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1.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 39(3): 281-290, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865918

RESUMO

Objective-To investigate cystathionine ß synthase (CBS)/hydrogen sulfide (H2S) signaling in multiple myeloma (MM) patients and to identify its effect on the proliferation of U266 cells. Methods-Bone marrow samples of 19 MM patients and 23 healthy donors were collected. qRT-PCR was performed to measure the mRNA expression levels of H2S synthases, cystathionine ß synthase, and cystathionine γ lyase. ELISA assays quantified the amount of H2S produced by the two enzymes CBS and CSE. CCK-8 experiment was used to investigate the influence of the CBS inhibitor amino oxyacetic acid and the CSE inhibitor propargylglycine on the proliferation of U266 cells. Flow cytometry and western blotting were performed to determine the effects of AOAA, PAG, and NaHS on cell cycle distribution as well as Caspase-3 and Bcl-2 expression. Results-Patients with MM had higher level of CBS compared with healthy donors. AOAA significantly inhibited cell proliferation in both a time and concentration dependent characteristic, whereas PAG does not. After 24 hours of treatment, AOAA significantly elevated the G0/G1 phase proportion of cells, and reduced the cell distribution in both S and G2/M phases, while NaHS accelerated cell cycle progression by reducing the relative number of cells in G0/G1 phase and increasing the proportion of cells in the G2/M phase. Moreover, AOAA abolished the impact of NaHS on cell cycle progression of U266 cells. AOAA treatment also led to a significant decrease in Bcl-2 expression and dramatic increase in Caspase-3 expression, though NaHS reversed these effects. Conclusion-CBS/H2S system might have a certain effect on the proliferation and apoptosis of MM cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Cistationina beta-Sintase/metabolismo , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Mieloma Múltiplo/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Alquinos/farmacologia , Ácido Amino-Oxiacético/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cistationina beta-Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Cistationina gama-Liase/antagonistas & inibidores , Cistationina gama-Liase/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Feminino , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 6355-6372, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922006

RESUMO

Background: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2NPs) are potent scavengers of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Their antioxidant properties make CeO2NPs promising therapeutic agents for bone diseases and bone tissue engineering. However, the effects of CeO2NPs on intracellular ROS production in osteoclasts (OCs) are still unclear. Numerous studies have reported that intracellular ROS are essential for osteoclastogenesis. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of CeO2NPs on osteoclast differentiation and the potential underlying mechanisms. Methods: The bidirectional modulation of osteoclast differentiation by CeO2NPs was explored by different methods, such as fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and Western blotting. The cytotoxic and proapoptotic effects of CeO2NPs were detected by cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay, TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and flow cytometry. Results: The results of this study demonstrated that although CeO2NPs were capable of scavenging ROS in acellular environments, they facilitated the production of ROS in the acidic cellular environment during receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL)-dependent osteoclast differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). CeO2NPs at lower concentrations (4.0 µg/mL to 8.0 µg/mL) promoted osteoclast formation, as shown by increased expression of Nfatc1 and C-Fos, F-actin ring formation and bone resorption. However, at higher concentrations (greater than 16.0 µg/mL), CeO2NPs inhibited osteoclast differentiation and promoted apoptosis of BMMs by reducing Bcl2 expression and increasing the expression of cleaved caspase-3, which may be due to the overproduction of ROS. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that CeO2NPs facilitate osteoclast formation at lower concentrations while inhibiting osteoclastogenesis in vitro by inducing the apoptosis of BMMs at higher concentrations by modulating cellular ROS levels.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Cério/química , Osteoclastos/citologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligante RANK/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21876, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer continues to be a severe global health problem and the leading cause of death worldwide. Chemotherapy as the main treatment has various side effects, of which marrow suppression is the most common one. Acupuncture had shown clinical effects for marrow suppression after chemotherapy in many studies. However, the efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy for marrow suppression after chemotherapy remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This protocol aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for marrow suppression after chemotherapy according to the existing randomized controlled trials. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The randomized controlled trials on acupuncture therapy for marrow suppression after chemotherapy will be searched in the database of Embase, PubMed and Cochrane Library, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang Database (WF), and related registration platforms (WHO ICTRP, Clinical Trials, and Chinese Clinical Trial Register [ChiCTR]), Grey Literature Database from inception to 1 August 2020. The primary outcomes will be assessed using white blood cell (WBC) count, platelet count, hemoglobin count and the number of neutrophils (N). Review Manager V.5.3 software will be applied for statistical analyses. We will measure the risk of bias of the included studies with Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool. Finally, Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) will be used to grade the overall quality of evidence. And we will use the intra-group correlation coefficient to assess the consistency of reviewers. RESULT: This systematic review and meta-analysis will put a high-quality synthesis of the efficacy and safety of acupuncture treatment in marrow suppression after chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: The conclusion of this systematic review will provide evidence to assess acupuncture therapy is an efficacy and safe intervention to treat and control marrow suppression after chemotherapy. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42020163336.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Óssea/patologia , Tratamento Farmacológico/métodos , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos/métodos , Masculino , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neutrófilos/citologia , Contagem de Plaquetas/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Segurança , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236433, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706801

RESUMO

Coptidis alkaloids are the primary active components of Coptis chinensis Franch. Clinical and pharmacodynamic studies have confirmed that Coptidis alkaloids have multiple therapeutic effects including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitumor effects, and they are usually used to treat various inflammatory disorders and related diseases. Mouse bone marrow cells (BMCs) were isolated from BALB/c mice. Immune-mediated destruction of BMCs was induced by interferon (IFN) -γ. High-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/ mass spectrometry was used to analyze the ingredients of the aqueous extract from Coptis chinensis Franch. The results confirmed that Coptidis alkaloids were the predominant ingredients in the aqueous extract from Coptis chinensis. The functional mechanism of Coptidis alkaloids in inhibiting immune-mediated destruction of BMCs was studied in vitro. After Coptidis alkaloid treatment, the percentages of apoptotic BMCs and the proliferation and differentiation of helper T (Th) cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells were measured by flow cytometry. The expression and distribution of T-bet in BMCs were observed by immunofluorescence. Western blotting analysis was used to assay the expression of key molecules in the Fas apoptosis and Jak/Stats signaling pathways in BMCs. We identified five alkaloids in the aqueous extract of Coptis chinensis. The apoptotic ratios of BMCs induced by IFN-γ were decreased significantly after Coptidis alkaloid treatment. The levels of key molecules (Fas, Caspase-3, cleaved Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and Caspase-8) in Fas apoptosis signaling pathways also decreased significantly after treatment with low concentrations of Coptidis alkaloids. Coptidis alkaloids were also found to inhibit the proliferation of Th1 and Th17 cells and induce the differentiation of Th2 and Treg cells; further, the distribution of T-bet in BMCs was decreased significantly. In addition, the levels of Stat-1, phospho-Stat-1 and phospho-Stat-3 were also reduced after Coptidis alkaloid treatment. These results indicate that Coptidis alkaloids extracted by water decoction from Coptis chinensis Franch could inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of T lymphocytes, attenuate the apoptosis of BMCs, and suppress the immune-mediated destruction of the BMCs induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Coptis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/imunologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/patologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia
5.
Toxicology ; 441: 152507, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512035

RESUMO

Vorinostat was approved as the first histone deacetylase inhibitor for the management of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. However, it's in vivo genetic and epigenetic effects on non-cancerous cells remain poorly understood. As genetic and epigenetic changes play a critical role in the pathogenesis of carcinogenesis, we investigated whether vorinostat induces genetic and epigenetic alterations in mouse bone marrow cells. Bone marrow cells were isolated 24 h following the last oral administration of vorinostat at the doses of 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day for five days (approximately equal to the recommended human doses). The cells were then used to assess clastogenicity and aneugenicity by the micronucleus test complemented by fluorescence in situ hybridization assay; DNA strand breaks, oxidative DNA strand breaks, and DNA methylation by the modified comet assay; apoptosis by annexin V/PI staining analysis and the occurrence of the hypodiploid DNA content; and DNA damage/repair gene expression by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Array. The expression of the mRNA transcripts were also confirmed by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. Vorinostat caused structural chromosomal damage, numerical chromosomal abnormalities, DNA strand breaks, oxidative DNA strand breaks, DNA hypomethylation, and programed cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the expression of numerous genes implicated in DNA damage/repair were altered after vorinostat treatment. Accordingly, the genetic/epigenetic mechanism(s) of action of vorinostat may play a role in its carcinogenicity and support the continued study and development of new compounds with lower toxicity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Vorinostat/toxicidade , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Aberrações Cromossômicas/induzido quimicamente , Ensaio Cometa , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Reparo do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação para Baixo , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Vorinostat/administração & dosagem
6.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 401: 115111, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553695

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants that are metabolized to carcinogenic dihydrodiol epoxides (PAHDE) by cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1). This metabolism occurs in bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), which sustain hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC). In BM, CYP1B1-mediated metabolism of 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) suppresses HSPC colony formation within 6 h, whereas benzo(a)pyrene (BP) generates protective cytokines. MSC, enriched from adherent BM cells, yielded the bone marrow stromal, BMS2, cell line. These cells express elevated basal CYP1B1 that scarcely responds to Ah receptor (AhR) inducers. BMS2 cells exhibit extensive transcriptome overlap with leptin receptor positive mesenchymal stem cells (Lepr+ MSC) that control the hematopoietic niche. The overlap includes CYP1B1 and the expression of HSPC regulatory factors (Ebf3, Cxcl12, Kitl, Csf1 and Gas6). MSC are large, adherent fibroblasts that sequester small HSPC and macrophage in the BM niche (Graphic abstract). High basal CYP1B1 expression in BMS2 cells derives from interactions between the Ah-receptor enhancer and proximal promoter SP1 complexes, boosted by autocrine signaling. PAH effects on BMS2 cells model Lepr+MSC niche activity. CYP1B1 metabolizes DMBA to PAHDE, producing p53-mediated mRNA increases, long after the in vivo HSPC suppression. Faster, direct p53 effects, favored by stem cells, remain possible PAHDE targets. However, HSPC regulatory factors remained unresponsive. BP is less toxic in BMS2 cells, but, in BM, CYP1A1 metabolism stimulates macrophage cytokines (Il1b > Tnfa> Ifng) within 6 h. Although absent from BMS2 and Lepr+MSC, their receptors are highly expressed. The impact of this cytokine signaling in MSC remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/biossíntese , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CHO , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/genética , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233773, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559198

RESUMO

In early life and around weaning, pigs are at risk of developing infectious diseases which compromise animal welfare and have major economic consequences for the pig industry. A promising strategy to enhance resistance against infectious diseases is immunomodulation by feed additives. To assess the immune stimulating potential of feed additives in vitro, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were used. These cells play a central role in the innate and adaptive immune system and are the first cells encountered by antigens that pass the epithelial barrier. Two different feed additives were tested on dendritic cells cultured from fresh and cryopreserved bone marrow cells; a widely used commercial feed additive based on yeast-derived ß-glucans and the gram-negative probiotic strain E. coli Nissle 1917. E. coli Nissle 1917, but not ß-glucans, induced a dose-dependent upregulation of the cell maturation marker CD80/86, whereas both feed additives induced a dose-dependent production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, including TNFα, IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-10. Furthermore, E. coli Nissle 1917 consistently induced higher levels of cytokine production than ß-glucans. These immunomodulatory responses could be assessed by fresh as well as cryopreserved in vitro cultured porcine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that both ß-glucans and E. coli Nissle 1917 are able to enhance dendritic cell maturation, but in a differential manner. A more mature dendritic cell phenotype could contribute to a more efficient response to infections. Moreover, both fresh and cryopreserved bone marrow-derived dendritic cells can be used as in vitro pre-screening tools which enable an evidence based prediction of the potential immune stimulating effects of different feed additives.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Suínos/imunologia , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Antígeno B7-1/genética , Antígeno B7-1/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-2/genética , Antígeno B7-2/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 200: 110761, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470682

RESUMO

Benzo()pyrene [B()P], widely originated from environmental pollution or food process such as roasting and frying, is a strong mutagen and potent carcinogen. Utilization of hawthorn has been reported against physical mutagens. Our study found that hawthorn extract (HE) contained abundant phenolic compounds, wherein chlorogenic acid was 2.78 mg/g, procyanidine B2 was 3.58 mg/g, epicatechin was 2.99 mg/g DW, which may contribute to anti-genotoxicity activity. So, the role of HE against B()P-induced genotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice was further assessed. Fifty mice were distributed into five groups: control group, B()P group (30 mg/kg, i.p.), B()P + HE-L group (100 mg/kg, i.g.), B()P + HE-M group (200 mg/kg, i.g.), B()P + HE-H group (400 mg/kg, i.g.). Mice were orally administered with solutions of HE for 10 days and injected intraperitoneally with B()P for 3 days from the 8th day. Results showed that B()P can induce significantly pathological damage in liver, lung and spleen, as well as decrease white blood cells (WBCs). Remarkably elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA strand breaks (DSBs) and G1 cell cycle arrest were also found in B()P group, with upregulated expressions of p-H2AX, p-p53 and p21 in bone marrow cells. With administration of HE, liver, lung and spleen injury significantly mitigated, while WBCs were evidently increased in B()P-treated mice. Consistently, HE markedly reduced level of ROS, DSBs and G1 cell cycle arrest accompanied by reducing expressions of p-H2AX, p-p53 and p21 in bone marrow cells. Combined, these results indicated a protective role of HE on B()P-induced genotoxicity.


Assuntos
Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Crataegus/química , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Histonas/genética , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Substâncias Protetoras/isolamento & purificação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/patologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
9.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(1): 110-117, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376555

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of cyclophosphamide on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in mice with iron overload. METHODS: Mouse models of iron overload were established in 30 male C57BL/6 mice by intraperitoneal injections of iron dextran at low (0.25 g/kg), moderate (0.5 g/kg), and high (1 g/kg) doses (n=10), with another 10 PBS-treated mice as the control group. The changes in body weight, liver, spleen and bone marrow of the mice were recorded, and serum level of ferritin was detected. The mice receiving a moderate dose of iron dextran were further divided into 8 groups for observation at different time points (D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D6, D7, and D14 groups) and were given intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg cyclophosphamide (Cy) for 2 consecutive days. Peripheral blood cells, bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs), and the frequencies of different HSCs (HPCs, HSCs, LT-HSCs) in the BMMNCs were monitored. The cell cycle distribution in the HSCs, level of reactive oxygen species and the microenvironment of the HSCs were analyzed using flow cytometry. RESULTS: Compared with the control mice, the mice with iron overload showed obvious weight loss with significantly increased serum ferritin level, enlargement of the liver and spleen, and iron deposition in the organs (P < 0.05). No significant changes were noted in the peripheral blood of the mice with iron overload. The cyclophosphamide-treated mice exhibited significantly decreased number of WBCs and lymphocyte ratio at days 1 to 4 (P < 0.05). The numbers of BMMNCs and HPCs in mice with iron overload did not show significant changes as compared with those in the control mice, but the numbers of HSCs and LTHSCs decreased significantly in the mice with iron overload (P < 0.05). In cyclophosphamide-treated mice, the number of HSCs increased since day 1 and reached the peak level on day 3 (P < 0.05). Compared with those in the control group, the HSCs did not exhibit significant changes in cell cycle distribution in mice with iron overload, but the proportion of G0/G1 cells decreased significantly in cyclophosphamide group since day 1 and reached the lowest level on day 3 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Iron deposition in the bone marrow causes long- term damages of the HSCs in the bone marrow but does not induce obvious changes in the peripheral blood. In mice with iron overload, intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg cyclophosphamide for two days promotes cell cycle changes of the resting HSCs to mobilize the HSCs, and this effect is the most obvious on day 4.


Assuntos
Ciclofosfamida/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrecarga de Ferro , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular , Ferritinas/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2054, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345968

RESUMO

Classical dendritic cells (cDCs) are rare sentinel cells specialized in the regulation of adaptive immunity. Modeling cDC development is crucial to study cDCs and harness their therapeutic potential. Here we address whether cDCs could differentiate in response to trophic cues delivered by mesenchymal components of the hematopoietic niche. We find that mesenchymal stromal cells engineered to express membrane-bound FLT3L and stem cell factor (SCF) together with CXCL12 induce the specification of human cDCs from CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Engraftment of engineered mesenchymal stromal cells (eMSCs) together with CD34+ HSPCs creates an in vivo synthetic niche in the dermis of immunodeficient mice driving the differentiation of cDCs and CD123+AXL+CD327+ pre/AS-DCs. cDC2s generated in vivo display higher levels of resemblance with human blood cDCs unattained by in vitro-generated subsets. Altogether, eMSCs provide a unique platform recapitulating the full spectrum of cDC subsets enabling their functional characterization in vivo.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/citologia , Nicho de Células-Tronco , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL12/farmacologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Colágeno/farmacologia , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Laminina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Organoides/metabolismo , Proteoglicanas/farmacologia , Nicho de Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Estromais/citologia , Células Estromais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Estromais/metabolismo
11.
Gene ; 748: 144668, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334025

RESUMO

KMN-159 is the lead compound from a series of novel difluorolactam prostanoid EP4 receptor agonists aimed at inducing local bone formation while avoiding the inherent side effects of systemic EP4 activation. KMN-159 is a potent, selective small molecule possessing pharmacokinetic properties amenable to local administration. Unfractionated rat bone marrow cells (BMCs) were treated once at plating with escalating doses of KMN-159 (1 pM to 10 µM). The resulting elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels measured 9 days post-dose are consistent with increased osteoblastic differentiation and exposure to KMN-159 at low nanomolar concentrations for as little as 30 min was sufficient to induce complete osteoblast differentiation of the BMCs from both sexes and regardless of age. ALP induction was blocked by an EP4 receptor antagonist but not by EP1 or EP2 receptor antagonists and was not induced by EP2 or EP3 receptor agonists. Addition of BMCs to plates coated with KMN-159 24 days earlier resulted in ALP activation, highlighting the chemical stability of the compound. The expression of phenotype markers such as ALP, type I collagen, and osteocalcin was significantly elevated throughout the osteoblastic differentiation timecourse initiated by KMN-159 stimulation. An increased number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive cells was observed KMN-159 or PGE2 treated BMCs but only in the presence of exogenous receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL). No change in the number of adipocytes was observed. KMN-159 also increased bone healing in a rat calvarial defect model with a healing rate equivalent to recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. Our studies show that KMN-159 is able to stimulate osteoblastic differentiation with a very short time of exposure, supporting its potential as a therapeutic candidate for augmenting bone mass.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Heptanoicos/farmacologia , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP4/agonistas , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Ativação Enzimática , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/enzimologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
Toxicol Lett ; 328: 1-6, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315709

RESUMO

The genotoxicity of cationic lipopeptide nanoparticles (cLPNPs) was evaluated in vivo and in vitro comet assay and the in vivo chromosome aberrations test. In vitro comet assay, human blood cells were exposed to cLPNPs at the concentration of 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 100 µg/mL. Significant DNA damage was observed after 1 h exposure, but no effects were detected after 3 h. In vivo, cLPNPs were administered in single or five daily injection doses at 8, 20 and 40 mg/kg of body weight by subcutaneous injection to male mice. The cLPNPs caused DNA damage in the liver, lung and kidney, but not in the spleen. The kidney was more prone to genotoxic effects that persisted from 24 h to 14d after a single injection of cLPNPs. No statistically significant increase in the percentage of cells with chromosomal aberrations above the vehicle control was observed in mice bone marrow after a single or repeated injection of cLPNPs. In summary, cLPNPs shown to be genotoxic both in vivo and in vitro. The results suggest the importance of the use of highly sensitive methods, such as the comet assay, in order to determine the full genotoxic potential of nanoparticles.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas/induzido quimicamente , Dano ao DNA , Lipopeptídeos/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaio Cometa , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Lipopeptídeos/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA , Nanopartículas/química
13.
J Surg Res ; 251: 287-295, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The endothelial glycocalyx (EG) is involved in critical regulatory mechanisms that maintain endothelial vascular integrity. We hypothesized that prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may be associated with EG degradation. We performed an analysis of soluble syndecan-1 levels in relation to duration of CPB, as well as factors associated with cell stress and damage, such as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and inflammation. METHODS: Blood samples from subjects undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB (n = 54) were obtained before and during surgery, 4-8 h and 24 h after completion of CPB, and on postoperative day 4. Flow cytometry was used to determine subpopulations of white blood cells. Plasma levels of mtDNA were determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and plasma content of shed syndecan-1 was measured. To determine whether syndecan-1 was signaling white blood cells, the effect of recombinant syndecan-1 on mobilization of neutrophils from bone marrow was tested in mice. RESULTS: CPB is associated with increased mtDNA during surgery, increased syndecan-1 blood levels at 4-8 h, and increased white blood cell count at 4-8 h and 24 h. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive associations between time on CPB and syndecan-1 (rs = 0.488, P < 0.001) and level of syndecan-1 and neutrophil count (rs = 0.351, P = 0.038) at 4-8 h. Intravenous administration of recombinant syndecan-1 in mice resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in the number of circulating neutrophils, concurrent with decreased bone marrow neutrophil number. CONCLUSIONS: Longer duration of CPB is associated with increased plasma levels of soluble syndecan-1, a signal for EG degradation, which can induce neutrophil egress from the bone marrow. Development of therapy targeting EG shedding may be beneficial in patients with prolonged CPB.


Assuntos
Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Endotélio/ultraestrutura , Glicocálix/fisiologia , Duração da Cirurgia , Idoso , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , DNA Mitocondrial/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/patologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Sindecana-1/sangue , Sindecana-1/farmacologia
14.
Environ Toxicol ; 35(8): 815-821, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased risks of exposure to accidental radiation events are a concern in today's world. Radiation terror, nuclear explosion, as well as accidental exposure to radioactive sources in some industries pose a threat to the life of exposed persons. Studies have been conducted using some low-toxic agents to mitigate radiation toxicity and increase survival probability for exposed people. In the current study, we aimed to show the mitigation of radiation-induced mortality and bone marrow toxicity using postirradiation treatment with melatonin. METHOD: Mice whole bodies were exposed to 4 or 7 Gy radiation followed by treatment with melatonin after 24 hours. Survival of mice with or without melatonin, the levels of peripheral cells, transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß and 8-hydroxy-2' -deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the bone marrow, as well as the expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX)2 and NOX4 in bone marrow cells were evaluated. RESULTS: Whole body irradiation led to mortality 30 days after irradiation. However, melatonin treatment reduced mortality. Irradiation also showed severe reduction of lymphocytes, platelets, and red blood cells. The expressions of NOX2 and NOX4, in addition to TGF-ß level, were increased after exposure to radiation. Melatonin ameliorated the increased levels of these factors and improved the number of blood cells. CONCLUSIONS: Melatonin showed ability to mitigate radiation-induced hematopoietic system toxicity and also increased survival rate. These results suggest that melatonin could be a potential mitigator for accidental radiation events.


Assuntos
Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Lesões por Radiação/tratamento farmacológico , Protetores contra Radiação/uso terapêutico , Animais , Medula Óssea , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Irradiação Corporal Total
15.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 45(7): E364-E372, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168135

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Basic science. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on the recovery of motor and sensory functions of rats with spinal cord injury (SCI). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: There is no effective treatment to protect against SCI. BMSCs have been widely applied to the treatment of nervous system damage due to the function of prompt neurite growth and inhibition of demyelination following injury. METHODS: VEGF-transfected BMSCs were injected to rats with SCI and the recovery of motor and sensory functions was observed. The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan, mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdraw latency grading was conducted to assess the recovery status of motor and sensory functions of the SCI rats. The expression of VEGF, CD31, and NF200 was detected by immunofluorescence. RESULTS: The recovery of the rat motor and sensory functions in the VEGF-transfected BMSC (BMSC-VEGF) group was higher than those of the other groups with the exception of the Sham group (P < 0.05). The expression of the CD31 and NF200 proteins in the rat SCI regions was the highest in the BMSC-VEGF group, whereas the survival of BMSC in the BMSC-VEGF group was increased compared with that in the BMSC-Ad group. In addition, the injection of VEGF-transfected BMSCs can improve the angiogenesis of the injured area and retain the survival of injected cells and neurons. CONCLUSION: The injection of BMSC-VEGF improved the recovery of motor function in SCI rats. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: N/A.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Sensação/fisiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia , Transfecção/métodos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/biossíntese , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Sensação/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/administração & dosagem , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
16.
J Med Food ; 23(3): 250-257, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191575

RESUMO

Obesity is a world-wide health concern with increasing mortality and morbidity rates. Development of novel therapeutic agents for obesity from phytochemicals may lead to the effective prevention and control of obesity and obesity-related complications. 6-acetyl-2,2-dimethylchroman-4-one (1) was isolated from a dietary plant, Artemisia princeps. The antiobesity effect of compound 1 was determined in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBM-MSCs) induced to differentiate into adipocytes. Treatment with compound 1 resulted in decreased lipid accumulation and expression of key adipogenic markers, proliferator-activated receptor-γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α, and sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1. It was also shown that compound 1 downregulated the adipogenesis-induced p38 and JNK MAPK activation, while upregulating adipogenesis inhibitory ß-catenin-dependent Wnt10b pathway. Compound 1 was also able to stimulate adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, which was suggested to be the underlying mechanism that resulted in inhibition of adipogenesis in hBM-MSCs. In conclusion, 6-acetyl-2,2-dimethylchroman-4-one was identified as a bioactive constituent of A. princeps that exerts antiobesity properties via suppressing adipocyte formation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Artemisia/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1219: 259-293, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130704

RESUMO

The human body requires a constant delivery of fresh blood cells that are needed to maintain body homeostasis. Hematopoiesis is the process that drives the formation of new blood cells from a single stem cell. This is a complex, orchestrated and tightly regulated process that occurs within the bone marrow. When such process is faulty or deregulated, leukemia arises, develops and thrives by subverting normal hematopoiesis and availing the supplies of this rich milieu.In this book chapter we will describe and characterize the bone marrow microenvironment and its key importance for leukemia expansion. The several components of the bone marrow niche, their interaction with the leukemic cells and the cellular pathways activated within the malignant cells will be emphasized. Finally, novel therapeutic strategies to target this sibling interaction will also be discussed.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Leucemia/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Hematopoese/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Nicho de Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
J Leukoc Biol ; 107(4): 649-661, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108376

RESUMO

Mast cells drive the inappropriate immune response characteristic of allergic inflammatory disorders via release of pro-inflammatory mediators in response to environmental cues detected by the IgE-FcεRI complex. The role of TGF-ß-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), a participant in related signaling in other contexts, remains unknown in allergy. We detect novel activation of TAK1 at Ser412 in response to IgE-mediated activation under SCF-c-kit potentiation in a mast cell-driven response characteristic of allergic inflammation, which is potently blocked by TAK1 inhibitor 5Z-7-oxozeaenol (OZ). We, therefore, interrogated the role of TAK1 in a series of mast cell-mediated responses using IgE-sensitized murine bone marrow-derived mast cells, stimulated with allergen under several TAK1 inhibition strategies. TAK1 inhibition by OZ resulted in significant impairment in the phosphorylation of MAPKs p38, ERK, and JNK; and mediation of the NF-κB pathway via IκBα. Impaired gene expression and near abrogation in release of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-6, IL-13, and chemokines CCL1, and CCL2 was detected. Finally, a significant inhibition of mast cell degranulation, accompanied by an impairment in calcium mobilization, was observed in TAK1-inhibited cells. These results suggest that TAK1 acts as a signaling node, not only linking the MAPK and NF-κB pathways in driving the late-phase response, but also initiation of the degranulation mechanism of the mast cell early-phase response following allergen recognition and may warrant consideration in future therapeutic development.


Assuntos
Degranulação Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Hipersensibilidade/enzimologia , Inflamação/patologia , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/metabolismo , Mastócitos/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Degranulação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipersensibilidade/genética , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Inflamação/genética , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Biológicos , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/genética , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfosserina/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de IgE/metabolismo , Zearalenona/análogos & derivados , Zearalenona/farmacologia
19.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 7353618, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047579

RESUMO

Cisplatin chemotherapy causes myelosuppression and often limits treatment duration and dose escalation in patients. Novel approaches to circumvent or lessen myelotoxicity may improve clinical outcome and quality of life in these patients. Chlorella sorokiniana (CS) is a freshwater unicellular green alga and exhibits encouraging efficacy in immunomodulation and anticancer in preclinical studies. However, the efficacy of CS on chemoprotection remains unclear. We report here, for the first time, that CS extract (CSE) could protect normal myeloid cells and PBMCs from cisplatin toxicity. Also, cisplatin-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells was rescued through reservation of mitochondrial function, inhibition of cytochrome c release to cytosol, and suppression of caspase and PARP activation. Intriguingly, cotreatment of CSE attenuated cisplatin-evoked hypocellularity of bone marrow in mice. Furthermore, we observed the enhancement of CSF-GM activity in bone marrow and spleen in mice administered CSE and cisplatin, along with increased CD11b levels in spleen. In conclusion, we uncovered a novel mechanism of CSE on myeloprotection, whereby potentially supports the use of CSE as a chemoprotector against cisplatin-induced bone marrow toxicity. Further clinical investigation of CSE in combination with cisplatin is warranted.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Células Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Antígeno CD11b/metabolismo , Chlorella , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/metabolismo , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Imunossupressão , Células Mieloides/patologia
20.
Mutat Res ; 849: 503130, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087857

RESUMO

Human risk assessment of the toxic potency of chemicals typically includes genotoxicity assays for predicting carcinogenicity. Gene mutation frequency and chromosomal aberration are two major genotoxicity endpoints in standardized in vitro and in vivo assays. The weight-of-evidence approach in risk assessment is more focused on in vivo assay results; however, animal welfare considerations are aimed at the reduction, replacement, and refinement (3R's) of animal experiments, including a reduction in the number of experimental animals. Proposals to reduce experimental animals in genotoxicity testing include the incorporation of genotoxicity endpoint(s) into other toxicological studies and the combination of two or more assays detecting different genotoxicity endpoints in the same animals. In this study, we used 1,2-dimethylhydrazine as a model chemical of colon carcinogen to assess gene mutation frequency and chromosomal aberration in vivo simultaneously. Specifically, a gene mutation frequency assay was combined with a multiple-organ micronucleus test (peripheral blood, bone marrow, liver, and colon) in F344 gpt delta transgenic rats. Both gpt mutant frequency and micronucleated cell frequency significantly increased in colon and liver but not in bone marrow. Interestingly, we found that the colon carcinogen induced both gene mutations and micronuclei in the targeted colon tissue. Thus, we demonstrated that the mechanism of a carcinogen could be derived from an animal experiment using a lower number of experimental animals as currently recommended. Moreover, a significant increase in mutant frequency in colon and liver was already observed on the first day after treatment completion, as well as on the third day, which is the guideline-recommended period. Thus, this endpoint is compatible with other genotoxicity assays. We confirmed that performing the micronucleus assay in combination with a gene mutation assay in F344 gpt delta transgenic rats is useful to evaluate different genotoxic endpoints simultaneously in the same animals, which reduces the number of experimental animals.


Assuntos
1,2-Dimetilidrazina/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Aberrações Cromossômicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Determinação de Ponto Final , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/efeitos dos fármacos , Taxa de Mutação , Especificidade de Órgãos , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Ratos Transgênicos
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