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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916948

RESUMO

In Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), oxidative stress (OS) is driven by Th1 cytokines' response interfering with the normal function of thyrocytes. OS results from an imbalance between an excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a lowering of antioxidant production. Moreover, OS has been shown to inhibit Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), which is able to prevent hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α stabilization. The aims of this study were to determine the involvement of NADPH-oxidases (NOX), SIRT1, and HIF-1α in HT pathophysiology as well as the status of antioxidant proteins such as peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1), catalase, and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). The protein expressions of NOX2, NOX4, antioxidant enzymes, SIRT1, and HIF-1α, as well as glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), were analyzed by Western blot in primary cultures of human thyrocytes that were or were not incubated with Th1 cytokines. The same proteins were also analyzed by immunohistochemistry in thyroid samples from control and HT patients. In human thyrocytes incubated with Th1 cytokines, NOX4 expression was increased whereas antioxidants, such as PRDX1, catalase, and SOD1, were reduced. Th1 cytokines also induced a significant decrease of SIRT1 protein expression associated with an upregulation of HIF-1α, GLUT-1, and VEGF-A proteins. With the exception of PRDX1 and SOD1, similar results were obtained in HT thyroids. OS due to an increase of ROS produced by NOX4 and a loss of antioxidant defenses (PRDX1, catalase, SOD1) correlates to a reduction of SIRT1 and an upregulation of HIF 1α, GLUT-1, and VEGF-A. Our study placed SIRT1 as a key regulator of OS and we, therefore, believe it could be considered as a potential therapeutic target in HT.


Assuntos
Doença de Hashimoto/etiologia , Doença de Hashimoto/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Estresse Oxidativo , Sirtuína 1/genética , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Adulto , Doenças Autoimunes/etiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/metabolismo , Autoimunidade/genética , Biomarcadores , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Doença de Hashimoto/diagnóstico , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , NADPH Oxidase 2/genética , NADPH Oxidase 2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase-1/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Timócitos/imunologia , Timócitos/metabolismo , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Glândula Tireoide/imunologia , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248007, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750975

RESUMO

More than 65 million people have been confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 and more than 1 million have died from COVID-19 and this pandemic remains critical worldwide. Effective vaccines are one of the most important strategies to limit the pandemic. Here, we report a construction strategy of DNA vaccine candidates expressing full length wild type SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein, S1 or S2 region and their immunogenicity in mice. All DNA vaccine constructs of pCMVkan-S, -S1 and -S2 induced high levels of specific binding IgG that showed a balance of IgG1/IgG2a response. However, only the sera from mice vaccinated with pCMKkan-S or -S1 DNA vaccines could inhibit viral RBD and ACE2 interaction. The highest neutralizing antibody (NAb) titer was found in pCMVkan-S group, followed by -S1, while -S2 showed the lowest PRNT50 titers. The geometric mean titers (GMTs) were 2,551, 1,005 and 291 for pCMVkan-S, -S1 and -S2, respectively. pCMVkan-S construct vaccine also induced the highest magnitude and breadth of T cells response. Analysis of IFN-γ positive cells after stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 spike peptide pools were 2,991, 1,376 and 1,885 SFC/106 splenocytes for pCMVkan-S, -S1 and -S2, respectively. Our findings highlighted that full-length S antigen is more potent than the truncated spike (S1 or S2) in inducing of neutralizing antibody and robust T cell responses.


Assuntos
Imunidade Humoral , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Células Th1/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , /antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , /virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Células Th1/citologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Vacinas de DNA/genética
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1285, 2021 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627652

RESUMO

The host defence peptide cathelicidin (LL-37 in humans, mCRAMP in mice) is released from neutrophils by de-granulation, NETosis and necrotic death; it has potent anti-pathogen activity as well as being a broad immunomodulator. Here we report that cathelicidin is a powerful Th17 potentiator which enhances aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and RORγt expression, in a TGF-ß1-dependent manner. In the presence of TGF-ß1, cathelicidin enhanced SMAD2/3 and STAT3 phosphorylation, and profoundly suppressed IL-2 and T-bet, directing T cells away from Th1 and into a Th17 phenotype. Strikingly, Th17, but not Th1, cells were protected from apoptosis by cathelicidin. We show that cathelicidin is released by neutrophils in mouse lymph nodes and that cathelicidin-deficient mice display suppressed Th17 responses during inflammation, but not at steady state. We propose that the neutrophil cathelicidin is required for maximal Th17 differentiation, and that this is one method by which early neutrophilia directs subsequent adaptive immune responses.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Neutrófilos/citologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th17/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosforilação/genética , Fosforilação/fisiologia , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Proteína Smad2/genética , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/genética , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Células Th1/citologia , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th17/citologia , Células Th17/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499253

RESUMO

Due to the CD1d restricted recognition of altered glycolipids, Vα24-invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are excellent tools for cancer immunotherapy with a significantly reduced risk for graft-versus-host disease when applied as off-the shelf-therapeutics across Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) barriers. To maximally harness their therapeutic potential for multiple myeloma (MM) treatment, we here armed iNKT cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) directed against the MM-associated antigen CD38 and the plasma cell specific B cell maturation antigen (BCMA). We demonstrate that both CD38- and BCMA-CAR iNKT cells effectively eliminated MM cells in a CAR-dependent manner, without losing their T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated cytotoxic activity. Importantly, iNKT cells expressing either BCMA-CARs or affinity-optimized CD38-CARs spared normal hematopoietic cells and displayed a Th1-like cytokine profile, indicating their therapeutic utility. While the costimulatory domain of CD38-CARs had no influence on the cytotoxic functions of iNKT cells, CARs containing the 4-1BB domain showed a better expansion capacity. Interestingly, when stimulated only via CD1d+ dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), both CD38- and BCMA-CAR iNKT cells expanded well, without losing their CAR- or TCR-dependent cytotoxic activities. This suggests the possibility of developing an off-the-shelf therapy with CAR iNKT cells, which might even be boostable in vivo by administration α-GalCer pulsed DCs.


Assuntos
ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/química , Antígeno de Maturação de Linfócitos B/química , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Células Matadoras Naturais/citologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/química , Mieloma Múltiplo/metabolismo , Células T Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/metabolismo , Antígeno de Maturação de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Galactosilceramidas/química , Antígenos HLA/química , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Risco , Células Th1/metabolismo , Membro 9 da Superfamília de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/química
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466825

RESUMO

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a potentially lethal disorder characterized by progressive impairment of cardiac function. Chronic myocarditis has long been hypothesized to be one of the causes of DCM. However, owing to the lack of suitable animal models of chronic myocarditis, its pathophysiology remains unclear. Here, we report a novel mouse model of chronic myocarditis induced by recombinant bacille Calmette-Guérin (rBCG) expressing a CD4+ T-cell epitope of cardiac myosin heavy chain-α (rBCG-MyHCα). Mice immunized with rBCG-MyHCα developed chronic myocarditis, and echocardiography revealed dilation and impaired contraction of ventricles, similar to those observed in human DCM. In the heart, CD62L-CD4+ T cells were increased and produced significant amounts of IFN-γ and IL-17 in response to cardiac myosin. Adoptive transfer of CD62L-CD4+ T cells induced myocarditis in the recipient mice, which indicated that CD62L-CD4+ T cells were the effector cells in this model. rBCG-MyHCα-infected dendritic cells produced proinflammatory cytokines and induced MyHCα-specific T-cell proliferation and Th1 and Th17 polarization. This novel chronic myocarditis mouse model may allow the identification of the central pathophysiological and immunological processes involved in the progression to DCM.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Miocardite/imunologia , Miosinas Ventriculares/imunologia , Animais , Vacina BCG/genética , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/imunologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/patologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , Doença Crônica , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ecocardiografia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Humanos , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Miocardite/patologia , Miocardite/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th17/metabolismo , Miosinas Ventriculares/genética
6.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 91: 107291, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360084

RESUMO

Present treatment regimen on visceral leishmaniasis has multiple limitations including severe side effects, toxicity, and resistance of Leishmania strains. Amphotericin B is a well-established pharmacologically approved drug; however, mainly toxicity is a foremost issue with that drug. Recently, our group identified eugenol oleate as an anti-leishmanial immunomodulatory compound. The important objectives of this present study was to evaluate the possible synergistic effect of eugenol oleate with amphotericin B to reduce the toxicity of this approved drug. Results obtained from this study signified that combination of eugenol oleate and amphotericin B showed indifferent combinatorial effect against promastigotes with xΣFIC 1.015, while, moderate synergistic activity with xΣFIC 0.456 against amastigotes. It was also notable that eugenol oleate (2.5 µM) with low concentrations of amphotericin B (0.3125 µM) showed 96.45% parasite reduction within L. donovani-infected murine macrophages. Furthermore, eugenol oleate and amphotericin B significantly (p < 0.01) enhanced the nitrite generation, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF-α) in infected macrophages in vitro and in BALB/c mice in vivo. Eugenol oleate (10 mg/Kg b. wt.) with amphotericin B (1 mg/Kg b.wt.) significantly (p < 0.01) controlled the parasite burden in liver by 96.2% and in spleen by 93.12%. Hence, this study strongly suggested the synergic potential of eugenol oleate with low concentration of amphotericin B in experimental visceral leishmaniasis through anti-leishmanial immune response.


Assuntos
Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Leishmania donovani/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Macrófagos Peritoneais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Leishmania donovani/imunologia , Leishmania donovani/patogenicidade , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/metabolismo , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/parasitologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/imunologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/metabolismo , Macrófagos Peritoneais/parasitologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nitritos/metabolismo , Carga Parasitária , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/imunologia , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/parasitologia , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th1/parasitologia , Equilíbrio Th1-Th2 , Células Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th2/imunologia , Células Th2/metabolismo , Células Th2/parasitologia
7.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 91: 107306, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383443

RESUMO

The brain has special importance and is known as immune privileged site to and from which trafficking of immune cells is tightly regulated. However, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) the balance of the immune system is disturbed and damages the brain. Given the anatomical and immunological barriers in the brain, we attempted to evaluate if the neuroinflammation occurred in AD is limited to the brain or is expanded to the periphery. Hence, rat model of AD was induced by intra-hippocampal injection of beta-amyloid1-42. Then, nasal, brain, cervical lymph nodes, and spleen were isolated. Then, profile of T-helper (Th)1, Th2, and Th17, represented by IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17, respectively, was determined. The results were compared between the organs and with the corresponding tissue in normal animals. IFN-γ and IL-17 levels in the brain, nasal tissue, and cervical lymph nodes of AD model were higher than IL-4, comparing with normal animals. Similar profile was observed in the spleen. The results suggest Alzheimer's as a systemic disease whose complication are observed locally. The possibility of epitope spreading and autoimmune nature of AD is raised again. Interestingly, although AD model was induced by injection of beta-amyloid in the brain, the cellular responses in the brain and nasal tissue were similar indicating that the nasal-brain axis is two-sided. In addition, both of IFN-γ/IL-17 and IL-4/IL-17 ratios, just in nasal tissue were markedly decreased in AD model comparing with normal animals. This suggests development of future nasal-based diagnostic approaches.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/imunologia , Encéfalo/imunologia , Linfonodos/imunologia , Mucosa Nasal/imunologia , Baço/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Doença de Alzheimer/induzido quimicamente , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Masculino , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Fenótipo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Baço/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/metabolismo , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th17/metabolismo , Células Th2/imunologia , Células Th2/metabolismo
8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 111028, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378943

RESUMO

Aspirin is one of the most commonly prescribed medications. Evidence shows that it can even treat and prevent intestinal tumors. However, it has also caused a great deal of controversy due to its intestinal side effects. We therefore explored whether aspirin was beneficial or harmful to the intestines. We used aspirin continuously interfered with C57BL/6 J mice for 48 weeks, examining their intestinal tissues at 13, 26 and 48 weeks to determine the drug's effect on the intestines. In addition, we used flow cytometry (FCM) used to detect T cells and expression of T-cell immunoreceptor with immunoglobulin (Ig)- and tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) domain (TIGIT) on their surfaces to determine aspirin's immunomodulatory effects. The results showed that long-term aspirin intervention could reverse damage to the intestines, an effect related to the drug's significant inhibitory effect on TIGIT. The change in TIGIT level could regulate T-cell subsets, so that counts of Cluster of Differentiation 4 (CD4)+/chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3)+ T-helper 1 (Th1) cells and CD4+/interleukin-4 (IL-4)+ Th2 cells increased, while those of CD4+/C-C chemokine receptor type 6 (CCR6)+ Th17 cells and CD4+/CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) decreased. In summary, we demonstrated that long-term aspirin intervention could inhibit TIGIT, regulating T cells to reverse damage to the intestines. Furthermore, aspirin is a potential therapy for diseases related to an increase in TIGIT.


Assuntos
Aspirina/toxicidade , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Reto/efeitos dos fármacos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Colo/imunologia , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Regulação para Baixo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenótipo , Reto/imunologia , Reto/metabolismo , Reto/patologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th17/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th17/metabolismo , Células Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th2/imunologia , Células Th2/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375121

RESUMO

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) prevent excessive immune responses and limit immune pathology upon infections. To fulfill this role in different immune environments elicited by different types of pathogens, Tregs undergo functional specialization into distinct subsets. During acute type 1 immune responses, type 1 Tregs are induced and recruited to the site of ongoing Th1 responses to efficiently control Th1 responses. However, whether a similar specialization process also takes place following chronic infections is still unknown. In this study, we investigated Treg specialization in persistent viral infections using lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection as models for chronic and latent infections, respectively. We identify CD85k as a Th1-specific co-inhibitory receptor with sustained expression in persistent viral infections and show that recombinant CD85k inhibits LCMV-specific effector T cells. Furthermore, expression of the CD85k ligand ALCAM is induced on LCMV-specific and exhausted T cells during chronic LCMV infection. Finally, we demonstrate that type 1 Tregs arising during chronic LCMV infection suppress Th1 effector cells in an ALCAM-dependent manner. These results extend the current knowledge of Treg specialization from acute to persistent viral infections and reveal an important functional role of CD85k in Treg-mediated suppression of type 1 immunity.


Assuntos
Vírus da Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Muromegalovirus/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/imunologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Infecções por Herpesviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/metabolismo , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/metabolismo , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/virologia , Vírus da Coriomeningite Linfocítica/fisiologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Muromegalovirus/fisiologia , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/virologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo
10.
Front Immunol ; 11: 596553, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33324414

RESUMO

The severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection has been related to uncontrolled inflammatory innate responses and impaired adaptive immune responses mostly due to exhausted T lymphocytes and lymphopenia. In this work we have characterized the nature of the lymphopenia and demonstrate a set of factors that hinder the effective control of virus infection and the activation and arming of effector cytotoxic T CD8 cells and showing signatures defining a high-risk population. We performed immune profiling of the T helper (Th) CD4+ and T CD8+ cell compartments in peripheral blood of 144 COVID-19 patients using multiparametric flow cytometry analysis. On the one hand, there was a consistent lymphopenia with an overrepresentation of non-functional T cells, with an increased percentage of naive Th cells (CD45RA+, CXCR3-, CCR4-, CCR6-, CCR10-) and persistently low frequency of markers associated with Th1, Th17, and Th1/Th17 memory-effector T cells compared to healthy donors. On the other hand, the most profound alteration affected the Th1 subset, which may explain the poor T cells responses and the persistent blood virus load. Finally, the decrease in Th1 cells may also explain the low frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that express the HLA-DR and CD38 activation markers observed in numerous patients who showed minimal or no lymphocyte activation response. We also identified the percentage of HLA-DR+CD4+ T cells, PD-1+CD+4/CD8+ T cells in blood, and the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio as useful factors for predicting critical illness and fatal outcome in patients with confirmed COVID-19.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , /imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/imunologia , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/metabolismo , Idoso , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Feminino , Antígenos HLA-DR/imunologia , Antígenos HLA-DR/metabolismo , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/metabolismo , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th17/metabolismo
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0222548, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870913

RESUMO

The paracaspase mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein-1 (MALT1) regulates nuclear-factor-kappa-B (NF-κB) activation downstream of surface receptors with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs), such as the B-cell or T-cell receptor and has thus emerged as a therapeutic target for autoimmune diseases. However, recent reports demonstrate the development of lethal autoimmune inflammation due to the excessive production of interferon gamma (IFN-É£) and defective differentiation of regulatory T-cells in genetically modified mice deficient in MALT1 paracaspase activity. To address this issue, we explored the effects of pharmacological MALT1 inhibition on the balance between T-effector and regulatory T-cells. Here we demonstrate that allosteric inhibition of MALT1 suppressed Th1, Th17 and Th1/Th17 effector responses, and inhibited T-cell dependent B-cell proliferation and antibody production. Allosteric MALT1 inhibition did not interfere with the suppressive function of human T-regulatory cells, although it impaired de novo differentiation of regulatory T-cells from naïve T-cells. Treatment with an allosteric MALT1 inhibitor alleviated the cytokine storm, including IFN-É£, in a mouse model of acute T-cell activation, and long-term treatment did not lead to an increase in IFN-É£ producing CD4 cells or tissue inflammation. Together, our data demonstrate that the effects of allosteric inhibition of MALT1 differ from those seen in mice with proteolytically inactive MALT1, and thus we believe that MALT1 is a viable target for B and T-cell driven autoimmune diseases.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína de Translocação 1 do Linfoma de Tecido Linfoide Associado à Mucosa/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Alostérica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Feminino , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína de Translocação 1 do Linfoma de Tecido Linfoide Associado à Mucosa/genética , Proteína de Translocação 1 do Linfoma de Tecido Linfoide Associado à Mucosa/imunologia , Proteína de Translocação 1 do Linfoma de Tecido Linfoide Associado à Mucosa/metabolismo , Fenotiazinas/farmacologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo
12.
Life Sci ; 261: 118257, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822712

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to verify the impact of periodontitis in the course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in C57Bl/6J mice. MAIN METHODS: The animals were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8): Basal, Periodontitis (P), COPD and COPD+P. COPD was induced by orotracheal instillation of 30 µl of cigarette extract 3 times/week for 7 weeks. Periodontitis was induced by ligation technique for 22 days. Euthanasia was performed on 51st day. The analyzes were total/differential cells and cytokines recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), total/differential blood cell count, platelets, total marrow cell count, airway collagen deposition, alveolar enlargement analyzed by mean linear intercept (Lm), mucus and bone crest reabsorption. One-way ANOVA followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls was used. KEY FINDINGS: The association COPD+P decreased macrophages (p = 0,0351), TNF-α (p = 0,0071) and INF-γ (p = 0,0004) in BAL, when compared to the COPD group maintaining emphysema levels by alveolar enlargement (p < .05) reorganization of collagen fibers (p = .001) and also mean linear intercept (lm) (p = .001) and mucus (p = .0001). The periodontitis group caused TNF-α increase (p = 0, 0001) in BAL. SIGNIFICANCE: Periodontitis, per se, does not alter any of the parameters analyzed, except for increased TNF-α in BAL. However, its association with COPD caused macrophages TNF-α and INF-γ alterations, when compared to the COPD group maintaining emphysema levels by alveolar enlargement and reorganization of collagen fibers. It seems that periodontitis is influencing the course of Th1 profile cell, and cytokines and pulmonary alterations. Further studies are needed to clarify the regulatory process underlying these two diseases.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Periodontite/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Animais , Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Células Th1/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3366, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632165

RESUMO

CD4+ T lymphocytes consist of naïve, antigen-specific memory, and memory-phenotype (MP) cell compartments at homeostasis. We recently showed that MP cells exert innate-like effector function during host defense, but whether MP CD4+ T cells are functionally heterogeneous and, if so, what signals specify the differentiation of MP cell subpopulations under homeostatic conditions is still unclear. Here we characterize MP lymphocytes as consisting of T-bethigh, T-betlow, and T-bet- subsets, with innate, Th1-like effector activity exclusively associated with T-bethigh cells. We further show that the latter population depends on IL-12 produced by CD8α+ type 1 dendritic cells (DC1) for its differentiation. Finally, our data demonstrate that this tonic IL-12 production requires TLR-MyD88 signaling independent of foreign agonists, and is further enhanced by CD40-CD40L interactions between DC1 and CD4+ T lymphocytes. We propose that optimal differentiation of T-bethigh MP lymphocytes at homeostasis is driven by self-recognition signals at both the DC and Tcell levels.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Homeostase/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Proteínas com Domínio T/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Antígenos CD40/imunologia , Antígenos CD40/metabolismo , Ligante de CD40/genética , Ligante de CD40/imunologia , Ligante de CD40/metabolismo , Antígenos CD8/imunologia , Antígenos CD8/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/genética , Interleucina-12/imunologia , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Proteínas com Domínio T/metabolismo , Células Th1/citologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3412, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641742

RESUMO

Regulatory B cells restrict immune and inflammatory responses across a number of contexts. This capacity is mediated primarily through the production of IL-10. Here we demonstrate that the induction of a regulatory program in human B cells is dependent on a metabolic priming event driven by cholesterol metabolism. Synthesis of the metabolic intermediate geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) is required to specifically drive IL-10 production, and to attenuate Th1 responses. Furthermore, GGPP-dependent protein modifications control signaling through PI3Kδ-AKT-GSK3, which in turn promote BLIMP1-dependent IL-10 production. Inherited gene mutations in cholesterol metabolism result in a severe autoinflammatory syndrome termed mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD). Consistent with our findings, B cells from MKD patients induce poor IL-10 responses and are functionally impaired. Moreover, metabolic supplementation with GGPP is able to reverse this defect. Collectively, our data define cholesterol metabolism as an integral metabolic pathway for the optimal functioning of human IL-10 producing regulatory B cells.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B Reguladores/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Fosfatos de Poli-Isoprenil/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos CD19/metabolismo , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/metabolismo , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Deficiência de Mevalonato Quinase/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fator 1 de Ligação ao Domínio I Regulador Positivo/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Transdução de Sinais , Células Th1/metabolismo , Receptor Toll-Like 9/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
15.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 126, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nearly all uterine cervical cancer (UCC) cases result from human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. After high-risk HPV infection, most HPV infections are naturally cleared by humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Thus, cervical lesions of only few patients progress into cervical cancer via cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and lead to persistent oncogenic HPV infection. This suggests that immunoregulation plays an instrumental role in the carcinogenesis. However, there was a few studies on the relation between the immunologic dissonance and clinical characteristics of UCC patients. METHOD: We examined the related immune cells (Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells) by flow cytometric analysis and analyzed their relations with UCC stages, tumor size, differentiation, histology type, lymph node metastases, and vasoinvasion. Next, we quantified the Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells before and after the operation both in UCC and CIN patients. RESULTS: When compared with stage I patients, decreased levels of circulating Th1 cells and elevated levels of Th2, Th17, and Treg cells were detected in stage II patients. In addition, the imbalance of Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg cells was related to the tumor size, lymph node metastases, and vasoinvasion. We found that immunological cell levels normalized after the operations. In general, immunological cell levels in CIN patients normalized sooner than in UCC patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that peripheral immunological cell levels reflect the patient's condition.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th17/metabolismo , Células Th2/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/imunologia , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/sangue , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Carga Tumoral , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/sangue , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo
16.
Mol Immunol ; 123: 106-115, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485469

RESUMO

Hepatocytes are the targets in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) that results in T cell-dependent liver injury. However, hepatocytes may also affect the hepatic T cells in AIH, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we report that hepatocytes could secrete galectin-9 (Gal-9) to suppress the intrahepatic production of Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and restrict AIH development, but hepatocyte damage resulted in opposite effects due to release of TLR2/4 ligands that promoted the intrahepatic production of IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-12. Through Tim-3, Gal-9 could efficiently suppress the intrahepatic T cell activation despite presence of TLR2/4 ligands, thus attenuating Th1 response in AIH. Intriguingly, intrahepatic IL-6/IL-12 suppressed the effect of TGF-ß on Treg cells. Therefore, in AIH, Gal-9 promoted Foxp3 expression and function of hepatic Treg cells through TL1A signaling, although Treg function was still impaired, compared with that in naive state. Due to its promoting effect on Treg function, together with its effect on T effector cells in a Tim-3-independent way, Gal-9 could attenuate intrahepatic IFN-γ production by hindering the increase of hepatic CD4+CD43+ T cells resulting from extrahepatic T cell activation. TLR2/4 ligands attenuated the effects of Gal-9 on Treg cells and CD4+CD43+ T cells by increasing intrahepatic IL-6 and IL-12. Blocking TLR2/4 ligands could efficiently suppress intrahepatic IFN-γ production, liver injury, and hepatic fibrosis. These findings suggest that hepatocytes paradoxically affect Th1 response in AIH due to Gal-9 expression and TLR2/4 ligands release, and that targeting TLR2/4 signaling may provide an important approach in the therapeutic strategy for AIH.


Assuntos
Galectinas/metabolismo , Hepatite Autoimune/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/fisiologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Hepatite Autoimune/imunologia , Hepatite Autoimune/patologia , Ligantes , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo
17.
Nat Immunol ; 21(6): 671-683, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424366

RESUMO

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) typically evoke prompt and vigorous innate bladder immune responses, including extensive exfoliation of the epithelium. To explain the basis for the extraordinarily high recurrence rates of UTIs, we examined adaptive immune responses in mouse bladders. We found that, following each bladder infection, a highly T helper type 2 (TH2)-skewed immune response directed at bladder re-epithelialization is observed, with limited capacity to clear infection. This response is initiated by a distinct subset of CD301b+OX40L+ dendritic cells, which migrate into the bladder epithelium after infection before trafficking to lymph nodes to preferentially activate TH2 cells. The bladder epithelial repair response is cumulative and aberrant as, after multiple infections, the epithelium was markedly thickened and bladder capacity was reduced relative to controls. Thus, recurrence of UTIs and associated bladder dysfunction are the outcome of the preferential focus of the adaptive immune response on epithelial repair at the expense of bacterial clearance.


Assuntos
Cistite/etiologia , Cistite/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Membrana Mucosa/imunologia , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Células Th2/imunologia , Células Th2/metabolismo , Animais , Carga Bacteriana , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular , Cistite/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Membrana Mucosa/patologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th1/patologia , Infecções Urinárias/etiologia , Infecções Urinárias/metabolismo , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Cicatrização/genética , Cicatrização/imunologia
18.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 73(5): 393-402, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194547

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: La interleucina 5 (IL-5) es una citocina antiinflamatoria que se ha involucrado en las enfermedades cardiovasculares, incluidos los aneurismas aórticos y la insuficiencia cardiaca. El objetivo de este estudio es investigar el papel de la IL-5 en la enfermedad coronaria (EC) y sus posibles mecanismos. MÉTODOS: Se analizó la expresión de la IL-5 en muestras de arterias coronarias humanas de 17 pacientes con EC y donantes fallecidos. Además, se determinaron las concentraciones plasmáticas de IL-5, IL-17 e interferón gamma en pacientes con EC usando kits ELISA con muestras de pacientes con dolor torácico (sin EC) como controles. Se separaron las células murinas CD4+T helper (Th), y el efecto de la IL-5 en la diferenciación de Th1, célula T reguladora y Th17 y la cantidad de ARNm de sus citocinas características se determinaron mediante citometría de flujo y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa tras transcripción inversa respectivamente. RESULTADOS: La IL-5 disminuyó significativamente en las placas coronarias de los pacientes con EC comparados con el grupo de donantes fallecidos, y la IL-5 derivó fundamentalmente de los macrófagos de las placas de las arterias coronarias. Además, comparados con el grupo sin EC, las concentraciones plasmáticas de IL-5 en el grupo de EC fueron significativamente menores, y la secuencia de mayor a menor fue angina estable, angina inestable e infarto de miocardio. El análisis de regresión linear binaria mostró que la IL-5 se correlacionó independientemente con la aparición de la EC. Además, el tratamiento con IL-5 recombinante de ratón disminuyó los valores de Th1 y Th17 y la expresión del ARNm de sus citocinas características en lipoproteínas oxidadas de baja densidad tratadas con CD4+Th. CONCLUSIONES: Los valores de IL-5 disminuyeron en los pacientes con EC e inhiben la diferenciación in vitro de Th1 y Th17 inducida por lipoproteínas oxidadas de baja densidad


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Interleukin (IL)-5 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that has been demonstrated to be involved in cardiovascular diseases, including aortic aneurysm and heart failure. This study aimed to investigate the involvement of IL-5 in coronary artery disease (CAD) and the possible mechanisms. METHODS: We analyzed IL-5 expression in human coronary artery specimens collected from CAD patients and deceased donors. Plasma IL-5, IL-17, and interferon-γ levels in CAD patients were detected using ELISA kits, with samples from chest pain patients (non-CAD) as controls. Mouse CD4+T helper (Th) cells were separated, and the effect of IL-5 on Th1, regulatory T cell and Th17 differentiation and mRNA levels of their characteristic cytokines were detected using flow cytometry and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. RESULTS: IL-5 was significantly decreased in the coronary plaque of CAD patients compared with the deceased donors group, and IL-5 was mainly derived from macrophages in the coronary artery plaque. Compared with the non-CAD group, plasma IL-5 levels in the CAD groups were significantly lower, and the sequence from high to low was stable angina pectoris, unstable angina pectoris, and acute myocardial infarction. Binary linear regression analysis showed that IL-5 was independently correlated with the occurrence of CAD. Recombinant mouse IL-5 treatment decreased Th1 and Th17 levels and mRNA expression of their characteristic cytokines in oxidized low-density lipoprotein-treated CD4+Th cells. CONCLUSION: IL-5 levels were decreased in CAD patients and inhibited oxidized low-density lipoprotein Th1 and Th17 differentiation in vitro


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Interleucina-5/sangue , Interleucina-5/metabolismo , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th17/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Western Blotting , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
19.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(9): 1725-1735, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328672

RESUMO

Surface exposed phosphatidylserine (PS) of cancer aids it to evade immune surveillance and thereby results in tumor progression. Earlier, we reported that PS targeting cationic liposomes, phosphatidylcholine-stearylamine (PC-SA), alone and in combination with doxorubicin can result in complete remission of B16F10 melanoma in C57BL/6 mice without signs of toxicity. Inducing an immunogenic response is highly crucial for any cancer therapy as it is essential in improving the tumor microenvironment for any drug to act. Herein, we demonstrate that PC-SA, besides having tumor reducing ability, elicits a strong immune response. The combination therapy (PC-SA-DOX) is superior to free DOX in enhancing the anti-tumor immune effect on CD4-positive and CD8-positive T cells for IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α production in sera and splenic culture supernatants of B16F10 tumor-induced mice. An upregulation of IL-12 and NO production is evidenced in spleen cultures of these mice, thereby showing a promising role of both Th1 type and innate immune response for host anti-tumor activity. Complete elimination of cancer is sometimes accomplished by surgery, but its effectiveness is often limited due to the propensity of cancers to spread to distant organs by metastasis. In our present study, we show that in PC-SA-DOX treated mice, the elevated Th1 cytokine levels create an immuno-protective environment which thereby facilitates in curing lung metastasis. Our results, therefore, warrant the need of effective immune stimulation by anticancer formulations for inhibition of solid tumors and metastasis, demonstrated by the liposomal DOX formulation.


Assuntos
Aminas/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Lipossomos/farmacologia , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/metabolismo , Células Th1/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Horm Metab Res ; 52(4): 228-235, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268424

RESUMO

Prolactin is known to have immune modulatory effects acting through the prolactin receptor, which is present on a variety of immune cells. Certain chemokines contribute to form the type of T helper (Th) preponderance in the immune response. The objective of this work was to assess if hyperprolactinemia not related to pregnancy is associated with changes in circulating levels of chemokines and other immunological markers. In this cross sectional study, 35 patients with hyperprolactinemia (5 men), and 102 healthy blood donors (19 men) were included. Serum levels of Th1- Th2- and Th17-associated chemokines, C-reactive protein, immunoglobulins, and the B cell attracting chemokine CXCL13 were assessed. The hyperprolactinemic group had significantly higher levels of Th2 associated CCL22 (p=0.022), Th17 associated CXCL1 (p=0.001), B cell attracting CXCL13 (p=0.003), and C-reactive protein (p<0.001) compared to controls, and these proteins were also positively correlated with prolactin levels. While differences in CCL22, CXCL1, CXCL13, and C-reactive protein were present in patients with low or moderate hyperprolactinemia, no differences were observed at high (>3600 mU/l) prolactin levels. To evaluate a possible dose-associated response to prolactin, an in vitro model was used, showing prolactin-induced increase in T-helper cell activation at moderate levels, while activation decreased at higher levels. Hyperprolactinemia seems to have several immunomodulatory effects and was associated with increased levels of chemokines associated with Th2 and Th17 responses and B cell attraction. However, patients with greatly increased prolactin had normal levels of chemokines, and in vitro, high levels of prolactin decreased T-helper cell activation.


Assuntos
Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Hiperprolactinemia/sangue , Hiperprolactinemia/imunologia , Imunomodulação/fisiologia , Prolactina/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimiocina CXCL13/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/análise , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Ativação Linfocitária/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th17/metabolismo , Células Th2/metabolismo
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