plasma, platelets, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and Raw 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, MTS and LDH assays on Raw 264.7 macrophages, PBMC and MG-63 cells were performed. Results: Our results show that a targeted theoretical plasma concentration (TPC) of DEAE12-CH-PEG-FA2/siRNA nanoparticles falls within the guidelines' thresholds: <1% hemolysis, 2.9% platelet aggregation, no complement activation, and no effect on coagulation times. ROS and NO production levels were comparable to controls. Cytokine secretion (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-10) was not affected by nanoparticles except for IL-1ß and IL-8. Nanoparticles showed a slight agglutination. Cell viability was >70% for TPC in all cell types, although LDH levels were statistically significant in Raw 264.7 macrophages and PBMC after 24 and 48 h of incubation. Conclusion: These DEAE12-CH-PEG-FA2/siRNA nanoparticles fulfill the existing ISO, ASTM and NCL guidelines' threshold criteria, and their low toxicity and blood biocompatibility warrant further investigation for potential clinical applications.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Terapia Genética , Nanopartículas/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polímeros/química , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade
7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 6385-6399, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922007

RESUMO

Purpose: The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) presents a formidable obstacle that hampers the delivery of various nanopreparations to tumors. Therefore, there is an urgent need to improve the off-MPS targeting ability of nanomedicines. In the present study, we present a novel preconditioning strategy to substantially increase the circulation times and tumor targeting of nanoparticles by regulating nanocarrier-MPS interactions. Methods: In vitro, the effect of different vacuolar H+-ATPase inhibitors on macrophage uptake of targeted or nontargeted lipid vesicles was evaluated. Specifically, the clinically approved proton-pump inhibitor esomeprazole (ESO) was selected as a preconditioning agent. Then, we further investigated the blocking effect of ESO on the macrophage endocytosis of nanocarriers. In vivo, ESO was first intravenously administered into A549-tumor-bearing nude mice, and 24 h later, the c(RGDm7)-modified vesicles co-loaded with doxorubicin and gefitinib were intravenously injected. Results: In vitro, ESO was found to reduce the interactions between macrophages and c(RGDm7)-modified vesicles by interfering with the latter's lysosomal trafficking. Studies conducted in vivo confirmed that ESO pretreatment greatly decreased the liver and spleen distribution of the targeted vesicles, enhanced their tumor accumulation, and improved the therapeutic outcome of the drug-loaded nanomedicines. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that ESO can regulate the nanoparticle-MPS interaction, which provides a feasible option for enhancing the off-MPS targeting of nanomedicines.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/química , Esomeprazol/farmacologia , Sistema Fagocitário Mononuclear/citologia , Nanopartículas/química , Células A549 , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Transporte Biológico , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Endocitose , Esomeprazol/farmacocinética , Esomeprazol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Distribuição Tecidual/efeitos dos fármacos , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo
8.
Gene ; 762: 145042, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Inhibitory effect of allicin with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity on A. fumigatus and the regulation mechanism of inflammation and autophagy in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: The corresponding concentration of allicin was prepared according to the needs of the experiment. In vitro, 2 ml 5 × 104 of fungal spores suspension was added to the 6-well plate per hole, and different final concentrations of allicin (1 µl/ml, 2.5 µl/ml, 5 µl/ml, 10 µl/ml, 20 µl/ml, 30 µl/ml) were added. The fungal spores were stained by fluorescent dye SYTO 9 (green) every day, and the spore germination inhibition was detected by flow cytometry in different PH. RAW264.7 cells were cultured and stimulated by A. fumigatus spores for 3 h, then allicin solution was added. Then some cells were stained with ROS probe (green) and hochest33342 (blue). The effect of allicin on ROS was observed by fluorescence microscope. The other part of cells extracted protein from cell lysate and detected the effect of allicin on inflammatory factors and autophagy by Western-blotting. The green and red spots of RAW264.7 cells stably transfected with GFP-RFP-LC3 were observed by fluorescence microscopy. In vivo, A. fumigatus spore was injected intratracheally into mice, then allicin was injected intravenously at a concentration of 5 mg/kg/day for 7 consecutive days. The survival status, pulmonary fungal load and weight of mice was recorded continuously for 30 days and detected the changes of lung by pathological examination and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: In vitro, allicin significantly inhibited the spore germination of A. fumigatus within 24 h in a dose-dependent manner and it had a stable inhibition on the spore germination of A. fumigatus in acidic environment. Cell experiments showed that allicin inhibited intracellular spore germination by inhibiting ROS production, inflammation and autophagy. In the animal experiment, the survival rate and body weight of allicin injection group were higher than that of non injection group, while the spore load of lung was lower than that of non injection group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These results support that allicin reduces inflammation and autophagy resistance to A. fumigatus infection, It also provides a possible treatment for Aspergillus infectious diseases, i.e. early anti-inflammation, antibiotics or drugs that inhibit excessive autophagy.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Aspergilose/tratamento farmacológico , Autofagia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Sulfínicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Aspergillus fumigatus/patogenicidade , Aspergillus fumigatus/fisiologia , Feminino , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Esporos Fúngicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Sulfínicos/farmacologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237888, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813716

RESUMO

Norovirus, the leading cause of non-bacterial food poisoning, is responsible for several outbreaks associated with bivalves and ready-to-eat food products worldwide. As norovirus is resistant to alcohol, which is commonly used in food manufacturing processes, sodium hypochlorite is used for its inactivation. However, sodium hypochlorite has two disadvantages: it cannot be added to foods, and its effect is significantly reduced in the presence of organic compounds. Thus, a novel disinfectant against norovirus is urgently required for food hygiene. Thermally denatured egg white lysozyme inactivates norovirus; however, the optimal inactivating conditions and the underlying mechanism are unclear. In the present study, the inactivating mechanism of heat-denatured lysozyme against norovirus was analyzed using murine norovirus strain 1 (MNV-1). We found that the inactivating effect was enhanced by adjusting the pH of the lysozyme solution before thermal denaturation to 6.5 or higher. The reaction of heat-denatured lysozyme and MNV-1 was irreversible, and norovirus was completely inactivated after exposure to heat-denatured lysozyme. Furthermore, it was found that lysozyme residues 5-39 contributed to the norovirus-inactivating effect. Notably, the hydrophobicity and positive charges in this region contributed to the norovirus-inactivating effect, as evidenced by the norovirus inactivation test using mutated residues 5-39. These findings are novel and highlight the possible application of heat-denatured lysozyme as a disinfectant against norovirus in a wide range of food processes.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Muramidase/metabolismo , Norovirus/fisiologia , Desnaturação Proteica , Inativação de Vírus , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Macrófagos/virologia , Camundongos , Muramidase/química , Peptídeos/química , Domínios Proteicos , Células RAW 264.7
10.
Life Sci ; 258: 118176, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771556

RESUMO

AIMS: We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of 3ß-hydroxycholest-5-en-7-one from Hippocampus trimaculatus leach and provided a theoretical basis for identifying its therapeutic targets. MAIN METHODS: Small-RNA libraries were constructed for untreated control RAW 264.7 cells and cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1.0 µg/mL) or 10 µM 3ß-hydroxycholest-5-en-7-one +1.0 µg/mL LPS. We constructed and tested a miR-98-5p-interfering lentivirus to evaluate the role of miR-98-5p in the 3ß-hydroxycholest-5-en-7-one-dependent regulation of inflammatory responses in LPS-induced macrophage and murine inflammation models. The small-RNA libraries were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing. KEY FINDINGS: Among the differentially expressed microRNAs, miR-98-5p showed the most significant difference. Bioinformatics tools were used to identify the potential regulatory targets of miR-98-5p, which were tested using dual-luciferase reporter assays. Our results demonstrated that 3ß-hydroxycholest-5-en-7-one exerted an anti-inflammatory effect via miR-98-5p, which negatively regulated the expression of its target gene TNFAIP3. The results indicate that miR-98-5p interference and 3ß-hydroxycholest-5-en-7-one treatment significantly upregulated the low TNFAIP3 expression induced by LPS stimulation, thereby inhibiting TRAF6, RIP, NF-κB, IL-1ß, and TNF-α secretion. SIGNIFICANCE: 3ß-Hydroxycholest-5-en-7-one alleviates inflammation by downregulating miR-98-5p and upregulating TNFAIP3, thereby blocking NF-κB pathway activation. These results reveal the specific anti-inflammatory mechanism of 3ß-hydroxycholest-5-en-7-one, providing a foundation for developing new drugs and identifying drug targets.


Assuntos
Colestenonas/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Inflamação/patologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Smegmamorpha/metabolismo , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Animais , Colestenonas/química , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Reporter , Inflamação/genética , Lentivirus/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Luciferases/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , MicroRNAs/genética , Células RAW 264.7 , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0233818, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857777

RESUMO

Macrophages serve as a first line of defense against infection with the facultative intracellular pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn). However, the ability of these innate phagocytic cells to destroy ingested Cn is strongly influenced by polarization state with classically (M1) activated macrophages better able to control cryptococcal infections than alternatively (M2) activated cells. While earlier studies have demonstrated that intracellular Cn minimally affects the expression of M1 and M2 markers, the impact on the broader transcriptome associated with these states remains unclear. To investigate this, an in vitro cell culture model of intracellular infection together with RNA sequencing-based transcriptome profiling was used to measure the impact of Cn infection on gene expression in both polarization states. The gene expression profile of both M1 and M2 cells was extensively altered to become more like naive (M0) macrophages. Gene ontology analysis suggested that this involved changes in the activity of the Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT), p53, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways. Analyses of the principle polarization markers at the protein-level also revealed discrepancies between the RNA- and protein-level responses. In contrast to earlier studies, intracellular Cn was found to increase protein levels of the M1 marker iNos. In addition, common gene expression changes were identified that occurred post-Cn infection, independent of polarization state. This included upregulation of the transcriptional co-regulator Cited1, which was also apparent at the protein level in M1-polarized macrophages. These changes constitute a transcriptional signature of macrophage Cn infection and provide new insights into how Cn impacts gene expression and the phenotype of host phagocytes.


Assuntos
Cryptococcus neoformans/patogenicidade , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Cryptococcus neoformans/imunologia , Ontologia Genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Imunidade Inata/genética , Ativação de Macrófagos/genética , Ativação de Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Transativadores/genética , Transativadores/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111186, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853868

RESUMO

Exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality. In this context, alveolar macrophages exhibit proinflammatory and oxidative responses as a result of the clearance of particles, thus contributing to lung injury. However, the mechanisms linking these pathways are not completely clarified. Therefore, the oxinflammation phenomenon was studied in RAW 264.7 macrophages exposed to Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA), a PM surrogate rich in transition metals. While cell viability was not compromised under the experimental conditions, a proinflammatory phenotype was observed in cells incubated with ROFA 100 µg/mL, characterized by increased levels of TNF-α and NO production, together with PM uptake. This inflammatory response seems to precede alterations in redox metabolism, characterized by augmented levels of H2O2, diminished GSH/GSSG ratio, and increased SOD activity. This scenario resulted in increased oxidative damage to phospholipids. Moreover, alterations in mitochondrial respiration were observed following ROFA incubation, such as diminished coupling efficiency and spare respiratory capacity, together with augmented proton leak. These findings were accompanied by a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. Finally, NADPH oxidase (NOX) and mitochondria were identified as the main sources of superoxide anion () in our model. These results indicate that PM exposure induces direct activation of macrophages, leading to inflammation and increased reactive oxygen species production through NOX and mitochondria, which impairs antioxidant defense and may cause mitochondrial dysfunction.


Assuntos
Macrófagos Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cinza de Carvão/toxicidade , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Inflamação , Macrófagos Alveolares/imunologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/imunologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
13.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(9): 1139-1143, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788524

RESUMO

We compared the cytotoxic effects and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production induced by 13 trans-octadecenoic acid positional isomers (trans-4-C18:1 to trans-16-C18:1) in RAW264.7 cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. No significant differences were observed in the cytotoxic effects among the 13 trans-C18:1 positional isomers and control on RAW264.7 cells. TNF-α production significantly decreased by treatment of trans-4-C18:1 as compared to control, but no significant differences in TNF-α production were observed among other trans-C18:1 positional isomers and control. These results suggest that the double bond position in trans-C18:1 may affect TNF-α production in cells.


Assuntos
Células RAW 264.7/metabolismo , Ácidos Esteáricos/toxicidade , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Animais , Isomerismo , Camundongos , Ácidos Esteáricos/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
14.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5083-5095, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764938

RESUMO

Background: ß-glucans are chiral polysaccharides with well-defined immunological properties and supramolecular wrapping ability of its chiral feature. However, the exploitation of chiral properties of these nanoparticles in drug delivery systems was seldom conducted. Methods: ß-glucan molecules with different chain lengths were extracted from yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and thereafter modified. In a conformation transition process, these ß-glucan molecules were then self-assembled with anti-cancer drug doxorubicin into nanoparticles to construct drug delivery systems. The chiral interactions between the drug and carriers were revealed by circular dichroism spectra, ultraviolet and visible spectrum, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscope. The immune-potentiation properties of modified ß-glucan nanoparticles were evaluated by analysis of the mRNA expression in RAW264.7 cell model. Further, the antitumor efficacy of the nanoparticles against the human breast cancer were studied in MCF-7 cell model by cellular uptake and cytotoxicity experiments. Results: ß-glucan nanoparticles can activate macrophages to produce immune enhancing cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ). A special chirality of the carriers in diameter of 50~160 nm can also associate with higher drug loading ability of 13.9% ~38.2% and pH-sensitive release with a change of pH from 7.4 to 5.0. Cellular uptake and cytotoxicity experiments also prove that the chiral-active ß-glucan nanoparticles can be used in anti-cancer nanomedicine. Conclusion: This work demonstrates that ß-glucans nanoparticles with special chiral feature which leading to strong immunopotentiation ability and high drug loading efficiency can be developed as a novel type of nanomedicine for anti-cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , beta-Glucanas/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Dicroísmo Circular , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Estereoisomerismo , beta-Glucanas/química
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237017, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756588

RESUMO

Procyandin A2 (PCA2) is a polyphenolic compound which is isolated from grape seeds. It has been reported that PCA2 exhibits antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, but its molecular mechanism is still poorly understood. This study tests the hypothesis that PCA2 suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and oxidative stress through targeting the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathways in RAW264.7 cells. PCA2 (20, 40, 80 µM) exhibited no significant cytotoxicity in RAW264.7 cells and showed an inhibitory effect on an LPS-induced nitrite level. Pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were suppressed by PCA2 with a concentration range of 0-80 µM. The mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were inhibited by PCA2 (80 µM). The hallmark-protein expression of the NF-κB (p-IKKα/ß, p-IκBα, and p-p65) and MAPK (p-p38, p-JNK, and p-ERK) pathways were decreased by PCA2 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, immunofluorescence results indicated that PCA2 (80 µM) promoted the translocation of NF-κB/p65 from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. PCA2 upregulated the expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 and downregulated the expression of Keap-1. Simultaneously, PCA2 (80 µM) reversed LPS-induced Nrf2 translocation from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. Collectively, PCA2 protect cells against the damage from inflammation and oxidative injury, which suggest a potential therapeutic strategy for inflammatory and oxidative stress through targeting NF-κB, MAPK, and Nrf2 pathways in RAW264.7 cells.


Assuntos
Catequina/metabolismo , Catequina/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234916, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614882

RESUMO

A great deal of attention has been focused on nanoparticles for cancer therapy, with the promise of tumor-selective delivery. However, despite intense work in the field over many years, the biggest obstacle to this vision remains extremely low delivery efficiency of nanoparticles into tumors. Due to the cost, time, and impact on the animals for in vivo studies, the nanoparticle field predominantly uses cellular uptake assays as a proxy to predict in vivo outcomes. Extensive research has focused on decreasing macrophage uptake in vitro as a proxy to delay nanoparticle accumulation in the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS), mainly the liver and spleen, and thereby increase tumor accumulation. We have recently reported novel synthetic methods employing small molecule crosslinkers for the controlled assembly of small nanoparticles into larger aggregates and found that these nanoaggregates had remarkably high surface coverage and low cell uptake, even in macrophages. We further found that this extremely low cellular uptake could be recapitulated on solid gold nanoparticles by densely coating their surface with small molecules. Here we report our studies on the biodistribution and clearance of these materials in comparison to more conventional PEGylated gold nanoparticles. It was expected that the remarkably low macrophage uptake in vitro would translate to extended blood circulation time in vivo, but instead we found no correlation between either surface coverage or in vitro macrophage cell uptake and in vivo blood circulation. Gold nanoaggregates accumulate more rapidly and to a higher level in the liver compared to control gold nanoparticles. The lack of correlation between in vitro macrophage uptake and in vivo blood circulation suggests that the field must find other in vitro assays to use as a primary proxy for in vivo outcomes or use direct in vivo experimentation as a primary assay.


Assuntos
Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/farmacocinética , Ouro/farmacocinética , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Polietilenoglicóis , Animais , Endocitose , Jejum/metabolismo , Feminino , Ouro/administração & dosagem , Ouro/sangue , Meia-Vida , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/classificação , Camundongos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Projetos Piloto , Células RAW 264.7 , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Baço/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3384, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636379

RESUMO

Targeting single mediators has failed to reduce the mortality of sepsis. We developed a telodendrimer (TD) nanotrap (NT) to capture various biomolecules via multivalent, hybrid and synergistic interactions. Here, we report that the immobilization of TD-NTs in size-exclusive hydrogel resins simultaneously adsorbs septic molecules, e.g. lipopolysaccharides (LPS), cytokines and damage- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs/PAMPs) from blood with high efficiency (92-99%). Distinct surface charges displayed on the majority of pro-inflammatory cytokines (negative) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (positive) allow for the selective capture via TD NTs with different charge moieties. The efficacy of NT therapies in murine sepsis is both time-dependent and charge-dependent. The combination of the optimized NT therapy with a moderate antibiotic treatment results in a 100% survival in severe septic mice by controlling both infection and hyperinflammation, whereas survival are only 50-60% with the individual therapies. Cytokine analysis, inflammatory gene activation and tissue histopathology strongly support the survival benefits of treatments.


Assuntos
Dendrímeros/química , Inflamação/terapia , Nanopartículas/química , Sepse/terapia , Adsorção , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrogéis , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanomedicina , Padrões Moleculares Associados a Patógenos , Células RAW 264.7
18.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4701-4706, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Bovine mastitis is caused by the invasion and propagation of pathogenic microorganisms into the udder and mammary gland tissues of cattle. In this study, the therapeutic effect of a low-molecular-weight whey protein (LMW-WP) on bovine mastitis was evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: LMW-WP was orally, intraperitoneally, and vaginally administered to bovine with mastitis. The number of somatic cells in milk was measured 24 h before the administration of LMW-WP. The effect of LMW-WP on cytokine production was measured with a microarray that evaluates the expression of cytokines. RESULTS: In the group that received 1,000 mg intraperitoneally, the somatic cell count was reduced to less than 400,000 at the shipment standard value in three of the four udders, indicating 75% efficacy. The group that received 1,000 mg by vaginal administration showed 67% efficacy. It was confirmed that LMW-WP increased the production of cytokines such as IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-12, MCP-1, and VEGF in mouse macrophage cells, but it did not show any antibacterial activity. CONCLUSION: LMW-WP may be an effective therapeutic agent for bovine mastitis.


Assuntos
Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mastite Bovina/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Contagem de Células/métodos , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Camundongos , Leite/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7
19.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4711-4717, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuous oral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhances the phagocytic ability of macrophages, which is useful for preventing various diseases. Here, we attempted to create an in vitro model of continuous administration of LPS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RAW264.7 cells were stimulated with LPS three times every 24 h (repeated stimulation), and phagocytic ability and inflammatory cytokine [interleukin-6 (IL6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)] production were measured. RESULTS: The phagocytic ability was increased by a single stimulation with LPS and was maintained by repeated stimulation. IL6 production increased with a single stimulation with LPS; however, IL6 production by repeated stimulation with LPS was comparable to that of non-stimulation with LPS. On the other hand, the amount of TNFα was significantly increased by single and repeated stimulation with LPS. CONCLUSION: Repeated stimulation with LPS in RAW264.7 cells triggered a phenotype that was similar to that of macrophages after continuous oral administration of LPS. This suggests that this study model may reproduce the enhancement of macrophage phagocytosis, an effect afforded by continuous oral administration of LPS.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
20.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4125-4138, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606668

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the effect and mechanism of macrophage membrane-coated nanoparticles (M-NPs) on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/RI) caused by orthotopic liver transplantation. In addition, the advantages of TLR4+/M-NPs compared to M-NPs are discussed. Materials and Methods: We prepared biomimetic M-NPs and identified their characteristics. M-NPs were injected into an SD rat model of orthotopic liver transplantation, and the anti-inflammatory and anti-I/RI activities of M-NPs were studied in vivo and in vitro. In addition, we overexpressed macrophage membrane Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in vitro and prepared TLR4+/M-NPs. Then, we assessed the characteristics and advantages of TLR4+/M-NPs. Results: The M-NPs neutralized endotoxin, inhibited the overactivation of Kupffer cells (KCs) and suppressed the secretion of inflammatory factors by inhibiting the endotoxin-mediated TLR4/MyD88/IRAK1/NF-κB signaling pathway. In an orthotopic liver transplantation model in SD rats, M-NPs showed significant therapeutic efficacy by neutralizing endotoxin and suppressing the secretion of inflammatory factors. Moreover, overexpression of TLR4 on the macrophage membrane by using a TLR4+-plasmid in vitro effectively reduced the amount of M-NPs needed to neutralize an equivalent dose of endotoxin, reducing the potential risks of NP overuse. Conclusion: This study indicates that M-NPs can effectively alleviate I/RI induced by liver transplantation.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/terapia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Fluorescência , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA