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1.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 27(5): 1469-1475, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607300

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of LNK gene silencing and overexpression on the expression of STAT3 gene in human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1). METHODS: THP-1 cells were cultured, and the lentivirus was used as a vector to silence and overexpres the LNK gene stably. After transfection for 72 hours, the GFP expression levels were observed by inverted fluorescence microscopy. The lentiviral transfection efficiencies were detected by flow cytometry. The effects of LNK silencing and overexpression were confirmed, and the expression of STAT3 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. The protein levels of LNK and STAT3 were detected by Western blotting. RESULTS: The GFP expression level of THP-1 cells reached more than 85% after transfection with lentivirus for 72 hours, and the transfection efficiency of cells was above 99%. mRNA expressions levels of LNK and STAT3 in LNK silencing group were signifycantly lower than those in control group, while LNK and STAT3 mRNA levels in the LNK overexpression group was significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05). The protein expression levels of LNK and STAT3 in LNK silencing group were significantly lower than those in control group, while that in LNK overexpression group was significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The THP-1 cell line with LNK gene silencing and overexpression has been successfully established. The LNK gene silencing resulted in decrease of STAT3 expression; LNK gene overexpression and leads to inereases of STAT3 expression indicating that LNK participates in the regulation of STAT3.


Assuntos
Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inativação Gênica , Vetores Genéticos , Humanos , Lentivirus , Proteínas , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Células THP-1 , Transfecção
2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 7861-7878, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576128

RESUMO

Background and purpose: Nanogels (NGs) are promising drug delivery tools but are typically limited to hydrophilic drugs. Many potential new drugs are hydrophobic. Our study systematically investigates amphiphilic NGs with varying hydrophobicity, but similar colloidal features to ensure comparability. The amphiphilic NGs used in this experiment consist of a hydrophilic polymer network with randomly distributed hydrophobic groups. For the synthesis we used a new synthetic platform approach. Their amphiphilic character allows the encapsulation of hydrophobic drugs. Importantly, the hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance determines drug loading and biological interactions. In particular, protein adsorption to NG surfaces is dependent on hydrophobicity and critically determines circulation time. Our study investigates how network hydrophobicity influences protein binding, biocompatibility and cellular uptake. Methods: Biocompatibility of the NGs was examined by WST-1 assay in monocytic-like THP-1 cells. Serum protein corona formation was investigated using dynamic light scattering and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteins were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, cellular uptake was analyzed via flow cytometry. Results: All NGs were highly biocompatible. The protein binding patterns for the two most hydrophobic NGs were very similar to each other but clearly different from the hydrophilic ones. Overall, protein binding was increased with increasing hydrophobicity, resulting in increased cellular uptake. Conclusion: Our study supports the establishment of structure-property relationships and contributes to the accurate balance between maximum loading capacity with low protein binding, optimal biological half-life and good biocompatibility. This is an important step to derive design principles of amphiphilic NGs to be applied as drug delivery vehicles.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Endocitose , Géis/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Nanopartículas/química , Coroa de Proteína/química , Tensoativos/química , Adsorção , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Células THP-1
3.
Life Sci ; 235: 116817, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476309

RESUMO

AIMS: In the tumor microenvironment, dysregulated immune cells could promote tumor progression, invasion and metastasis, by establishing a symbiotic relationship with cancer cells. A pivotal role is played by monocyte recruitment and induction of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), which provide immunosuppression and tumorigenesis. The effect of nemorosone, an antiproliferative phytocomponent present in Cuban Propolis, on TAM-induced tumor progression remains to be elucidated. Here we investigated the symbiotic relationship between monocytic leukemia THP-1 and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells, and the role of nemorosone in preventing TAM-induced tumor growth. MAIN METHODS: Macrophage differentiation induced by HepG2-conditioned medium was assessed by flow cytometry, analysis of secreted molecules and cytokine expression. The effect of nemorosone and/or conditioned THP-1-medium on HepG2 proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay, colony formation, cells cycle and migration assays. KEY FINDINGS: HepG2 cells induced THP-1 recruitment and differentiation to macrophages. When compared with control THP-1 cells, differentiated THP-1 showed a significant increase of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression (P < 0.01), and slightly induced HepG2 cells growth. This effect was counteracted by nemorosone, which also significantly inhibited colony formation (P < 0.01) and migratory capacity of HepG2 cells, driving a high percentage of cells (80%) to the G0/G1 phase. SIGNIFICANCE: HepG2-conditioned medium is a suitable model for THP-1 modulation and differentiation. Moreover, nemorosone significantly inhibits the proliferation of HepG2 cells, both in presence and absence of the soluble factors secreted by TAMs. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of this natural compound in the HCC-TAM relationship.


Assuntos
Benzofenonas/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Células THP-1
4.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 27(4): 1013-1019, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of silencing LNK gene on the expression of EPO and EPOR in acute myeloid leukemia cells (THP-1). METHODS: THP-1 cells were cultured. The lentivirus was used as a vector to silence the LNK gene stably. After 72 hours of infection, GFP expression level was detected by the fluorescent inverted microscopy. The lentiviral Infection efficiencies were monitored by flow cytometry. The LNK silencing effect was confirmed. The mRNA expressions of EPO and EPOR were detected by RT-PCR. The protein levels of LNK, EPO and EPOR were detected by Western blot. RESULTS: At the time-point of 72 hours after lentivirus infection, the expression level of GFP was above 85% detected by fluorescent inverted microscopy. The infection efficiency was above 99% by flow cytometry. mRNA expressions of LNK, EPO and EPOR in LNK silencing group were signifycantly lower than those in control group (P<0.05). The protein levels of LNK, EPO and EPOR in LNK silencing group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: THP-1 cell line of LNK gene silencing has been successfully established,the LNK gene has been silenced, the expression of EPO and EPOR decrease, indicating that LNK may participate in the regulation of EPO and EPOR.


Assuntos
Proteínas/genética , Western Blotting , Eritropoetina , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Receptores da Eritropoetina , Células THP-1
5.
Hematol Oncol ; 37(4): 474-482, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325181

RESUMO

LncRNAs play critical roles in various pathophysiological and biological processes, such as protein translation, RNA splicing, and epigenetic modification. Indeed, abundant evidences demonstrated that lncRNA act as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) to participate in tumorigenesis. However, little is known about the underlying function of lncRNA in nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway 1 (LINP1) in pediatric and adolescent acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The expression of LINP1 was examined in AML patient samples by qRT-PCR. Cell proliferation was examined by CCK-8 and Edu assays. ß-Galactosidase senescence assay, mGlucose uptake assay, lactate production assay, and Gene Ontology (GO) analysis were performed for functional analysis. We found that LINP1 was significantly overexpressed in AML patients at diagnosis, whereas downregulated after complete remission (CR). Furthermore, knockdown of LINP1 expression remarkably suppressed glucose uptake and AML cell maintenance. Mechanistically, LINP1 was found to inhibit the glucose metabolism by suppressing the expression of HNF4a. Both LINP1 and HNF4a knockdown reduced the expression levels of AMPK phosphorylation and WNT5A, indicating for the first time that LINP1 strengthened the HNF4a-AMPK/WNT5A signaling pathway involved in cell glucose metabolism modulation and AML cell survival. Taken together, our results indicated that LINP1 promotes the malignant phenotype of AML cells and stimulates glucose metabolism, which can be regarded as a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target for AML.


Assuntos
Adenilato Quinase/fisiologia , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/fisiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/fisiologia , RNA Neoplásico/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Proteína Wnt-5a/fisiologia , Adolescente , Animais , Medula Óssea/patologia , Divisão Celular , Criança , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Ontologia Genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/biossíntese , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Transplante de Neoplasias , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA Longo não Codificante/biossíntese , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Neoplásico/biossíntese , RNA Neoplásico/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Distribuição Aleatória , Indução de Remissão , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Células THP-1
6.
Eur J Med Chem ; 179: 233-245, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255924

RESUMO

A series of S-allyl-l-cysteine (SAC) with garlic acid conjugates as anti-inflammatory agents were designed and synthesized. Among the 40 tested compounds, SMU-8c exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity to Pam3CSK4-induced nitric oxide (NO) in RAW264.7 macrophages with IC50 of 22.54 ±â€¯2.60 µM. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) study suggested that the esterified carboxyl group, carbon chain extension and methoxylation phenol hydroxy could improve the anti-inflammatory efficacy. Preliminary anti-inflammatory mechanism studies showed that SMU-8c significantly down-regulated the levels of Pam3CSK4 triggered TNF-α cytokine in human THP-1 cells, mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages, as well as in ex-vivo human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with no influence on cell viability. SMU-8c specifically blocked the Pam3CSK4 ignited secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) signaling with no influence to Poly I:C or LPS triggered TLR3 or TLR4 signaling. Moreover, SMU-8c suppressed TLR2 in HEK-Blue hTLR2 cells and inhibited the formation of TLR1-TLR2, and TLR2-TLR6 complex in human PBMC. In summary, SMU-8c inhibited the TLR2 signaling pathway to down-regulate the inflammation cytokines, such as NO, SEAP and TNF-α, to realize its anti-inflammatory activity.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Cisteína/análogos & derivados , Alho/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/síntese química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Cisteína/química , Cisteína/farmacologia , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocinas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Lipopeptídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopeptídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Células RAW 264.7 , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células THP-1
7.
Eur J Med Chem ; 179: 744-752, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284084

RESUMO

The endosomal Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) recognizes single-stranded RNA and initiates early inflammatory responses. Despite the importance of endosomal TLRs for human host defense against microbial pathogens, extensive activation may contribute to autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In contrast to the recent progress made in the development of modulators of plasma membrane-bound TLRs, little is known about endosomal TLR modulation and very few TLR8 inhibitors have been reported. In this study, we discovered and validated novel small-molecule TLR8 inhibitors. Fourteen potential TLR8 modulators were experimentally validated in HEK293T cells stably overexpressing human TLR8 and THP-1 macrophages. Five compounds inhibited TLR8-mediated signaling, representing a hit rate of 36%. The three most potent compounds neither cause cellular toxicity nor inhibition of TLR signaling induced by other receptor subtypes. Conclusively, we experimentally confirm novel and selective, pyrimidine-based TLR8 inhibitors with low cytotoxicity that are relevant candidates for lead optimization and further mechanistic studies.


Assuntos
Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Receptor 8 Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Pirimidinas/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células THP-1 , Receptor 8 Toll-Like/metabolismo
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(11): 2317-2323, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359658

RESUMO

This paper was mainly to discuss the potential role and mechanism of Lianhua Qingwen Capsules(LHQW) in inhibiting pathological inflammation in the model of acute lung injury caused by bacterial infection. For in vitro study, the mRNA expression of MCP-1 in RAW264.7 cells and THP-1 cells, the content of MCP-1 in cell supernatant, as well as the effect of LHQW on chemotaxis of macrophages were detected. For in vivo study, mice were randomly divided into 7 groups, including normal group, model group(LPS 5 mg·kg~(-1)), LHQW 300, 600 and 1 200 mg·kg~(-1)(low, middle and high dose) groups, dexamethasone 5 mg·kg~(-1) group and penicillin-streptomycin group. Then, the anal temperature was detected two hours later. Dry weight and wet weight of lung tissues in mice were determined; TNF-α and MCP-1 levels in alveolar lavage fluid and MCP-1 in serum were detected. In addition, the infiltration of alveolar macrophages was also observed and the infiltration count of alveolar macrophages was measured by CCK-8 method. HE staining was also used to observe the inflammatory infiltration of lung tissues in mice. Both of the in vitro and in vivo data consistently have confirmed that: by down-regulating the expression of MCP-1, LHWQ could efficiently decrease the chemotaxis of monocytes toward the pulmonary infection foci, thus blocking the disease development in ALI animal model.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Quimiotaxia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Cápsulas , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Pulmão , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Distribuição Aleatória , Células THP-1 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
9.
J Food Sci ; 84(7): 1920-1928, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264720

RESUMO

Vanillin, a kind of phenolic compound, is naturally found in food and beverage and widely used as a flavoring agent. In view of the safety and universality of vanillin, exploring the functions of vanillin on human is of great value. Thus, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated THP-1 cells were selected as the cell model to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of vanillin in this study. On the basis of the results, vanillin markedly suppressed the expression of inflammatory cytokines (that is, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-8), mediators (NO, iNOS, PGE2, and COX-2), and NLRP3 inflammasome (that is, NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1), blocked the LPS-induced activation of the NF-κB/IκBα/AP-1 signaling pathway, and activated the gene expression of the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. In addition, it was confirmed that vanillin was unable to react with LPS due to the results of quantification by HS-SPME-GC-MS. Hence, vanillin could effectively attenuate LPS-induced inflammatory response by regulating the expression of intracellular signaling pathways in THP-1 cells. It is a potent anti-inflammatory component found in food and beverage. These findings might contribute to the overall understanding of the potential health benefits of vanillin for food application. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of vanillin (VA) was evaluated by ELISA, real-time PCR, and western blot in LPS-induced THP-1 cells. The hypothesis that VA could react with LPS was excluded due to the results of quantification by HS-SPME-GC-MS. On the basis of the result, vanillin could effectively attenuate LPS-induced inflammatory response in THP-1 cells and was a potent anti-inflammatory component natural in food and beverage. These findings might contribute to the overall understanding of the potential health benefits of vanillin for food application.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Benzaldeídos/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/imunologia , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/imunologia , Células THP-1
10.
Biomed Khim ; 65(3): 214-221, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258144

RESUMO

Membrane microparticles (MP) produced upon cell activation and/or damage possess coagulation activity, i.e. ability to accelerate blood clotting. They contain on their surface phosphatidylserine (PS), a substrate for assembling coagulation enzymatic complexes, and some of them tissue factor (TF), the initiator of clotting cascade reactions. In this study coagulation properties of MP derived from erythrocytes have been investigated. These MP were obtained from donor's erythrocytes activated with ionophore A23187 as well as from outdated erythrocyte concentrates for transfusion. MP were counted by flow cytometry. Coagulation activity of MP was examined by modified plasma recalcification assay. Involvement of PS and TF in this reaction was assessed using PS blocker lactadherin and anti-TF antibodies. TF activity in MP was measured by its ability to activate factor X in a chromogenic assay. Size of MP was evaluated by dynamic light scattering. Properties of erythrocyte MP were compared with previously characterized (using the same methodological approaches) MP derived from platelets and monocytic THP-1 cells, lacking and containing TF, respectively. Erythrocyte MP accelerated plasma clotting, but less actively than MP from platelets and MP from THP-1 cells, which demonstrated maximal activity. Lactadherin completely inhibited coagulation activity of all MP. Anti-TF antibodies did not affect clotting parameters in the presence of platelet and erythrocyte MP, but slowed clotting in the presence of MP from THP-1 cells. TF activity was not detected in erythrocyte and platelet MP, unlike MP from THP-1 cells expressing active TF. MP derived from erythrocytes were smaller than MP from platelets and THP-1 cells, with average diameter about 200 nm and 400 nm respectively. Thus, MP from erythrocyte possess less ability to accelerate plasma clotting in comparison with MP from platelet and THP-1 cells. The data obtained suggest that lesser coagulation activity of erythrocyte MP in comparison with MP from THP-1 cells is due to the absence of TF in erythrocyte MP (in contrast to MP from THP-1 cells) and to their smaller size, and in comparison with MP from platelets (which as erythrocyte MP do not express TF) is due to their smaller size only.


Assuntos
Coagulação Sanguínea , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/química , Eritrócitos/química , Plaquetas/química , Humanos , Fosfatidilserinas/química , Células THP-1 , Tromboplastina/química
11.
Exp Parasitol ; 204: 107721, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan able to infect humans and it is common in pregnant women. During pregnancy and lactation, there are changes in the concentration of 17ß-estradiol (E2), progesterone (Prg), and prolactin (PRL). It is known that a proinflamatory response reduces the susceptibility to be infected, and this response may change according to hormonal impairment. Monocytes and macrophages are the main barrier against many intracellular microorganisms, due to their ability to produce cytokines. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of E2, progesterone, and PRL on the infective capacity of T. gondii, proinflamatory immune response modulation and the expression of hormonal receptors on THP-1 cell stimulated with T. gondii. METHODS: The THP-1 cells were infected with 1500 T. gondii tachyzoites, of RH strain. Stimuli were conducted with recombinant PRL (200 ng/mL), E2 (40 nM) y Prg (40 nM). MTT assays were performed to evaluate cellular viability. Western blot assays were carried out to evaluate the expression of the hormonal receptors (PRLR, ERα, and ERß). Cytokines produced were measured with a magnetic bead kit directed to 17 cytokines. RESULTS: Stimuli with E2 and Prg increased T. gondii infection in monocytes after 48 h; however, no differences in infection were observed in PRL stimulus. The E2 decreased the secretion of IL-12 and IL-1ß and PRL did not modify the production of these cytokines in THP-1 cells stimulated with T. gondii; however, both hormones increased the production of IL-10. Besides, PRL augmented the production of IL-4 and IL-13. In contrast, Prg reduced these cytokines. Our results show that T. gondii induces the expression of ERα and ERß and lowers PRLR. The hormones modify the expression of the receptors of other hormones: Prg decreases PRLR, ERß and increases ERα; E2 diminishes PRLR; and PRL decreases ERα and ERß expression. CONCLUSION: The hormones can increase T. gondii infection and could be mediating an anti-inflammatory response in THP-1 cells. T. gondii induces changes in the expression of hormonal receptors.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores da Prolactina/metabolismo , Células THP-1/metabolismo , Toxoplasma/fisiologia , Animais , Corantes , Estradiol/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Progesterona/metabolismo , Prolactina/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Células THP-1/imunologia , Células THP-1/parasitologia , Sais de Tetrazólio , Tiazóis , Toxoplasma/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(6): 498-504, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292053

RESUMO

Objective To observe the effect of selectively inhibiting STAT3 on the production of IL-8 and cell apoptosis of THP-1 cells by Stattic, and explore the underlying mechanism. Methods THP-1 cells were treated with different concentrations of Stattic ( 0, 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 µmol/L) for 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 hours. Reverse transcription PCR or real-time PCR was performed to detect the mRNA expression of IL-8, IL-6, IL-1ß and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); ELISA was used to detect the protein expression of IL-8; flow cytometry was applied to evaluate the apoptosis of THP-1 cells; and Western blot analysis was performed to detect the phosphorylation of STAT3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Reverse transcription PCR was used to test the effect of U0126 at different concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10 µmol/L) on the mRNA expression of IL-8 induced by Stattic in THP-1 cells. Results Stattic significantly up-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of IL-8 in THP-1 cells in a concentration range of 10~20 µmol/L, and induced cell apoptosis only at high concentration (15, 20 µmol/L). Treated with Stattic for 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 hours, IL-8 mRNA was significantly up-regulated, and after 6 hours, the expression of IL-8 protein and apoptosis of THP-1 cells were up-regulated in a time-dependent manner. STAT3 phosphorylation was inhibited in a time- and dose-dependent manner by Stattic. ERK phosphorylation was induced by different concentrations of Stattic in a time-dependent manner. In addition, U0126, a selective inhibitor of ERK pathway, inhibited Stattic-induced IL-8 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion Stattic, a selective STAT3 inhibitor, can induce the apoptosis and IL-8 production by activating ERK signaling pathway in THP-1 cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Óxidos S-Cíclicos/farmacologia , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular , Interleucina-8/biossíntese , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Fosforilação , Células THP-1
13.
Arch Virol ; 164(8): 2159-2164, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152250

RESUMO

Canine enteric coronaviruses (CCoVs) are important enteric pathogens of dogs. CCoVs with different variations are typically pantropic and pathogenic in dogs. In this study, we isolated a CCoV, designated HLJ-073, from a dead 6-week-old male Pekingese with gross lesions and diarrhea. Interestingly, sequence analysis suggested that HLJ-073 contained a 350-nt deletion in ORF3abc compared with reference CCoV isolates, resulting in the loss of portions of ORF3a and ORF3c and the complete loss of ORF3b. Phylogenetic analysis based on the S gene showed that HLJ-073 was more closely related to members of the FCoV II cluster than to members of the CCoV I or CCoV II cluster. Furthermore, recombination analysis suggested that HLJ-073 originated from the recombination of FCoV 79-1683 and CCoV A76, which were both isolated in the United States. Cell tropism experiments suggested that HLJ-073 could effectively replicate in canine macrophages/monocytes and human THP-1 cells. This is the first report of the isolation of strain HLJ-073 in China, and this virus has biological characteristics that are different from those of other reported CCoVs.


Assuntos
Coronavirus Canino/genética , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diarreia/virologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Células THP-1
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 284, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apoptosis plays a critical role in the embryonic development, homeostasis of immune system and host defense against intracellular microbial pathogens. Infection by the obligate intracellular pathogen Toxoplasma gondii can both inhibit and induce host cell apoptosis; however, the parasitic factors involved remain unclear. The T. gondii virulence factor ROP18 (TgROP18) has been reported to regulate host cell apoptosis; nevertheless, results for this regulation have been rarely reported or have provided contradictory findings. Human purinergic receptor 1 (P2X1) is an ATP-gated ion channel that responds to ATP stimulation and functions in cell apoptosis mediation. The precise roles of TgROP18 in T. gondii pathogenesis, and the relationship between TgROP18 and host P2X1 in host cell apoptosis are yet to be revealed. METHODS: Apoptosis rates were determined by flow cytometry (FCM) and TUNEL assay. The interaction between TgROP18 and the host P2X1 was measured by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assay. Calcium influx and mitochondrial membrane depolarization were determined by FCM after JC-1 staining. The translocation of cytochrome C (Cyt C), Bax and Bcl2 proteins, expression of the apoptotic proteins PARP and caspase activation were detected by western blotting. RESULTS: The apoptosis rates of glial or immune cells (human SF268, mouse RAW264.7 and human THP-1 cells) infected by any T. gondii strain (RH-type I, ME49-type II and VEG-type III) were significantly inhibited compared with their uninfected controls. TgROP18 inhibited ATP-induced apoptosis of SF268 with P2X1 expression, but had no effect on RAW264.7 or THP-1 cells without detectable P2X1 expression. It was further identified that TgROP18 interacted with P2X1, and overexpression of ROP18 in COS7 cells significantly inhibited cell apoptosis mediated by P2X1. Moreover, TgROP18 also inhibited P2X1-mediated Ca2+ influx, translocation of cytochrome C from the mitochondria to the cytosol, and ATP-triggered caspase activation. CONCLUSIONS: Toxoplasma gondii infection inhibits ATP-induced host cell apoptosis, regardless of strain virulence and host cell lines. TgROP18 targets the purinergic receptor P2X1 of the SF268 human neural cells and inhibits ATP-induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway, suggesting a sensor role for the host proapoptotic protein P2X1 in this process.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X1/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glioblastoma , Humanos , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Células THP-1 , Toxoplasma
15.
Life Sci ; 231: 116570, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207307

RESUMO

AIMS: Systemic inflammation is a main hallmark of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the underlying mechanisms of pathogenesis of CKD-associated systemic inflammation is unclear. Current study was designed to investigate the relationship between indoxyl sulphate (IS) and CKD-associated systemic inflammation along with the protective effects of Klotho in CKD. METHODS: IS serum levels from patients were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and Serum Klotho, IL-6 and TNF-α were measured separately by ELISA and Real-Time PCR analysis. Monocytes were incubated with or without Klotho, while the expressions of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and NF-κB were analyzed through Western blot assay. Heterozygous kl/kl (kl/+) mice or WT mice were treated with 5/6 renal damage. Thereafter, the CKD mice were intraperitoneally injected with recombinant Klotho protein or PBS. KEY FINDINGS: It shows that in 286 CKD patients, the serum levels of inflammatory factors were positively related with IS, but negatively related with Klotho. Klotho significantly inhibited IS-induced RIG-I/NF-κB activation and productions of both IL-6 and TNF-α in cultured monocytes. In vivo, along with the increase of IS and decrease of Klotho in the serum, the activation of RIG-I/NF-κB signaling was observed in peripheral blood monocytes in both CKD mice and patients. Notably, higher levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were detected in kl+/- mice given CKD. Klotho administration has evidently attenuated RIG-I/NF-κB activation in monocytes and systemic inflammation in CKD mice. SIGNIFICANCE: The findings suggest that Klotho can suppress CKD-associated systemic inflammation through inhibiting IS-induced RIG-1/NF-κB activation and monocyte inflammatory factor release.


Assuntos
Proteína DEAD-box 58/sangue , Glucuronidase/farmacologia , Indicã/sangue , Monócitos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Uremia/sangue , Adulto , Animais , Western Blotting , Feminino , Glucuronidase/sangue , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-6/sangue , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/patologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Células THP-1 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Uremia/patologia
16.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 3723-3741, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190821

RESUMO

Background: Inflammation and accumulation of macrophages are key features of unstable atherosclerotic plaques. The ability of macrophages to take up molecular probes can be exploited in new clinical imaging methods for the detection of unstable atherosclerotic lesions. We investigated whether modifications of human serum albumin (HSA) could be used to target macrophages efficiently in vitro. Materials and methods: Maleylated and aconitylated HSA were compared with unmodified HSA. Fluorescent or radiolabeled (89Zr) modified HSA was used in in vitro experiments to study cellular uptake by differentiated THP-1 cells and primary human macrophages. The time course of uptake was evaluated by flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, real-time microscopy and radioactivity measurements. The involvement of scavenger receptors (SR-A1, SR-B2, LOX-1) was assessed by knockdown experiments using RNA interference, by blocking experiments and by assays of competition by modified low-density lipoprotein. Results: Modified HSA was readily taken up by different macrophages. Uptake was mediated nonexclusively via the scavenger receptor SR-A1 (encoded by the MSR1 gene). Knockdown of CD36 and ORL1 had no influence on the uptake. Modified HSA was preferentially taken up by human macrophages compared with other vascular cell types such as endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. Conclusions: Modified 89Zr-labeled HSA probes were recognized by different subsets of polarized macrophages, and maleylated HSA may be a promising radiotracer for radionuclide imaging of macrophage-rich inflammatory vascular diseases.


Assuntos
Macrófagos/metabolismo , Sondas Moleculares/química , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Receptores Depuradores Classe B/metabolismo , Albumina Sérica Humana/química , Animais , Endocitose , Humanos , Maleatos/química , Fagocitose , Células THP-1 , Distribuição Tecidual
17.
Eur J Histochem ; 63(2)2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243942

RESUMO

The limited availability of rapid and reliable flow cytometry-based assays for ex vivo quantification of autophagy has hampered their clinical applications for studies of diseases pathogenesis or for the implementation of autophagy-targeting therapies. To this aim, we modified and improved the protocol of a commercial kit developed for quantifying the microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B light chain 3B (LC3), the most reliable marker for autophagosomes currently available. The protocol modifications were set up measuring the autophagic flux in neoplastic (THP-1 cells) and primary cells (peripheral blood mononuclear cells; PBMC) of healthy donors. Moreover, PBMC of active tuberculosis (TB) patients were stimulated with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivatives or infected with live Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). We found that the baseline median fluorescent intensity (MFI) of THP-1 cells changed depending on the time of sample acquisition to the flow cytometer. To solve this problem, a fixation step was introduced in different stages of the assay's protocol, obtaining more reproducible and sensitive results when a post-LC3 staining fixation was performed, in either THP1 or PBMC. Furthermore, since we found that results are influenced by the type and the dose of the lysosome inhibitor used, the best dose of Chloroquine for LC3 accumulation were set up in either THP-1 cells or PBMC. Finally, applying these experimental settings, we measured the autophagic flux in CD14+ cells from active TB patients' PBMC upon BCG infection. In conclusion, our data indicate that the protocol modifications here described in this work improve the stability and accuracy of a flow cytometry-based assay for the evaluation of autophagy, thus assuring more standardised cell analyses.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/análise , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Bactérias/farmacologia , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Fluorescência , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/microbiologia , Mycobacterium bovis/química , Coloração e Rotulagem , Células THP-1
18.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 3129-3143, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118627

RESUMO

Background: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, the attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, remains the only available vaccine against tuberculosis (TB). However, its ineffectiveness in adults against pulmonary TB and varied protective efficacy (0-80%) speak to an urgent need for the development of an improved and efficient TB vaccine. In this milieu, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), is a preferential candidate, due to such properties as biocompatibility, targeted delivery, sustained antigen release, and atoxic by-products. Methods: In this study, we formulated PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulating the bivalent H1 antigen, a fusion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) Ag85B and ESAT6 proteins, and investigated its role in immunomodulation and protection against Mtb challenge. Using the classical water-oil-water solvent-evaporation method, H1-NPs were prepared, with encapsulation efficiency of 86.1%±3.2%. These spherical NPs were ~244.4±32.6 nm in diameter, with a negatively charged surface (ζ-potential -4±0.6 mV). Results: Under physiological conditions, NPs degraded slowly and the encapsulated H1 antigen was released over a period of weeks. As a proof-of-concept vaccine candidate, H1 NPs were efficiently internalized by the THP-1 human macrophages. Six weeks after a single-dose vaccination, H1 NP-immunized C57BL/6J mice showed significant increase in the production of total serum IgG (P<0.0001) and its isotypes compared to H1 alone, IgG2a being the predominant one, followed by IgG1. Further, the cytokine-release profile of antigen-stimulated splenocyteculture supernatant indicated a strong TH1-biased immunoresponse in H1 NP-vaccinated mice, with ~6.03- and ~2.8-fold increase in IFNγ and TNFα cytokine levels, and ~twofold and 1.6 fold increase in IL4 and IL10 cytokines, respectively, compared to H1 alone-immunized mice. In protection studies, H1 NP-vaccinated mice displayed significant reductions in lung and spleen bacillary load (P<0.05) at 5-week post-Mtb H37Rv challenge and prolonged survival, with a mean survival time of 177 days, compared to H1 alone-vaccinated mice (mean survival time 80 days). Conclusion: Altogether, our findings highlight the significance of the H1-PLGA nanoformulation in terms of providing long-term protection in mice with a single dose.


Assuntos
Imunidade , Nanopartículas/química , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Endocitose , Epitopos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Imunização , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Baço/citologia , Baço/imunologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Células THP-1 , Células Th1/imunologia , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/imunologia , Vacinação
19.
J Immunol Res ; 2019: 2198508, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093509

RESUMO

Transferon® is a complex drug based on a mixture of low molecular weight peptides. This biotherapeutic is employed as a coadjuvant in clinical trials of several diseases, including viral infections and allergies. Given that macrophages play key roles in pathogen recognition, phagocytosis, processing, and antigen presentation, we evaluated the effect of Transferon® on phenotype and function of macrophage-like cells derived from THP-1 monocytes. We determined the surface expression of CD80 and CD86 by flow cytometry and IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels by ELISA. Transferon® alone did not alter the steady state of PMA-differentiated macrophage-like THP-1 cells. On the contrary, simultaneous stimulation of cells with Transferon® and LPS elicited a significant increase in CD80 (P ≤ 0.001) and CD86 (P ≤ 0.001) expression, as well as in IL-6 production (P ≤ 0.05) compared to the LPS control. CD80 expression and IL-6 production exhibited a positive correlation (r = 0.6, P ≤ 0.05) in cells exposed to Transferon® and LPS. Our results suggest that the administration of Transferon® induces the expression of costimulatory molecules and the secretion of cytokines in LPS-activated macrophages. Further studies are necessary to determine the implication of these findings in the therapeutic properties of Transferon®.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-1/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Fator de Transferência/farmacologia , Antígeno B7-1/imunologia , Antígeno B7-2/genética , Antígeno B7-2/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/imunologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células THP-1
20.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 777-792.e14, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We studied the role of interleukin 11 (IL11) signaling in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) using hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), hepatocytes, and mouse models of NASH. METHODS: We stimulated mouse and human fibroblasts, HSCs, or hepatocytes with IL11 and other cytokines and analyzed them by imaging, immunoblot, and functional assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Mice were given injections of IL11. Mice with disruption of the interleukin 11 receptor subunit alpha1 gene (Il11ra1-/-) mice and Il11ra1+/+ mice were fed a high-fat methionine- and choline-deficient diet (HFMCD) or a Western diet with liquid fructose (WDF) to induce steatohepatitis; control mice were fed normal chow. db/db mice were fed with methionine- and choline-deficient diet for 12 weeks and C57BL/6 NTac were fed with HFMCD for 10 weeks or WDF for 16 weeks. Some mice were given intraperitoneal injections of anti-IL11 (X203), anti-IL11RA (X209), or a control antibody at different timepoints on the diets. Livers and blood were collected; blood samples were analyzed by biochemistry and liver tissues were analyzed by histology, RNA sequencing, immunoblots, immunohistochemistry, hydroxyproline, and mass cytometry time of flight assays. RESULTS: HSCs incubated with cytokines produced IL11, resulting in activation (phosphorylation) of ERK and expression of markers of fibrosis. Livers of mice given injections of IL11 became damaged, with increased markers of fibrosis, hepatocyte cell death and inflammation. Following the HFMCD or WDF, livers from Il11ra1-/- mice had reduced steatosis, fibrosis, expression of markers of inflammation and steatohepatitis, compared to and Il11ra1+/+ mice on the same diets. Depending on the time of administration of anti-IL11 or anti-IL11RA antibodies to wild-type mice on the HFMCD or WDF, or to db/db mice on the methionine and choline-deficient diet, the antibodies prevented, stopped, or reversed development of fibrosis and steatosis. Blood samples from Il11ra1+/+ mice fed the WDF and given injections of anti-IL11 or anti-IL11RA, as well as from Il11ra1-/- mice fed WDF, had lower serum levels of lipids and glucose than mice not injected with antibody or with disruption of Il11ra1. CONCLUSIONS: Neutralizing antibodies that block IL11 signaling reduce fibrosis, steatosis, hepatocyte death, inflammation and hyperglycemia in mice with diet-induced steatohepatitis. These antibodies also improve the cardiometabolic profile of mice and might be developed for the treatment of NASH.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Hepatite/prevenção & controle , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-11/metabolismo , Interleucina-11/antagonistas & inibidores , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Animais , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Células Estreladas do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/patologia , Hepatite/genética , Hepatite/metabolismo , Hepatite/patologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-11/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-11/deficiência , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-11/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/genética , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células THP-1
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