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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4629, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934208

RESUMO

Cancer therapy is currently shifting from broadly used cytotoxic drugs to patient-specific precision therapies. Druggable driver oncogenes, identified by molecular analyses, are present in only a subset of patients. Functional profiling of primary tumor cells could circumvent these limitations, but suitable platforms are unavailable for most cancer entities. Here, we describe an in vitro drug profiling platform for rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), using a living biobank composed of twenty RMS patient-derived xenografts (PDX) for high-throughput drug testing. Optimized in vitro conditions preserve phenotypic and molecular characteristics of primary PDX cells and are compatible with propagation of cells directly isolated from patient tumors. Besides a heterogeneous spectrum of responses of largely patient-specific vulnerabilities, profiling with a large drug library reveals a strong sensitivity towards AKT inhibitors in a subgroup of RMS. Overall, our study highlights the feasibility of in vitro drug profiling of primary RMS for patient-specific treatment selection in a co-clinical setting.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Rabdomiossarcoma/metabolismo , Animais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fenótipo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Rabdomiossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Rabdomiossarcoma/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
2.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 4913-4919, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: A new class of imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole compounds have recently been evaluated as inhibitors of phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in pancreatic cancer. FAK is overexpressed in mesothelioma and has recently emerged as an interesting target for the treatment of this disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole compounds characterized by indole bicycle and a thiophene ring, were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity in two primary cell cultures of peritoneal mesothelioma, MesoII and STO cells. RESULTS: Compounds 1a and 1b showed promising antitumor activity with IC50 values in the range of 0.59 to 2.81 µM in both cell lines growing as monolayers or as spheroids. Their antiproliferative and antimigratory activity was associated with inhibition of phospho-FAK, as detected by a specific ELISA assay in STO cells. Interestingly, these compounds potentiated the antiproliferative activity of gemcitabine, and these results might be explained by the increase in the mRNA expression of the key gemcitabine transporter human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (hENT-1). CONCLUSION: These promising results support further studies on new imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole compounds as well as on the role of both FAK and hENT-1 modulation in order to develop new drug combinations for peritoneal mesothelioma.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Transportador Equilibrativo 1 de Nucleosídeo/genética , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imidazóis/síntese química , Imidazóis/química , Mesotelioma/tratamento farmacológico , Mesotelioma/patologia , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias Peritoneais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Peritoneais/patologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiadiazóis/síntese química , Tiadiazóis/química , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
3.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5191-5200, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Small molecule-based chemotherapy is an attractive approach for the chemoprevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a natural organosulfur compound with anticancer properties, as revealed by studies on in vitro models of gingival, prostate, lung, hepatic, and breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of MSM in colon cancer cells remain unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we investigated the effects of MSM, especially on the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, in HT-29 cells. RESULTS: MSM suppressed the viability of HT-29 cells by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. MSM suppressed the sphere-forming ability and expression of stemness markers in HT-29 cells. CONCLUSION: MSM has anti-cancer effects on HT-29 cells, and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, while suppressing the stemness potential.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Autorrenovação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dimetil Sulfóxido/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células HT29 , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237646, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845913

RESUMO

Tumor antigen-primed CD8 T cells differentiate into effector T cells that kill tumor cells rapidly, whereas durable responses of CD8 T cells are required to cope with long-lasting tumor growth. However, it is not well known how persisting CD8 T cells are generated. In this study, we analyzed CD8 T cells primed by antigens in tumor-draining lymph nodes and found that CD8 T cells first differentiated into a CD62L-intermediate (CD62Lint) stage upon antigen stimulation. These cells gave rise to tumor-infiltrating CD62L-CD44high Bcl6- effector T cells and CD62L+CD44highBcl6+ memory-like T cells. Memory-like T cells within the tumor expressed CD127, CXCR3 and had the potential to proliferate significantly when they were transferred into tumor-bearing mice. Bcl6 expression in these T cells was critical because Bcl6-/-CD62L+CD44highCD8T cells within the tumor were defective in expansion after secondary transfer. Taken together, our findings show that CD62L+CD44highBcl6+ cells are generated from highly proliferating CD62Lint T cells and retain high proliferative potential, which contributes to replenishment of effector T cells within the tumor.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/patologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Selectina L/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-6/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Feminino , Selectina L/genética , Masculino , Melanoma Experimental/imunologia , Melanoma Experimental/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-6/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
5.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(8): 963-968, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741869

RESUMO

Metabolome analysis is an approach to investigate cell characteristics from the metabolites that are constantly produced and changed by those cells. We conducted a metabolome analysis of the response of 786-O renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells to histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, which are expected to increase anticancer drug sensitivity, and compared the response with that of drug-resistant cells. Trichostatin A (TSA), an HDAC inhibitor, increased the sensitivity of 786-O cells to sunitinib. Moreover, TCA cycle and nucleotide metabolism of the cells were promoted. The findings that acetylated p53 (active form) and early apoptotic cells were increased suggests that the mechanism involved enhancement of mitochondrial metabolism and function. In addition, established sunitinib-resistant RCC cells were exposed to a combination of sunitinib and TSA, resulting in significant growth inhibition. Principal component analysis revealed that the parent and resistant cells were obviously different, but approximately half their fluctuations were illustrated by the same pathways. In summary, it was suggested that TSA reduced sunitinib resistance by triggering intracellular metabolome shifts in energy metabolism. This was the first recognized mechanism of action of TSA as an HDAC inhibitor.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Sunitinibe/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
6.
Science ; 369(6506): 942-949, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820120

RESUMO

Gamma delta (γδ) T cells infiltrate most human tumors, but current immunotherapies fail to exploit their in situ major histocompatibility complex-independent tumoricidal potential. Activation of γδ T cells can be elicited by butyrophilin and butyrophilin-like molecules that are structurally similar to the immunosuppressive B7 family members, yet how they regulate and coordinate αß and γδ T cell responses remains unknown. Here, we report that the butyrophilin BTN3A1 inhibits tumor-reactive αß T cell receptor activation by preventing segregation of N-glycosylated CD45 from the immune synapse. Notably, CD277-specific antibodies elicit coordinated restoration of αß T cell effector activity and BTN2A1-dependent γδ lymphocyte cytotoxicity against BTN3A1+ cancer cells, abrogating malignant progression. Targeting BTN3A1 therefore orchestrates cooperative killing of established tumors by αß and γδ T cells and may present a treatment strategy for tumors resistant to existing immunotherapies.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/imunologia , Butirofilinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Butirofilinas/imunologia , Linfócitos Intraepiteliais/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antígenos CD/genética , Butirofilinas/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/imunologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4011, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782249

RESUMO

Tryptophan catabolism by the enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO/TDO) promotes immunosuppression across different cancer types. The tryptophan metabolite L-Kynurenine (Kyn) interacts with the ligand-activated transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) to drive the generation of Tregs and tolerogenic myeloid cells and PD-1 up-regulation in CD8+ T cells. Here, we show that the AHR pathway is selectively active in IDO/TDO-overexpressing tumors and is associated with resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors. We demonstrate that IDO-Kyn-AHR-mediated immunosuppression depends on an interplay between Tregs and tumor-associated macrophages, which can be reversed by AHR inhibition. Selective AHR blockade delays progression in IDO/TDO-overexpressing tumors, and its efficacy is improved in combination with PD-1 blockade. Our findings suggest that blocking the AHR pathway in IDO/TDO expressing tumors would overcome the limitation of single IDO or TDO targeting agents and constitutes a personalized approach to immunotherapy, particularly in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors.


Assuntos
Cinurenina/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/antagonistas & inibidores , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Imunoterapia , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/genética , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/metabolismo , Camundongos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Triptofano Oxigenase/genética , Triptofano Oxigenase/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Microambiente Tumoral
8.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(8): e1008041, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745136

RESUMO

Hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAPs) present a conceptually elegant approach to not only overcome, but better yet, exploit intra-tumoural hypoxia. Despite being successful in vitro and in vivo, HAPs are yet to achieve successful results in clinical settings. It has been hypothesised that this lack of clinical success can, in part, be explained by the insufficiently stringent clinical screening selection of determining which tumours are suitable for HAP treatments. Taking a mathematical modelling approach, we investigate how tumour properties and HAP-radiation scheduling influence treatment outcomes in simulated tumours. The following key results are demonstrated in silico: (i) HAP and ionising radiation (IR) monotherapies may attack tumours in dissimilar, and complementary, ways. (ii) HAP-IR scheduling may impact treatment efficacy. (iii) HAPs may function as IR treatment intensifiers. (iv) The spatio-temporal intra-tumoural oxygen landscape may impact HAP efficacy. Our in silico framework is based on an on-lattice, hybrid, multiscale cellular automaton spanning three spatial dimensions. The mathematical model for tumour spheroid growth is parameterised by multicellular tumour spheroid (MCTS) data.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Hipóxia Celular/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Radiação Ionizante , Radioterapia , Esferoides Celulares , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
9.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(8): e1007961, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810174

RESUMO

Tumour spheroids are widely used as an in vitro assay for characterising the dynamics and response to treatment of different cancer cell lines. Their popularity is largely due to the reproducible manner in which spheroids grow: the diffusion of nutrients and oxygen from the surrounding culture medium, and their consumption by tumour cells, causes proliferation to be localised at the spheroid boundary. As the spheroid grows, cells at the spheroid centre may become hypoxic and die, forming a necrotic core. The pressure created by the localisation of tumour cell proliferation and death generates an cellular flow of tumour cells from the spheroid rim towards its core. Experiments by Dorie et al. showed that this flow causes inert microspheres to infiltrate into tumour spheroids via advection from the spheroid surface, by adding microbeads to the surface of tumour spheroids and observing the distribution over time. We use an off-lattice hybrid agent-based model to re-assess these experiments and establish the extent to which the spatio-temporal data generated by microspheres can be used to infer kinetic parameters associated with the tumour spheroids that they infiltrate. Variation in these parameters, such as the rate of tumour cell proliferation or sensitivity to hypoxia, can produce spheroids with similar bulk growth dynamics but differing internal compositions (the proportion of the tumour which is proliferating, hypoxic/quiescent and necrotic/nutrient-deficient). We use this model to show that the types of experiment conducted by Dorie et al. could be used to infer spheroid composition and parameters associated with tumour cell lines such as their sensitivity to hypoxia or average rate of proliferation, and note that these observations cannot be conducted within previous continuum models of microbead infiltration into tumour spheroids as they rely on resolving the trajectories of individual microbeads.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Esferoides Celulares , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Morte Celular/fisiologia , Hipóxia Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Biologia Computacional , Humanos , Esferoides Celulares/citologia , Esferoides Celulares/fisiologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas/citologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas/fisiologia
10.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(10): 2497-2507, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620987

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tumor explant culture systems can mimic the in vivo tumor microenvironment, proposing as a substitute for preclinical studies for prediction of individual treatment response. Therefore, our study evaluated the potential usefulness of ex vivo tumor explants culture assembled into the cell sheets by anticancer drug screening in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODS: Our model included tumor explants incorporated into cell sheet composing of epithelium and subepithelial stroma using tumor and mucosal samples obtained from the HNSCC patients who underwent surgery. Cell growth, viability, and hypoxia were measured by cell counting kit-8, live/dead assay, propidium iodide, and LOX-1 staining, and were compared among the different treatment groups with vehicle, cisplatin or docetaxel. RESULTS: Tumor explants stably survived in the cell sheet over 10 days after explantation, whereas most of the explants in non-matrix culture became nonviable within 5-8 days with the significant daily decrease of viability. The live tissue areas of tumor explants in the cell sheet maintained over 30 days without significant changes although hypoxic cell areas gradually increased up to 5 days. Tissue viability and live cancer tissue areas significantly decreased after the treatment of cisplatin or docetaxel in the dose and time-dependent manners. CONCLUSION: Our cell sheet-based tumor explants model might be applied to the reliable ex vivo screening for anticancer chemotherapeutics for HNSCC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Hipóxia Celular/fisiologia , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Docetaxel/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/sangue , Humanos , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/métodos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/sangue , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
11.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(10): 2157-2162, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638080

RESUMO

Epidemiological evidence suggests that females have an advantage over males in cases of melanoma incidence, progression, and survival. However, the biological mechanisms underlying these sex differences remain unclear. With the knowledge that females generally have a more robust immune system than males, we investigated sex differences in melanoma progression in a B16-F10/BL6 syngeneic mouse model. We observed significantly less tumor volume and growth rate over 14 days in female mice compared to male mice. Furthermore, higher populations of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which indicate adaptive immune responses, were found in the circulating blood and tumors of females and corresponded with less tumor growth, and vice versa in males. Our results highlight a mouse model that represents melanoma progression in the human population and displays a higher immune response to melanoma in females compared to males. These findings suggest that the immune system may be one of the mechanisms responsible for sex differences in melanoma.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Melanoma Experimental/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Feminino , Masculino , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neoplasias Cutâneas/secundário , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/patologia , Carga Tumoral , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236119, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667929

RESUMO

The alcohol-abuse drug disulfiram has antitumor effects against diverse cancer types via inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome protein nuclear protein localization protein 4 (NPL4). However, the antitumor effects of NPL4 and disulfiram in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) are unclear. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of targeting the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway using disulfiram and RNA interference and investigated the mechanisms underlying disulfiram in ccRCC. According to data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, NPL4 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in clinical ccRCC samples compared with that in normal kidney samples, and patients with high NPL4 expression had poor overall survival compared with patients with low NPL4 expression. Disulfiram and NPL4 siRNA inhibited ccRCC cell proliferation in vitro, and disulfiram inhibited ccRCC tumor growth in a xenograft model. Synergistic antiproliferative effects were observed for combination treatment with disulfiram and sunitinib in vitro and in vivo. In RCC cells from mice treated with disulfiram and/or sunitinib, several genes associated with serine biosynthesis and aldose reductase were downregulated in cells treated with disulfiram or sunitinib alone and further downregulated in cells treated with both disulfiram and sunitinib. These findings provided insights into the mechanisms of disulfiram and suggested novel therapeutic strategies for RCC treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Dissulfiram/farmacologia , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Acetaldeído Desidrogenases/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Prognóstico , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236101, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678829

RESUMO

Dysregulation of histone demethylase Jumonji-C domain-containing protein 5 (JMJD5) has been identified as a great effect on tumorigenesis. Silibinin is a commonly used anti-hepatotoxic drug and exhibits anticancer effect in various cancers. However, the antitumor mechanism between silibinin and JMJD5 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains unclear. In this study, the clinical significance of JMJD5 on OSCC patients was assessed through tissue microarray. Furthermore, mice bearing patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDTXs) and tongue cancer cell lines were treated with silibinin and evaluated for tumor growth and JMJD5 expression. High expression of JMJD5 in oral cancer was significantly associated with tumor size (P = 0.0241), cervical node metastasis (P = 0.0001) and clinical stage (P = 0.0002), was associated with worse survival rate compared with that of the total cohort (P = 0.0002). Collectively the data indicate that JMJD5 expression may be suitable for detection of unfavorable prognosis in OSCC patients, based in part on its apparent role as a marker of metastasis. In addition, silibinin inhibits cancer growth in vitro and in PDTX models. Furthermore, metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) could regulate the expression for JMJD5 and had a positive correlation with JMJD5. Moreover, silibinin could downregulate JMJD5 and MTA1 in oral cancer. Present study thus identifies that JMJD5 might be an essential prognostic indicator and therapeutic target against OSCC progression. In addition, silibinin is a potential candidate among novel chemotherapeutic agents or adjuvants for modulating JMJD5 in OSCC, through a mechanism likely involving MTA1/JMJD5 axis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Histona Desmetilases/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Silibina/farmacologia , Transativadores/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Neoplasias Bucais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Taxa de Sobrevida , Transativadores/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236876, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730336

RESUMO

PHRF1 (PHD and RING finger domain-containing protein 1) suppresses acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) by promoting TGIF (TG-interacting factor) ubiquitination, while the PML-RARα protein interferes with PHRF1-mediated TGIF breakdown to facilitate APL. Beyond its role in APL tumorigenesis, PHRF1 contributes to non-homologous end-joining by linking H3K36 methylation and Nbs1 upon DNA damage insults. However, little is known regarding its function in tumor invasion. Here we highlight the unreported details of PHRF1 in the invasion of lung cancer cells by modulating the transcriptional level of ZEB1, a prominent regulator involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. PHRF1 associated with the phosphorylated C-terminal repeat domain of Rpb1, the large subunit of RNA polymerase II, through its C-terminal Set2 Rpb1 Interacting (SRI) domain. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that PHRF1 bound to the proximal region adjacent to the transcription start site of ZEB1. SRI-deleted PHRF1 neither associated with Rpb1 nor increased ZEB1's expression. Collectively, PHRF1 might take the stage at migration and invasion by modulating the expression of ZEB1.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Homeobox 1 de Ligação a E-box em Dedo de Zinco/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Proliferação de Células , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Homeobox 1 de Ligação a E-box em Dedo de Zinco/genética
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235747, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658903

RESUMO

Despite development of markers for identification of cancer stem cells, the mechanism underlying the survival and division of cancer stem cells in breast cancer remains unclear. Here we report that PKCλ expression was enriched in basal-like breast cancer, among breast cancer subtypes, and was correlated with ALDH1A3 expression (p = 0.016, χ2-test). Late stage breast cancer patients expressing PKCλhigh and ALDH1A3high had poorer disease-specific survival than those expressing PKCλlow and ALDH1A3low (p = 0.018, log rank test for Kaplan-Meier survival curves: hazard ratio 2.58, 95% CI 1.24-5.37, p = 0.011, multivariate Cox regression analysis). Functional inhibition of PKCλ through siRNA-mediated knockdown or CRISPR-Cas9-mediated knockout in ALDH1high MDA-MB 157 and MDA-MB 468 basal-like breast cancer cells led to increases in the numbers of trypan blue-positive and active-caspase 3-positive cells, as well as suppression of tumor-sphere formation and cell migration. Furthermore, the amount of CASP3 and PARP mRNA and the level of cleaved caspase-3 protein were enhanced in PKCλ-deficient ALDH1high cells. An Apoptosis inhibitor (z-VAD-FMK) suppressed the enhancement of cell death as well as the levels of cleaved caspase-3 protein in PKCλ deficient ALDH1high cells. It also altered the asymmetric/symmetric distribution ratio of ALDH1A3 protein. In addition, PKCλ knockdown led to increases in cellular ROS levels in ALDH1high cells. These results suggest that PKCλ is essential for cancer cell survival and migration, tumorigenesis, the asymmetric distribution of ALDH1A3 protein among cancer cells, and the maintenance of low ROS levels in ALDH1-positive breast cancer stem cells. This makes it a key contributor to the poorer prognosis seen in late-stage breast cancer patients.


Assuntos
Aldeído Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apoptose , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
16.
Mol Cell ; 79(1): 180-190.e4, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619468

RESUMO

Rigosertib is a styryl benzyl sulfone that inhibits growth of tumor cells and acts as a RAS mimetic by binding to Ras binding domains of RAS effectors. A recent study attributed rigosertib's mechanism of action to microtubule binding. In that study, rigosertib was obtained from a commercial vendor. We compared the purity of clinical-grade and commercially sourced rigosertib and found that commercially sourced rigosertib contains approximately 5% ON01500, a potent inhibitor of tubulin polymerization. Clinical-grade rigosertib, which is free of this impurity, does not exhibit tubulin-binding activity. Cell lines expressing mutant ß-tubulin have also been reported to be resistant to rigosertib. However, our study showed that these cells failed to proliferate in the presence of rigosertib at concentrations that are lethal to wild-type cells. Rigosertib induced a senescence-like phenotype in the small percentage of surviving cells, which could be incorrectly scored as resistant using short-term cultures.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Glicina/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Mutação , Tubulina (Proteína)/química , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
17.
Mol Carcinog ; 59(8): 1000-1011, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511815

RESUMO

Despite an overall decline in the incidence of new cases, lung adenocarcinoma continues to be a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Due to lack of gene expression signatures for risk and prognosis stratification of lung adenocarcinoma, identifying novel molecular biomarkers and therapeutic targets may potentially improve lung adenocarcinoma prognosis and treatment. In the current study, we investigate the role of USP53 in lung adenocarcinoma. Bioinformatics analysis, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot were employed to examine patterns of gene expression in human lung adenocarcinoma database, patient samples, and cancer cell lines. Stable cell lines were produced by transducing with USP53 overexpression vector or short hairpin RNA targeting USP53 in the presence and absence of AKT pathway inhibitor LY294002. Functional assays were carried out to examine the impact of USP53 and AKT pathway on lung adenocarcinoma cell viability, apoptosis, and glycolysis in vitro, as well as tumor growth in vivo. The correlation between USP53 and FKBP51 was measured by coimmunoprecipitation and ubiquitination assay. Decreased USP53 levels are a reliable marker of lung adenocarcinoma across published datasets, clinical samples, and cell culture lines. Low USP53 expression is linked to decreased apoptosis and increased metabolic activity, suggesting it acts as a tumor suppressor. USP53 regulates cell apoptosis and glycolysis through the AKT1 pathway. Mechanistically, USP53 deubiquitinates FKBP51, which in turn dephosphorylates AKT1, and ultimately inhibits tumor growth in lung adenocarcinoma. Taken together, our study establishes USP53 as a novel regulator of AKT1 pathway with an important role in tumorigenesis in lung adenocarcinoma.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Apoptose , Glicólise , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/metabolismo , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Gene ; 754: 144851, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525044

RESUMO

Tumor angiogenesis is a common feature of rapidly growing solid tumors, accelerated by tumor hypoxia. It is associated with subsequent metastasis, progression, poor prognosis, and aggressive phenotype in many types of cancer. The hypoxia-inducible factors/vascular endothelial growth factor 1(HIF1/VEGF) signal pathway plays an important role in tumor angiogenesis. Proteasome-mediated ubiquitin degradation pathway is one of the most important processes involved in regulating the level of cellular HIF-1α. Our study revealed that Histone Deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) directly inhibits the ubiquitination of HIF1α. Additionally, HDAC1 activates HIF1α/VEGFA signaling pathway, promoting s tumor angiogenesis. These findings have enhanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of colorectal (CRC) tumor angiogenesis. HDAC1/HIF1α/VEGFA signaling pathway may provide a novel therapeutic window for CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Histona Desacetilase 1/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Ciclo Celular , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Histona Desacetilase 1/genética , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Invasividade Neoplásica , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Transdução de Sinais , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
19.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(4): 945-966, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476431

RESUMO

Tetramethylpyrazine has shown neuroprotective and axonal outgrowth-promoting effects and can improve cognitive deficit in a rat model of chronic hypoperfusion. However, the role of tetramethylpyrazine in sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity is still vague. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of tetramethylpyrazine on sevoflurane-induced autophagy, apoptosis, and the expression of BACE1 and A[Formula: see text] in SH-SY5Y cells. We measured the expression levels of the apoptosis protein markers Bax and Bcl-2, autophagy protein markers Atg5 and LC3-II, BACE1, and A[Formula: see text] in SH-SY5Y cells after sevoflurane treatment and determined the effects of tetramethylpyrazine on sevoflurane-induced expression of these proteins after silencing GPR50 or Atg5 with siRNA in vitro. We found that exposure to 3.4% sevoflurane for 6 h decreased the expression of autophagy protein markers and increased the expression of the apoptosis protein markers, BACE1, and A[Formula: see text] in SH-SY5Y cells. The number of red puncta (autolysosomes) and yellow puncta (autophagosomes) in each SH-SY5Y cell decreased after transient transfection with the mRFP-GFP-LC3 expression plasmid. Silencing of GPR50 decreased the expression of pCREB, Atg5, and LC3-II, while silencing of Atg5 increased the expression of BACE1 and A[Formula: see text] in SH-SY5Y cells. Our results demonstrate that tetramethylpyrazine attenuated sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity by enhancing autophagy through the GPR50/CREB pathway in SH-SY5Y cells.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/genética , Proteína de Ligação a CREB/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neuroprostanos , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Sevoflurano/toxicidade , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/genética , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/genética , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/genética , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Proteína 5 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Proteína 5 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
20.
An Real Acad Farm ; 86(2): 133-150, abr.-jun. 2020. graf, ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193549

RESUMO

El cannabidiol está despertando un creciente interés como agente antitumoral. Sin embargo, no se ha estudiado su efecto en cáncer de ovario, uno de los tumores más agresivos en mujeres. En el presente trabajo se ha evaluado, por primera vez, el potencial uso del cannabidiol en solución y encapsulado en nanopartículas funcionalizadas con ácido fólico en cáncer de ovario, ya que estos tumores sobre expresan los receptores de ácido fólico, permitiendo una acumulación selectiva de estas nanoformulaciones en las células tumorales. El cannabidiol en solución inhibe la proliferación y migración de las células SKOV-3. En terapia de combinación, aumenta significativamente la eficacia antitumoral del paclitaxel, presentando un efecto sensibilizador y sinérgico. En los modelos in ovo, la administración previa de cannabidiol en solución seguido de su coadministración con paclitaxel muestra un efecto inhibitorio sobre el crecimiento tumoral significativamente superior al paclitaxel en monoterapia. Las nanopartículas desarrolladas son eficazmente internalizadas por las células SKOV-3, presentando las nanopartículas con ácido fólico una captación más rápida. Aunque en los estudios de eficacia antitumoral in vitro las nanopartículas funcionalizadas no presentan una actividad antiproliferativa superior al cannabidiol en solución o a las nanopartículas no funcionalizadas, en los modelos in ovo su eficacia antitumoral es significativamente superior, indicando que el desarrollo de nanopartículas funcionalizadas con ácido fólico es una buena estrategia para vectorizar el cannabidiol a tumores de ovario. Por último, las nanopartículas de cannabidiol potencian el efecto antitumoral del paclitaxel, presentando las formulaciones funcionalizadas con ácido fólico una mayor eficacia que el cannabidiol en solución


Cannabidiol has become in a potential anticancer agent. Nevertheless, it has not been evaluated in ovarian cancer, one of the most aggressive tumors in women. In this work, the potential use of cannabidiol in solution and encapsulated into polymeric nanoparticles coated with folic acid was evaluated for the first time for the treatment of ovarian cancer. Ovarian tumors over-express folic acid receptors and folic-acid-coated nanoformulations trend to be selectively accumulated at tumor site. Cannabidiol in solution administered as monotherapy inhibits the proliferation and migration of SKOV-3 cells. In combination therapy, it significantly increases the antitumor efficacy of paclitaxel, showing a sensitizer and synergistic effect. In ovo, the previous administration of cannabidiol in solution followed by its co-administration with paclitaxel, shows a significantly higher inhibitory effect on ovarian tumor growth than single paclitaxel. The developed nanoparticles are efficiently uptaken by SKOV-3 cells, showing folic acid coated formulations a faster internalization. Although coated formulations do not exhibit a higher in vitro antiproliferative effect compared to cannabidiol in solution or non-coated formulations, in ovo its antitumoral efficacy is significantly higher. This indicates that folic acid-coated nanoparticles represent a good strategy to target cannabidiol to ovarian tumors. Finally, cannabidiol-loaded nanoparticles improve the in vitro antiproliferative effect of paclitaxel, showing folic acid-coated-formulations a better efficacy than cannabidiol in solution


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Nanomedicina , Canabinoides/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Movimento Celular , Apoptose
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