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1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 340, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504054

RESUMO

As COVID-19 continues to spread rapidly worldwide and variants continue to emerge, the development and deployment of safe and effective vaccines are urgently needed. Here, we developed an mRNA vaccine based on the trimeric receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein fused to ferritin-formed nanoparticles (TF-RBD). Compared to the trimeric form of the RBD mRNA vaccine (T-RBD), TF-RBD delivered intramuscularly elicited robust and durable humoral immunity as well as a Th1-biased cellular response. After further challenge with live SARS-CoV-2, immunization with a two-shot low-dose regimen of TF-RBD provided adequate protection in hACE2-transduced mice. In addition, the mRNA template of TF-RBD was easily and quickly engineered into a variant vaccine to address SARS-CoV-2 mutations. The TF-RBD multivalent vaccine produced broad-spectrum neutralizing antibodies against Alpha (B.1.1.7) and Beta (B.1.351) variants. This mRNA vaccine based on the encoded self-assembled nanoparticle-based trimer RBD provides a reference for the design of mRNA vaccines targeting SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Nanopartículas , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas , Animais , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/química , Vacinas contra COVID-19/farmacologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/patologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/química , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Células Vero
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360900

RESUMO

Endometriosis is a common gynaecological disorder characterized by the ectopic growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. It is associated with chronic pelvic inflammation and autoimmune reactivity manifesting by autoantibody production and abrogated cellular immune responses. Endometriotic peritoneal fluid contains various infiltrating leucocyte populations and a bulk of proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines. However, the nature and significance of the peritoneal milieu in women with endometriosis still remains obscure. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the immunoregulatory activity of the peritoneal fluid (PF) from women with endometriosis. The peritoneal fluid samples were collected during laparoscopic surgery from 30 women with and without endometriosis. Immunoregulatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IFN-γ and TNF) and chemokines (CCL2, CCL5, CXCL8 and CXCL9) were evaluated in PF and culture supernatants generated by unstimulated and CD3/CD28/IL-2-stimulated CD4+ T cells cultured in the presence of PF. The effect of PF on the generation of Treg and Th17 cells in CD4+ T cell cultures, as well as the natural cytotoxic activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, was also investigated. Concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, CCL2, CXCL8 and CXCL9 were significantly upregulated in the PF from women with endometriosis when compared to control women, whereas concentrations of other cytokines and chemokines were unaffected. The culturing of unstimulated and CD3/CD28/IL-2-stimulated CD4+ T cells in the presence of endometriotic PF resulted in the downregulation of their IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-17A and TNF production as compared to culture medium alone. On the other side, endometriotic PF significantly stimulated the production of IL-4 and IL-10. Endometriotic PF also stimulated the release of CCL2 and CXCL8, whereas the production of CCL5 and CXCL9 was downregulated. Endometriotic PF stimulated the generation of Treg cells and had an inhibitory effect on the generation of Th17 cells in cultures of CD4+ T cells. It also inhibited the NK cell cytotoxic activity of the peripheral blood lymphocytes. These results strongly imply that the PF from patients with endometriosis has immunoregulatory/immunosuppressive activity and shifts the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance toward the Th2 response, which may account for deviation of local and systemic immune responses. However, a similar trend, albeit not a statistically significant one, was also observed in case of PF from women without endometriosis, thus suggesting that peritoneal milieu may in general display some immunoregulatory/immunosuppressive properties. It should be stressed, however, that our present observations were made on a relatively small number of PF samples and further studies are needed to reveal possible mechanism(s) responsible for this phenomenon.


Assuntos
Líquido Ascítico/imunologia , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Endometriose/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica , Células Th2/imunologia , Adulto , Líquido Ascítico/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Regulação para Cima , Adulto Jovem
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(34)2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353890

RESUMO

Alum, used as an adjuvant in injected vaccines, promotes T helper 2 (Th2) and serum antibody (Ab) responses. However, it fails to induce secretory immunoglobulin (Ig) A (SIgA) in mucosal tissues and is poor in inducing Th1 and cell-mediated immunity. Alum stimulates interleukin 1 (IL-1) and the recruitment of myeloid cells, including neutrophils. We investigated whether neutrophil elastase regulates the adjuvanticity of alum, and whether a strategy targeting neutrophil elastase could improve responses to injected vaccines. Mice coadministered a pharmacological inhibitor of elastase, or lacking elastase, developed high-affinity serum IgG and IgA antibodies after immunization with alum-adsorbed protein vaccines, including the spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2). These mice also developed broader antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses, including high Th1 and T follicular helper (Tfh) responses. Interestingly, in the absence of elastase activity, mucosal SIgA responses were induced after systemic immunization with alum as adjuvant. Importantly, lack or suppression of elastase activity enhanced the magnitude of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike subunit 1 (S1) antibodies, and these antibodies reacted with the same epitopes of spike 1 protein as sera from COVID-19 patients. Therefore, suppression of neutrophil elastase could represent an attractive strategy for improving the efficacy of alum-based injected vaccines for the induction of broad immunity, including mucosal immunity.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Compostos de Alúmen/farmacologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/terapia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Elastase de Leucócito/antagonistas & inibidores , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos/efeitos dos fármacos , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade nas Mucosas/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Elastase de Leucócito/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Suínos , Células Th1/imunologia
4.
Theranostics ; 11(16): 7700-7714, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335959

RESUMO

CD4+ T helper cells are capable of mediating long-term antitumoral immune responses. We developed a combined immunotherapy (COMBO) using tumor antigen-specific T helper 1 cells (Tag-Th1), dual PD-L1/LAG-3 immune checkpoint blockade, and a low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) of 2 Gy, that was highly efficient in controlling the tumor burden of non-immunogenic RIP1-Tag2 mice with late-stage endogenous pancreatic islet carcinomas. In this study, we aimed to explore the impact of 2 Gy TBI on the treatment efficacy and the underlying mechanisms to boost CD4+ T cell-based immunotherapies. Methods: Heavily progressed RIP1-Tag2 mice underwent COMBO treatment and their survival was compared to a cohort without 2 Gy TBI. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with radiolabeled anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry were applied to investigate 2 Gy TBI-induced alterations in the biodistribution of endogenous T cells of healthy C3H mice. Migration and homing properties of Cy5-labeled adoptive Tag-Th1 cells were monitored by optical imaging and flow cytometric analyses in C3H and tumor-bearing RIP1-Tag2 mice. Splenectomy or sham-surgery of late-stage RIP1-Tag2 mice was performed before onset of COMBO treatment to elucidate the impact of the spleen on the therapy response. Results: First, we determined a significant longer survival of RIP1-Tag2 mice and an increased CD4+ T cell tumor infiltrate when 2 Gy TBI was applied in addition to Tag-Th1 cell PD-L1/LAG-3 treatment. In non-tumor-bearing C3H mice, TBI induced a moderate host lymphodepletion and a tumor antigen-independent accumulation of Tag-Th1 cells in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs. In RIP1-Tag2, we found increased numbers of effector memory-like Tag-Th1 and endogenous CD4+ T cells in the pancreatic tumor tissue after TBI, accompanied by a tumor-specific Th1-driven immune response. Furthermore, the spleen negatively regulated T cell effector function by upregulation PD-1/LAG-3/TIM-3 immune checkpoints, providing a further rationale for this combined treatment approach. Conclusion: Low-dose TBI represents a powerful tool to foster CD4+ T cell-based cancer immunotherapies by favoring Th1-driven antitumoral immunity. As TBI is a clinically approved and well-established technique it might be an ideal addition for adoptive cell therapy with CD4+ T cells in the clinical setting.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia/métodos , Células Th1/metabolismo , Irradiação Corporal Total/métodos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Neoplasias , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Feminino , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Imagem Óptica , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Células Th1/imunologia , Distribuição Tecidual
5.
J Immunol ; 207(5): 1322-1332, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341171

RESUMO

MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) inhibits IL-12 expression and impairs the Th1 response necessary for control of Leishmania infection. Recent studies have shown that Leishmania infection induces miR-21 expression in dendritic cells and macrophages, and inhibition of miR-21 restores IL-12 expression. Because miR-21 is known to be expressed due to inflammatory stimuli in a wide range of hematopoietic cells, we investigated the role of miR-21 in regulating immune responses during visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani infection. We found that miR-21 expression was significantly elevated in dendritic cells, macrophages, inflammatory monocytes, polymorphonuclear neutrophils, and in the spleen and liver tissues after L. donovani infection, concomitant with an increased expression of disease exacerbating IL-6 and STAT3. Bone marrow dendritic cells from miR-21 knockout (miR-21KO) mice showed increased IL-12 production and decreased production of IL-10. On L. donovani infection, miR-21KO mice exhibited significantly greater numbers of IFN-γ- and TNF-α-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in their organs that was associated with increased production of Th1-associated IFN-γ, TNF-α, and NO from the splenocytes. Finally, miR-21KO mice displayed significantly more developing and mature hepatic granulomas leading to reduction in organ parasitic loads compared with wild type counterparts. Similar results were noted in L. donovani-infected wild type mice after transient miR-21 depletion. These observations indicate that miR-21 plays a critical role in pathogenesis of VL by suppressing IL-12- and Th1-associated IFN-γ and also inducing disease-promoting induction of the IL-6 and STAT-3 signaling pathway. miR-21 could therefore be used as a potential target for developing host-directed treatment for VL.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Leishmania donovani/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Monócitos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistência à Doença , Imunidade Celular , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
6.
J Immunol ; 207(5): 1419-1427, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348974

RESUMO

Macrophage functional plasticity plays a central role in responding to proinflammatory stimuli. The molecular basis underlying the dynamic phenotypic activation of macrophages, however, remains incompletely understood. In this article, we report that SIRPα is a chief negative regulator of proinflammatory macrophage polarization. In response to TLR agonists, proinflammatory cytokines, or canonical M1 stimulation, Src family kinases (SFK) excluding Lyn phosphorylate SIRPα ITIMs, leading to the preferential recruitment and activation of SHP-1, but not SHP-2. Solely extracellular ligation of SIRPα by CD47 does not greatly induce phosphorylation of SIRPα ITIMs, but it enhances proinflammatory stimuli-induced SIRPα phosphorylation. Examination of downstream signaling elicited by IFN-γ and TLR3/4/9 agonists found that SIRPα-activated SHP-1 moderately represses STAT1, NF-κB, and MAPK signaling but markedly inhibits Akt2, resulting in dampened proinflammatory cytokine production and expression of Ag presentation machinery. Pharmacological inhibition of SHP-1 or deficiency of SIRPα conversely attenuates SIRPα-mediated inhibition and, as such, augments macrophage proinflammatory polarization that in turn exacerbates proinflammation in mouse models of type I diabetes and peritonitis. Our results reveal an SFK-SIRPα-SHP-1 mechanism that fine-tunes macrophage proinflammatory phenotypic activation via inhibition of PI3K-Akt2, which controls the transcription and translation of proinflammatory cytokines, Ag presentation machinery, and other cellular programs.


Assuntos
Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 6/metabolismo , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Imunidade Celular , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Células Th1/imunologia
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4300, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262035

RESUMO

Common fragile sites (CFSs) are specific breakage-prone genomic regions and are present frequently in cancer cells. The (E2-independent) E3 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme FATS (fragile site-associated tumor suppressor) has antitumor activity in cancer cells, but the function of FATS in immune cells is unknown. Here, we report a function of FATS in tumor development via regulation of tumor immunity. Fats-/- mice show reduced subcutaneous B16 melanoma and H7 pancreatic tumor growth compared with WT controls. The reduced tumor growth in Fats-/- mice is macrophage dependent and is associated with a phenotypic shift of macrophages within the tumor from tumor-promoting M2-like to antitumor M1-like macrophages. In addition, FATS deficiency promotes M1 polarization by stimulating and prolonging NF-κB activation by disrupting NF-κB/IκBα negative feedback loops and indirectly enhances both CD4+ T helper type 1 (Th1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) adaptive immune responses to promote tumor regression. Notably, transfer of Fats-/- macrophages protects mice against B16 melanoma. Together, these data suggest that FATS functions as an immune regulator and is a potential target in cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Macrófagos/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Ativação de Macrófagos , Camundongos , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/deficiência
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4355, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272362

RESUMO

Mucosal-associated Invariant T (MAIT) cells are recognized for their antibacterial functions. The protective capacity of MAIT cells has been demonstrated in murine models of local infection, including in the lungs. Here we show that during systemic infection of mice with Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain results in evident MAIT cell expansion in the liver, lungs, kidney and spleen and peripheral blood. The responding MAIT cells manifest a polarised Th1-like MAIT-1 phenotype, including transcription factor and cytokine profile, and confer a critical role in controlling bacterial load. Post resolution of the primary infection, the expanded MAIT cells form stable memory-like MAIT-1 cell populations, suggesting a basis for vaccination. Indeed, a systemic vaccination with synthetic antigen 5-(2-oxopropylideneamino)-6-D-ribitylaminouracil in combination with CpG adjuvant similarly boosts MAIT cells, and results in enhanced protection against both systemic and local infections with different bacteria. Our study highlights the potential utility of targeting MAIT cells to combat a range of bacterial pathogens.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Francisella tularensis/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Células T Invariantes Associadas à Mucosa/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Fígado/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/imunologia , Células T Invariantes Associadas à Mucosa/metabolismo , Fenótipo , RNA-Seq , Ribitol/análogos & derivados , Ribitol/imunologia , Análise de Célula Única , Baço/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Uracila/análogos & derivados , Uracila/imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
9.
Life Sci ; 282: 119806, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252419

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tuberculosis, a cost and life threatening disease, was being subjected for improving vaccine strategies beyond BCG. Thus, a novel particulate delivery system using alginate-coated chitosan nanoparticles including PPE17 protein and CpG were administered through intranasal (IN) and subcutaneous (SC) routes. METHODS: The encapsulated nanoparticles were first characterized for size, surface charge, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release of PPE17 antigen. The nanoparticles were then administered intranasal and subcutaneously to evaluate the induction of systemic and/or mucosal immune responses in mice. RESULTS: According to our result, the mean size of nanoparticles was measured about 427 nm, and exhibited a negative zeta potential of -37 mV. Following subcutaneous and intranasal administration, the results from cytokines assay showed that an increasing in the level of IFN-γ, and adversely a decrease in the level of IL-4 (presumptive Th1 biased immune response) was happened and also a notable elicitation in IL-17 cytokine was observed. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our study demonstrated that alginate-coated chitosan nanoparticles showed to be an effective way to improve BCG efficiency as booster strategy for subcutaneous vaccine, and also can induce strong immune responses as prime strategy through intranasal vaccination.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias , Portadores de Fármacos , Nanopartículas , Células Th1/imunologia , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose , Tuberculose/imunologia , Administração Intranasal , Alginatos/química , Alginatos/farmacologia , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/química , Antígenos de Bactérias/farmacologia , Quitosana/química , Quitosana/farmacologia , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacologia , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Células Th1/patologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/química , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/farmacologia
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299138

RESUMO

Human uveitis is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that is characterized by ocular inflammation with the involvement of uveitogenic Th1 and Th17 responses. In experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), the animal model for human uveitis, both responses are proven to be critical in disease development. Therefore, targeting both Th1 and Th17 cells has therapeutic implication for disease resolution. IL-27 is a multifunctional cytokine that can either promote or inhibit T cell responses and is implicated in both autoimmune and infectious diseases. The aim of this study is to characterize the role of IL-27/IL-27R signaling in regulating uveitogenic Th1/Th17 responses in EAU. By immunizing IL-27Rα-/- mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates for EAU, we demonstrated that IL-27 signaling deficiency exacerbated EAU with severe ocular inflammation and impairment of visual function. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in the eye-infiltrating Th1 and Th17 cells in IL-27Rα-/- EAU mice compared to WT. Their retinal antigen-specific Th1 and Th17 responses were also significantly increased, as represented by the elevation of their signature cytokines, IFN-γ and IL-17A, respectively. We also observed the upregulation of another pathogenic cytokine, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), from effector T cells in IL-27Rα-/- EAU mice. Mechanistic studies confirmed that IL-27 inhibited GM-CSF production from Th17 cells. In addition, the induction of IL-10 producing type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells was impaired in IL-27Rα-/- EAU mice. These results identified that IL-27 signaling plays a suppressive role in EAU by regulating multiple CD4+ cell subsets, including the effector Th1 and Th17 cells and the regulatory Tr1 cells. Our findings provide new insights for therapeutic potential in controlling uveitis by enhancing IL-27 signaling.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/patologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Interleucina-27/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina/fisiologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Uveíte/patologia , Animais , Doenças Autoimunes/etiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Uveíte/etiologia , Uveíte/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299161

RESUMO

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an important biological mediator involved in the defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Currently, there are no reports on the mycobacterial components that regulate PGE2 production. Previously, we have reported that RpfE-treated dendritic cells (DCs) effectively expanded the Th1 and Th17 cell responses simultaneously; however, the mechanism underlying Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation is unclear. Here, we show that PGE2 produced by RpfE-activated DCs via the MAPK and cyclooxygenase 2 signaling pathways induces Th1 and Th17 cell responses mainly via the EP4 receptor. Furthermore, mice administered intranasally with PGE2 displayed RpfE-induced antigen-specific Th1 and Th17 responses with a significant reduction in bacterial load in the lungs. Furthermore, the addition of optimal PGE2 amount to IL-2-IL-6-IL-23p19-IL-1ß was essential for promoting differentiation into Th1/Th17 cells with strong bactericidal activity. These results suggest that RpfE-matured DCs produce PGE2 that induces Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation with potent anti-mycobacterial activity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Células Th1/citologia , Células Th17/citologia , Animais , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/microbiologia , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/metabolismo , Tuberculose/microbiologia
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298914

RESUMO

The loss of immune tolerance to fetal antigens may result in reproductive failure. The downregulated number and activity of T regulatory lymphocytes, which are critical for the establishment of immune tolerance to fetal antigens, during pregnancy may lead to miscarriage. The adoptive transfer of Tregs prevents fetal loss in abortion-prone mice. Recently, we demonstrated that the administration of tregitopes, which are short peptides found in human and mouse immunoglobulins (IgGs), decreased the incidence of abortions in female CBA/J mice mated with DBA/2J mice. Here, two non-IgG source peptides (SGS and LKD) that can potentially bind to the major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II) with high affinity and induce Treg expansion were designed in silico. The immune dysregulation-induced pregnancy failure mouse model was used to evaluate the effect of SGS and LKD on immune response and pregnancy outcome. The fetal death rate in the SGS-treated group was lower than that in the phosphate-buffered saline-treated group. SGS and LKD upregulated the splenic pool of Tregs and modulated the T-helper cell (Th1)/Th2-related cytokine response at the preimplantation stage. Additionally, SGS and LKD downregulated the expression of CD80 and MHC class II molecules in splenic CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells. Thus, SGS treatment can result in beneficial pregnancy outcomes. Additionally, SGS peptide-mediated immunomodulation can be a potential therapeutic strategy for immune dysregulation-induced pregnancy failure.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/imunologia , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Proteína-1 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Transferência Adotiva/métodos , Animais , Citocinas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Baço/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 685344, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211472

RESUMO

Vaccination is the best prophylaxis for the prevention of infectious diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019. However, the efficacy of vaccines and onset of adverse reactions vary among individuals. Circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) regulate the immune responses after vaccination by delivering microRNAs (miRNAs) to myeloid and lymphoid cells. Among these, miR-192 levels in serum EVs increase with aging, in an IL-6-dependent manner, reducing excessive IL-6 expression in aged mice, creating a negative feedback loop. Excessive IL-6 expression reduces vaccination efficacy in aged mice, while EV miR-192 improves efficacy in these aged mice as well, making this miRNA an interesting focus of study. miR-21 levels in serum EVs also increase with aging, and regulates the expression of IL-12 required for Th1 responses; therefore, EV miR-21 is expected to regulate vaccine efficacy. miR-451a, another important miRNA, is abundant in serum EVs and controls the expression of cytokines, such as type I interferon and IL-6. However, levels differ among individuals and correlate with local inflammatory symptoms experienced after a seasonal flu vaccination. These findings suggest the importance of EV miRNAs as a tool to improve vaccine efficacy and also as biomarkers to predict the immune response and adverse reactions after vaccinations.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interleucina-6/imunologia , MicroRNAs/sangue , Envelhecimento/sangue , Envelhecimento/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/biossíntese , Subunidade p35 da Interleucina-12/biossíntese , Subunidade p35 da Interleucina-12/imunologia , Interleucina-6/biossíntese , MicroRNAs/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Vacinação
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 649359, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220807

RESUMO

Obesity is one of the foremost risk factors in coronavirus infection resulting in severe illness and mortality as the pandemic progresses. Obesity is a well-known predisposed chronic inflammatory condition. The dynamics of obesity and its impacts on immunity may change the disease severity of pneumonia, especially in acute respiratory distress syndrome, a primary cause of death from SARS-CoV-2 infection. The adipocytes of adipose tissue secret leptin in proportion to individuals' body fat mass. An increase in circulating plasma leptin is a typical characteristic of obesity and correlates with a leptin-resistant state. Leptin is considered a pleiotropic molecule regulating appetite and immunity. In immunity, leptin functions as a cytokine and coordinates the host's innate and adaptive responses by promoting the Th1 type of immune response. Leptin induced the proliferation and functions of antigen-presenting cells, monocytes, and T helper cells, subsequently influencing the pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by these cells, such as TNF-α, IL-2, or IL-6. Leptin scarcity or resistance is linked with dysregulation of cytokine secretion leading to autoimmune disorders, inflammatory responses, and increased susceptibility towards infectious diseases. Therefore, leptin activity by leptin long-lasting super active antagonist's dysregulation in patients with obesity might contribute to high mortality rates in these patients during SARS-CoV-2 infection. This review systematically discusses the interplay mechanism between leptin and inflammatory cytokines and their contribution to the fatal outcomes in COVID-19 patients with obesity.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Leptina/imunologia , Obesidade/patologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/imunologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Citocinas/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/patologia , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Monócitos/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Células Th1/imunologia
15.
J Immunol ; 207(3): 913-922, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290107

RESUMO

Metabolic programming is integrally linked to immune cell function. Nowhere is this clearer than in the differentiation of macrophages. Proinflammatory M1 macrophages primarily use glycolysis as a rapid energy source but also to generate antimicrobial compounds, whereas alternatively activated M2 macrophages primarily rely on oxidative phosphorylation for the longevity required for proper wound healing. mTOR signaling has been demonstrated to be a key regulator of immune cell metabolism and function. mTORC2 signaling is required for the generation of M2 macrophages, whereas the role of mTORC1 signaling, a key regulator of glycolysis, has been controversial. By using genetic deletion of mTORC1 signaling in C57BL/6 mouse macrophages, we observed enhanced M1 macrophage function in vitro and in vivo. Surprisingly, this enhancement occurred despite a significant defect in M1 macrophage glycolytic metabolism. Mechanistically, enhanced M1 function occurred because of inhibition of the class III histone deacetylases the sirtuins, resulting in enhanced histone acetylation. Our findings provide a counterpoint to the paradigm that enhanced immune cell function must occur in the presence of increased cellular metabolism and identifies a potential, pharmacologic target for the regulation of inflammatory responses.


Assuntos
Inflamação/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Acetilação , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Reprogramação Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais , Sirtuínas/metabolismo , Células Th1/imunologia
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209932

RESUMO

Enzymatic transamidation of gliadins by microbial transglutaminase (mTG) inhibits interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion by intestinal T cell lines in patients with celiac disease (CD). To gain insight into the cellular mechanisms underlying the down-regulatory effects of transamidation, we tested a single recombinant α-gliadin (r-gliadin) harbouring two immunodominant peptides, p13 (aa. 120-139) and p23 (aa. 220-239), in HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice, a model of gluten sensitivity. Mice were intranasally immunised with r-gliadin or r-gliadin transamidated by mTG (K-r-gliadin) along with cholera toxin, and the response of mesenteric lymph node cells was analysed by cytokine multiplex assay. An in vitro challenge with r-gliadin was characterised by secretion of specific cytokines featuring both innate immunity and the Th1/Th2/Th17 pattern of the adaptive response. Notably, transamidation specifically down-regulated the Th1 response. Structural studies performed on K-r-gliadin confirmed that specific glutamine residues in p13 and p23, previously found to be deamidated by tissue transglutaminase, were also transamidated by mTG. In silico analysis, simulating p13 and p23 peptide binding to HLA-DQ8 showed that these glutamines, in the form of glutamate, could interact by means of salt bridges with peculiar amino acids of the alpha chain of HLA-DQ8, suggesting that their transamidation may influence the HLA-restricted recognition of these peptides. Thus, the structural findings provided a rationale to explain the down-regulation of the r-gliadin-specific Th1 response following transamidation.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Toxina da Cólera/administração & dosagem , Citocinas/metabolismo , Gliadina/administração & dosagem , Antígenos HLA-DQ/genética , Transglutaminases/metabolismo , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Doença Celíaca/genética , Doença Celíaca/imunologia , Toxina da Cólera/imunologia , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Gliadina/química , Gliadina/genética , Gliadina/imunologia , Antígenos HLA-DQ/metabolismo , Imunização , Epitopos Imunodominantes/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia
17.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 213, 2021 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059617

RESUMO

Although inoculation of COVID-19 vaccines has rolled out globally, there is still a critical need for safe and effective vaccines to ensure fair and equitable supply for all countries. Here, we report on the development of a highly efficacious mRNA vaccine, SW0123 that is composed of sequence-modified mRNA encoding the full-length SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein packaged in core-shell structured lipopolyplex (LPP) nanoparticles. SW0123 is easy to produce using a large-scale microfluidics-based apparatus. The unique core-shell structured nanoparticle facilitates vaccine uptake and demonstrates a high colloidal stability, and a desirable biodistribution pattern with low liver targeting effect upon intramuscular administration. Extensive evaluations in mice and nonhuman primates revealed strong immunogenicity of SW0123, represented by induction of Th1-polarized T cell responses and high levels of antibodies that were capable of neutralizing not only the wild-type SARS-CoV-2, but also a panel of variants including D614G and N501Y variants. In addition, SW0123 conferred effective protection in both mice and non-human primates upon SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Taken together, SW0123 is a promising vaccine candidate that holds prospects for further evaluation in humans.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Camundongos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/virologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071190

RESUMO

Asthma and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are two of the most frequent chronic diseases in children, representing a model of the atopic and autoimmune diseases respectively. These two groups of disorders are mediated by different immunological pathways, T helper (Th)1 for diabetes and Th2 for asthma. For many years, these two groups were thought to be mutually exclusive according to the Th1/Th2 paradigm. In children, the incidence of both diseases is steadily increasing worldwide. In this narrative review, we report the evidence of the potential link between asthma and T1DM in childhood. We discuss which molecular mechanisms could be involved in the link between asthma and T1DM, such as genetic predisposition, cytokine patterns, and environmental influences. Cytokine profile of children with asthma and T1DM shows an activation of both Th1 and Th2 pathways, suggesting a complex genetic-epigenetic interaction. In conclusion, in children, the potential link between asthma and T1DM needs further investigation to improve the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to these patients. The aim of this review is to invite the pediatricians to consider the potential copresence of these two disorders in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Asma/complicações , Asma/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Animais , Asma/genética , Criança , Citocinas/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/imunologia , Incidência , Doenças Parasitárias , Fatores de Risco , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia
19.
Nat Immunol ; 22(7): 865-879, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140678

RESUMO

Reduced infiltration of anti-tumor lymphocytes remains a major cause of tumor immune evasion and is correlated with poor cancer survival. Here, we found that upregulation of regulator of G protein signaling (RGS)1 in helper TH1 cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) reduced their trafficking to and survival in tumors and was associated with shorter survival of patients with breast and lung cancer. RGS1 was upregulated by type II interferon (IFN)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1 signaling and impaired trafficking of circulating T cells to tumors by inhibiting calcium influx and suppressing activation of the kinases ERK and AKT. RGS1 knockdown in adoptively transferred tumor-specific CTLs significantly increased their infiltration and survival in breast and lung tumor grafts and effectively inhibited tumor growth in vivo, which was further improved when combined with programmed death ligand (PD-L)1 checkpoint inhibition. Our findings reveal RGS1 is important for tumor immune evasion and suggest that targeting RGS1 may provide a new strategy for tumor immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/metabolismo , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Proteínas RGS/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/imunologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/terapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/transplante , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Microscopia de Vídeo , Proteínas RGS/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/transplante , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Evasão Tumoral
20.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(6)2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115583

RESUMO

Introduction. Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical and subtropical disease caused by over 20 protozoan species.Hypothesis. Treatment of this complex disease with traditional synthetic drugs is a major challenge worldwide. Natural constituents are unique candidates for future therapeutic development.Aim. This study aimed to assess the in vivo anti-leishmanial effect of the Gossypium hirsutum extract, and its fractions compared to the standard drug (Glucantime, MA) in a murine model and explore the mechanism of action.Methodology. Footpads of BALB/c mice were infected with stationary phase promastigotes and treated topically and intraperitoneally with G. hirsutum extract, its fractions, or Glucantime, 4 weeks post-infection. The extract and fractions were prepared using the Soxhlet apparatus with chloroform followed by the column procedure.Results. The crude extract significantly decreased the footpad parasite load and lesion size compared to the untreated control group (P<0.05), as revealed by dilution assay, quantitative real-time PCR, and histopathological analyses. The primary mode of action involved an immunomodulatory role towards the Th1 response in the up-regulation of IFN-γ and IL-12 and the suppression of IL-10 gene expression profiling against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major.Conclusion. This finding suggests that the extract possesses multiple combinatory effects of diverse bioactive phytochemical compositions that exert its mechanisms of action through agonistic-synergistic interactions. The topical extract formulation could be a suitable and unique candidate for future investigation and pharmacological development. Further studies are crucial to evaluate the therapeutic potentials of the extract alone and in combination with conventional drugs using clinical settings.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Gossypium , Leishmania major/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Administração Tópica , Animais , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Feminino , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/genética , Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12/genética , Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Leishmania major/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/patologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/fisiopatologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Antimoniato de Meglumina/administração & dosagem , Antimoniato de Meglumina/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Carga Parasitária , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Baço/parasitologia , Baço/patologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Transcriptoma
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